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Present Progressive Is the child drawing? Are they going home now?
Future Simple Will you come tomorrow? Will he go there next week?
Past Simple Did your sister come to you yesterday?
Present Perfect Have you already been there? Has she done it ?
II. The Special Question (Wh-questions) (Специальный вопрос)
относится к части предложения;
в качестве ответа требует конкретную информацию;
начинается с вопросительного слова, за которым следует вспомогательный глагол (what-что, какой, whom- чей, which- который, какой, whose- чей, how- как, when- когда, where- где, why- почему);
Present Progressive What is the child doing?
Future Simple When will you come tomorrow?
Past Simple Where did he find it?
Present Perfect Why have you been there?
Вопрос к подлежащему.
- Начинается с вопрос. слова who (для одушевленных) и what (для неодушевленных предметов)
- Прямой порядок слов.
Рrеsent Simple We know her address. Who knows her address?(без вспом. глагола,к основному глаголу прибавляется окончание -s или -es)
Present Progressive You are going home . Who is going home ?( вспом. глагол to be в форме is ,подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Future Simple You will come tomorrow. Who will come tomorrow?( вспом. глагол will,
подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Past Simple You asked me about it. Who asked me about it? ?(без вспом. глагола,
подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Present Perfect We have been there. Who has been there? ( вспом. глагол has, подлежащее заменяем на Who)
III Alternative Question ( Альтернативный вопрос)
представляет собой вопрос выбора между двумя действиями, предметами, явлениями и т.п.;
- повышение тона перед союзом or- или;
Present Progressive I am keen on reading. Are you keen on travelling or reading?
He is studying Maths. Is he studying Maths or Physics?
Future Simple He will come tomorrow. Will he or she come tomorrow?
Past Simple He studied at a lyceum. Did he study at a gymnasium or at a lyceum ?
Present Perfect She has already done this task. Has she done or started this task?
IV. The Disjunctive Question (Tag-question) (Разделительный вопрос)
-- состоит из двух частей:
- первая часть- повествовательное предложение с прямым порядком слов
- вторая часть так называемый вопросительный "хвостик"
если первая часть имеет утвердительную форму, "хвостик" строится как отрицание, и наоборот (+ - или - + )
Present Progressive I am keen on reading. I am keen on reading, am not I?
Future Simple He will not come tomorrow. He will not come tomorrow, will he?
Past Simple Mary went to school. Mary went to school, did not she?
Present Perfect You have sent the parcel. You have sent the parcel, haven't you?
Употребление различных типов вопросов
Great Britain consists of three parts.
I. Does Great Britain consist of three parts?
II. How many parts does Great Britain consist of?
Does Great Britain consist of three or two parts?
Great Britain consists of three parts, doesn't it?
Great Britain doesn't consist of two parts, does it?
V. What island consists of three parts?
Ex.18 Задайте вопросы к предложениям.
1) Mike goes to the theatre every month. 2) My sisters get up at 6 o'clock. 3) Kate plays on the computer every day. 4) My parents work in a bank. 5) He reads interesting books in the original.6) Tom usually plays in the garden. 7) Sometimes we eat at a restaurant.8) School year begins in September.9) She is cooking a Christmas dinner now.
Ex . 19 Make 5 questions to the following sentences.
1. Sandra always gets up early in the morning. 2. He is dancing with his girl-friend at the disco now.
3. Peter has some problems with Maths.4. They are climbing the mountains without a guide. 5. Mike says that school is the best thing in the world. 6. I am doing well in lot of subjects.
Ex. 20 Read the following words. Прочитайте следующие слова:
a) количественные числительные:1, 2, 11, 12, 13, 27, 69, 248, 1000;1,008; 1,096; 2,355; 3,579;
b) порядковые числительные: 17, 20, 24, 149, 83, 56, 150, 178, 209;
c) хронологические даты: 1975, 1982, 1990, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2500, 2903.
Ex.21 Say in English.Скажите по-английски:
а) 1 сентября 1984 года, 8 мая 1861 года,7 ноября 1990 года, 21 января 1824 года, 9 октября 1947 года, 22 апреля 1907 года, 11 марта 1951 года, 27 июля 1990 года, 5 июля 1945 года, 10 февраля 1972 года.
b)1 325 543 книги, первый автобус, 1 325 учеников, вторая страница, 266 дней, сороковой размер, около 18 000 студентов, часть первая, более 1 500 000 человек, номер десятый, менее 1000 страниц.
Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense.
Будущее простое время
Future Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения однократных или повторяющихся действий, которые совершатся в будущем.
We shall see you tomorrow.
They will be glad to meet you.
I shall ring you up. (I'll ring you up.) She will be twenty next month. (She'll be twenty next month.)
You will find him in the library. (You'll find him in the library.)
В вопросительной форме вспомогательные глаголы shall и will ставятся перед подлежащим.
В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who -кто или what - что, вспомогательный глагол всегда will.
I shall go on the excursion.
Who will go on the excursion?
Отрицательная форма Future Simple (Indefinite) образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательных глаголов shall или will (возможны сокращения shan't, won't).
He will not receive the telegram in time.Он не получит телеграмму вовремя.
(He won't receive the telegram in time.)
а) Вопросительная форма типа Will you sit down? используется для выражения просьбы.
Will you please take off your coat?
Won't you go with us to the concert?
Чтобы общий вопрос ко 2-му лицу не воспринимался как просьба, в Англии вместо вспомогательного глагола will употребляется глагол shall.
Shall you be at home at 9?
В США в этих случаях обычно употребляется will.
б) Future Simple (Indefinite) не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В них для выражения будущего действия глагол ставится в Present Simple (Indefinite).
I shall give him a letter when he comes. The children will go for a walk if it stops raining.
Ex. 22 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.
1. I (to think) about this information. 2 According to the forecast it (to be) raining tomorrow. 3. We (to come) to see you on Monday. 4.I (to prepare) to my examinations next week. 5. You (to show) me your new picture? 6. I think he (not to come) tomorrow. 7 I don't think she (to answer) all the questions. 8. We (to work) in our garden tomorrow. 9. How you (to pack) your things? 10. Her mother (to buy) her a silver chain for her birthday.
Ex. 23 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. My sister will graduate from the University next year. 2.I shall go to the cinema tomorrow. 3. They will play tennis on Saturday. 4. We shall translate this text the day after tomorrow. 5. He will write a letter to his sister tomorrow. 6. My parents will go to the South next year. 7.I shall finish this work in a week. 8.He will come back on Friday. 9. We shall meet our friends tomorrow.
Ex. 24 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Future Simple.
1) Я буду завтра в институте. 2) Она будет зубным врачом. 3) Где ты будешь завтра? -- Я. буду дома. 4) Мы будем в Москве на следующей неделе. 5) Его не будет на работе завтра. Он будет в командировке. 6) Позвони ему позже. Может быть, он будет дома. 7) Завтра никого не будет в офисе.
Ex. 25 В предложениях описаны события, которые происходили прошлым летом. Представьте, что эти события произойдут будущим летом.
1.I was in America a year ago. 2.Where were your parents last summer? 3. It was in July. 4. There was no fruit in May. 5. Did you roller-skate? 6. She bought a new dress, didn't she? 7. My mom taught my brother to swim.
В придаточных предложениях времени и условия после союзов
If-если, when-когда, as soon as- как только, till-до тех пор, before- перед, after- после, until- до тех пор, как, while - во время.
Future Simple заменяется на Present Simple.
Ex. 26 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.
1. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 2. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 3. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 4. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 5. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 6. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 7. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 8. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 9 .I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 10. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 11. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 12. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.
Ex. 27 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Present Simple.
1.We (to begin) as soon as Tom (to be ready). 2. I (stay) here until it (to get) warmer. Mother (to bring) us cakes when she (to go) out. 3. If he (to have) time he (to come) to us. 4. Don't leave until I (to send) you a message. 5. She (to be) very happy if you (to take) her to the theatre. 6. We (to go) swimming as soon as school (be) over. 7. She (to be) a good actress if she (to work) hard. 8. I (to open) the door when father (to ring). 9. I (to see) him again if he (not to come) today.10.I (to notify) you as soon as I (to hear) from her.11.You (not to go) until I (to know) the truth. 12. He (to come) every day to help you with your work while I (be) away. 13. You (to have) a chocolate if you (to be) good. 14. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 15. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 16. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 17. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 18. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 19. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 20. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 21. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 22.I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 23. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 24. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 25. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.
Ex. 28 Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных:
a) tall, long, short, hot, cold, nice, large, big, wide, happy, warm, high, heavy, low, hard, busy, easy,bright;
b) interesting, comfortable, important, necessary, beautiful, famous, pleasant, popular, wonderful, active, careful.
c) old, tall, thin, thick, fat, red, warm, high, short, black, small, light, late, large, fast, rich, dark, quick, sad, weak, pretty, bright, dry, full, nice, wet, early, strong, ugly, quite, funny, lazy, far, expensive, good, difficult, helpful, many, heavy, dirty, clean, near, little, famous, much, clever, cheap, pale, early, practical.
Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense.
Прошедшее простое ( неопределенное) время.
Past Simple (Indefinite) обозначает действия или состояния, происходившие в какой-то период в прошлом и не связанные с моментом речи. Past Simple (Indefinite) -- форма, типичная для описания прошедших событий.
В предложениях с Past Simple (Indefinite) часто указывается время совершения действия.
Past Simple (Indefinite) образуется: (V2, V-ed)
Если глагол неправильный используется его вторая форма( смотри таблицу неправильных глаголов) , которая не изменяется по лицам и числам, за исключением глагола to be (was - единственное число, were - множественное). I spent a lot of time at the library last month.
Если глагол правильный (т.е. его нет в таблице неправильных глаголов) к его первой форме прибавляется окончание - ed : ask - asked
He worked hard at his composition.
Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did, который ставится перед подлежащим.
Смысловой глагол употребляется в первой основной форме.
Вопросы к подлежащему образуются, без вспомогательного глагола did.
Подлежащее заменяем на who -кто или what - что.
It happened yesterday. We were absent today.
What happened yesterday? Who was absent today?( to be всегда в форме was)
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола did, частицы not и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме.
В разговорной речи в отрицательной форме обычно употребляется сокращение didn't [didnt]. I didn't know you were ill.
1. Глагол to be в Past Simple (Indefinite) меняется по лицам.
I was ill. We were absent.
You were right. You were at school at that time.
He (she, it) was late. They were at the theatre.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to be образуются без помощи вспомогательного глагола.
Where were you at eight yesterday?
Was he at home at 8 o'clock?
It was not very cold.
2.С оборотом there was (there were) употребляется отрицательное местоимение no, как и в Present Simple (Indefinite).
There was no rain for two months.
3. При образовании отрицательной формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to have используется отрицательное местоимение no.
I had no letters for many weeks.
Ex. 29 Вставьте глагол was или were.
1) I .......at the stadium last Sunday. 2) Dam and Mary .......in America a year ago.3)We .....in Moscow yesterday. 4) Mike ........at school last Monday. 5) We .........in Tambov a week ago.
Ex.30 Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple.
1. Yesterday (to be) the third of October.2) It (to be) warm, and we (to play) ball in our yard. 3)Our dog (to be) with us too.4) It (to like) the game. 5) It (to jump) and (to jump). 6) We (to have) five lessons yesterday. 7) After the lessons the pupils on duty (to wash) the flowers and (to clean) the blackboard and other things. 8)When everything in the classroom (to look) clean, they (to go) home. 9)It (to be) half past three then, and they (to be) very hungry.10) The children (to work) on a collective farm last summer.11) We (to play) football and other interesting games at the pioneer camp a year ago.12) Mike (to go) to his circle early yesterday.13) It ( to snow) in last winter. 14) The Ninth Form pupils (to clean) the street in front of the school.15) She ( to answer) questions well yesterday.16) Yesterday evening I (to watch) TV. 17) He (to be) tired and (to go) to bad at half past ten.18) My brother and I (to be) at camp from the first of July to the twentieth of July.19) We (to take) warm things with us, because it (to be), cold. 20) My father (to give) us good ideas for our pictures. 21) Everything in the country (to look) beautiful when we (to be) there last spring. 22) Mike (to show) her how to take off her skis.
Ex.31 Поставь глаголы в Past Simple.1.My sister … to England last summer (to travel).2. Ann … an interesting book yesterday (to buy).3.Helen … French last year (to study). 4. Kate … dinner two days ago (to cook).5. Не … to the south last year (to go).6. My friend … a letter yesterday (to write).7. I … English ten years ago (to study). 8.They … coffee yesterday morning (to drink).9. I and my friend … to France, last year (to travel).10. Tom …me a telegram two days ago (to send).11. Is Kate at home? Yes, she … 5 minutes ago (to arrive).12. Yesterday I … early and …a shower (to get up, to have) 13. She … yesterday afternoon (to come).14.My granny … a chocolate cake last Sunday (to make).15. I … TV yesterday (to watch) Ex. 32 Поставь вопросы к предложениям.1. Lena lived in Moscow in 1998. 2. She walked to the station. 3. The cat liked fish. 4. The students worked in the garden. 5. They went to the cinema yesterday. 6. She told us a very interesting story. 7. A strange woman came to our house yesterday. 8. I played piano when I was a boy. 9. Last year I began to write a book.10. Yesterday I had five lessons at school.
Ex.33 Put into negative form. Сделай предложения отрицательными.
1) I had six lessons last Tuesday.2) The first lesson was Russian.3) We wrote a dictation. 4) My friend went to the blackboard and wrote the date.5) I went to the canteen after the third lesson. 6) I ate a salad and a sandwich.7) After school I took a bus and went to the library.8) In the library I read a book.9)Then I played snowballs in the yard.10) In the evening I cleaned my teeth and went to bed.
Ex.34 Put the sentences into Past Simple, Present Progressive and Future Simple.
1)We like our trip to Spain. 2)They bathe in the sea every day in summer. 3) Mike lives in the country. 4) He knows well every subject.5) I get good marks in English.6) Helen dances every evening. 7) They play football every Sunday. 8) I like to play chess in my childhood. 9) The teacher writes new words on the blackboard. 10) We study English every evening.
Ex. 35 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.
1.She (to make) tea for her guests. 2. We (to know) everything about that event. 3. He (to think) much about this problem. 4.I (to be) wrong and apologized to him. 5. He (not to realize) his mistakes. 6. When you (to speak) to him? -- I (to speak) to him only yesterday.7.She (not to get) letters from her son last month.8.He (to go) to the airport to meet his brother. 9. What you (to do) yesterday evening? -- Nothing in particular. We (to watch) TV and (to look) through newspapers.
10. I understand the article well. 11. I listen to this music. 12. I find many good stories in this book. 13. The students spend must time in the library. 14. She makes many mistakes in her test. 15. They read many English books.
Ex. 36 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.
1. Ей понравилось представление. 2. Было очень холодно на прошлой неделе. 3. Я встретил их у моего друга дома. 4. Кто-нибудь звонил мне пока меня не было? 5. Мы не получили ее ответ вчера. 6. Я отправил вчера письма моим друзьям. 7. У меня не было времени делать эту работу. 8. Я читал этот журнал вчера. 9. Ему не понравился фильм. 10. Он звонил тебе вчера? 11. Они провели каникулы в Лондоне. 12. Он сдал экзамен по английскому в понедельник. 13. Я навестил бабушку и дедушку на прошлой неделе. 14. Я разговаривал с ним вчера. 15. Я починил свою машину в воскресенье.
Ex.37 Поставьте предложения в Past Simple.
1. There is a large forest near our city. 2. There are many berries and mushrooms there. 3. There is always much work to do about the house. 4. There is no need to begin all over again. 5. There is nothing to do but to wait. 6. Are there any museums in your home town? 7. There will be no vacant seats in the stalls. 8. There will be an interesting lecture on literature tomorrow. 9. There is a sofa and two armchairs in our living-room. 10. There is always much light in this room.
Ex. 38 Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Simple.
Образец: There is a park near our school. There was a park near our school. There will be a park near our school.
1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are not any German books in our library. 3. There is one theatre and five cinemas in this town. 4. There is no lift in our house. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are few shops in this district. 7. There are three rooms in our flat. 8. There is a new film on at our local cinema. 9. There are not many difficult exercises in this text-book. 10. There are two hospitals in this town.
Ex. 39 Put the nouns in plural.
a) a dish, a fork, a knife, a pen, a desk, an armchair, a land, a house, a house, an Indian, a dog, a game, a lion, an eagle, a road, a wolf, a watch, a glass, a city, a country, a day, a party, a bush, a box, a bus, a class, a potato, a foot, a tomato, a tooth, a child, a deer, a solo, a roof, a goose,
b) a chief, a man, a woman, a mouse, an Englishman, a form, a tie, a page, a bench, a bird, a bag, a copy, an apple, an enemy, a photo, a cherry, an army, a toy, a loaf, a comedy, a dining- room, a mother-in-law, an ear-ring, an ear-phone.
Ex. 40 Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных:
Train, seat, tie, shop, fork, forest, game, lesson, name, week, page, bag, bird, class, box., bush, bus, birch, bench, inch, copy, hero, cake, knife, wife, wolf, tomato, fly, piano, leaf, safe, victory, roof, watch, form, roof, room, pen, lamp, arm, tram, book, apple, day, ship, toy, university, chief, photo, style, handkerchief, enemy, match, bush.
TEST. THREE TENSES.
Ex. 41 Choose the write form of the verb.
1) Kate ... to the shop yesterday. a) go b) went c) will go
He ... interesting books in the original, a) read b) reads c) will read
John ... his leg last year. a) broke b) breaks c) will break
4).... he like cats? a) Does b) Do c) Doesn't
5) Tom usually ... in the garden. a) played b) will play c) plays
6) They ... to the cinema yesterday, a) have gone b) go c) went
Mum ... the washing up yesterday, a) does b) is doing c) did
She ... got two brothers. a) have b) has c) will have
9) They always ... fruit for breakfast, a) will buy b) buy c) buys
10) He ... to school because he was ill. a) doesn't go b) didn't go c) won't go
Every summer she ... holidays at her grandmother's, a) spent b) spend c) will spend
I ... this film 3 years ago. a) see b) saw c) shall see
13) He never eats eggs. He ... them. a) doesn't like b) didn't like c) won't like
We ... a trip to Italy next summer, a) made b) make c) shall make
I think they ... the exam tomorrow. a) do pass b) will pass c) shall pass
16) He ... a minute ago. a) leave b) left c) leave
17) Yesterday I ... in the library. a) work b) worked c) shall work
I ... my English lessons on Fridays. a) took b) take c) shall take
Nancy ... her teeth now. a) brushes b) is brushing c) brushed
Sometimes we ... at a restaurant. a) eat b) are eating c) ate
She ... a Christmas dinner now. a) cooks b) is cooking c) cooked
22) It often ... in autumn. a) rains b) is raining c) rained
23) School year ... in September. a) begins b) begin c) is beginning
Bob ... television, he can't answer the call. a) watches b) is watching c) watched
John ... adventure books. a) liked b) like c) likes
Ex. 42 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past и Future Simple.
1. Моя сестра сейчас в магазине. 2. Моя сестра была в театре вчера. 3. Моя сестра будет в библиотеке завтра. 4. Сегодня мы в Москве, а завтра будем в Туле. 5. Вчера он был за городом, а сегодня он дома. 6. Она была учителем в прошлом году сейчас она переводчик. 7. Она на работе сейчас, а вечером она будет у родителей. 8. Твоя сестра будет учителем? -- Нет, она будет журналистом. 9. Нас будет дома завтра.10. Кто будет здесь завтра? -- Я буду.
Ex. 43 Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в прошедшем и будущем временах.
1.There are many trees in our garden.2.There is a trolley-bus stop near my office.3.There are some mistakes in his dictation.4.There is a piece of chalk on the table.5.There is much snow in the street. 6. There are many flowers in the vase. 7. There are two pens in my bag.
Ex.44 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени Simple (Present, Past или Future):1.Не (come) to school tomorrow. 2. Ann not (come) to the park.3. He not (go) to the cinema every day. He (go) last Sunday. 4. Peter (write) a letter in two days. 5. The teacher says that the boys (speak) English next year. 6. When he (come)? I think he (come) next Tuesday.7. Where the teacher (go) last summer? 8. I (take) the book to the library tomorrow. 9. They not (see) the film because they were very busy. They (see) it in the near future. 10. When we (do) it? Tomorrow or next week?
Ex. 45 Задайте альтернативные вопросы своему собеседнику.
A. Образец: I'm a pupil (a student).
Are you a pupil or a student?
1. Kate is at home (at school). 2. They are in England (Scotland). 3. Oxford is far from (near) London. 4. She is a writer (a painter). 5. She is interested in music (drawing). 5. I am seventeen (eighteen) years old. 6. The ice was thick (thin) on the river. 7. That was Jane (Ann) on the phone.
8. He was rude (polite) with you. 9. It will be cold (warm) tomorrow. 9.The weather will be fine (rainy) next week.
B. Образец: You have many (few) friends at school?
Have you many or few friends at school?
I had dinner at home (at school) yesterday.
Did you have dinner at home or at school yesterday?
They have a house (a flat) in Minsk. 2. My friend has a lot of English (French) books. 3. Our family had a rest in the countryside (abroad) last summer. 4. I usually have coffee (tea) in the morning. 5. We have meals three (four) times a day. 6. You will have five (six) lessons tomorrow.
Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время
Present Perfect употребляется для описания событий, которые произошли в еще неистекший период времени, или который продолжался вплоть до настоящего времени, а также при наличии наречий неопределенного времени: today- сегодня, this week/year/month-на этой неделе, already- уже, ever - когда-либо, never- никогда, yet - еще(в отрицательных предложениях со значением еще и в общих вопросах со значением уже), just- только что, for (a long time)- долгое время, for two hours- в течение 2 часов, up to now- до сих пор, since - с тех пор; при наличии слов it is the first (second) time...- в первый раз; в письмах, в первом вопросе и ответе, начинающих беседу о прошлых событиях. already- уже, ever - когда-либо, never- никогда, just- только что ставится между вспомогательным и основным глаголом
She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.
Present Perfect в отличие от Past Simple(которое выражает действие, свершившееся в истекшем отрезке времени) выражает связь прошлого действия с настоящим благодаря наличию результата сейчас. Present Perfect никогда не употребляется в вопросах, начинающихся с вопросительного слова when).
Present Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has - в 3 лице ед. числа) , и третьей формы неправильного глагола, а к правильному глаголу прибавляется окончание -ed (причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) смыслового глагола). (have/has + V3, V-ed) При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
- No, I haven't learnt it yet.
В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who -кто или what - что, вспомогательный глагол всегда has .
We have just left home.
Who has just left home?
При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.
She had left for Moscow Она уехала в Москву до
before I arrived. того, как я приехал.
She will have left for Она уедет в Москву до
Moscow before I arrive. того, как я приеду.
She said that she would Она сказала, что уедет в
have left for Moscow Москву до того, как я приеду.
before I arrived.
а)The lift has broken down Лифт сломался, (приходится ходить сейчас пешком)
The lift broke down. Лифт сломался, (возможно, он уже снова работает)
When did the lift break? Когда сломался лифт?
Не has smoked for two years. (He continues smoking)
He smoked for two years. (and then stopped smoking)
б)I'm sorry I haven't written before because I've been very busy lately. Извините, что я не писал раньше, но я был занят последнее время.
Ex 46 Заполните пропуски глаголом has пли have:
1.Mum … already cooked dinner.2.My friends … not watched this film.3.I … never been to England. 4. He ... gone home. 5. ... she come yet? 6. They ... gone home. 7. ... they gone home? 8. The bus ... gone. 9. I ... found it. 10. ... the bus gone? 11. Where ... he been? 12. Where ... you been? 13. I ... got some interesting books.
Ex 47 Поставьте глаголы в Present Perfect.
1.I (clean) ...........the room.2. He (not read)...........this book.3. We (play) .........football.4. She (be) ........to America.5. I ( not see) ..........her yet.
Ex48 Напишите предложения в Present Perfect, добавив нужные наречия. 1.He is leaving home at the moment.2. She does her homework in the evening.3. They are crossing the road.4. He sends me two letters every month. 5. Mr.Norris finishes the work at 5 p.m.
Ex 49 Задайте 4 вопроса к предложению.
1.We have seen a good film recently.2. I have done a lot of work today.3.He has been in the yard.
Ex. 50 Переведите на английский язык.
1.Они были в Америке в этом году. 2.Я только что встретил Тома. 3.Мы уже перевели этот текст.
Ex . 51 Complete the sentences with how long, since, for, already, yet.
1. My sister has been at the University … six months. 2. ... have you known John and Susan? 3. Haven't you typed those letters ... ? 4. She's ... cleaned the house and it's only nine a.m. 5.I haven't watched TV ... my set broke down.
Ex.52 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.Не (see) just me. 2. They (finish) already the letter. 3. John (find) them. They (be) in the yard. 4. What he (do)? 5. Where he (be)? 6. The car (stop). 7. I never (be) there. 8. We just (be) to the cinema. We (see) a good film. 9. Peter (come) home yet? 10. I (be) to the doctor. 11. I am so tired. I (do) a lot of work today.
Ex 53 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect.
1.I (be) to Paris. 2.I think the director (leave) the town. 3. We (know) her since she arrived to our city. 4.I (forget) your name.5. He (close) the door? 6. He (do) it since we left him. 7. They (leave) Moscow this month? 8. He (not bring) a lot of French papers. 9.I (get) a long letter from father this week.10. She just (come); she will speak to you in a minute. 11. This order (lead) to many misunderstandings.12. He (write) his name on my book.
Ex 54 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.I (meet) two of my friends today. I (meet) them on mу way to school. 2. A month ago my uncle (build) a new house in the country. We (visit) it recently and (enjoy) ourselves very much. 3. He (forget) to close the window when he (leave) the house. 4. He (write) several letters this week. 5. Where Helen (go)? I don't see her here. -- She (go) home an hour ago. 6. When the concert (to begin)? 7.1 don't think I ever (to see) such a beautiful garden as this one. 8. Jack London (to be born) in San Francisco in an extremely poor family. 9. You (to read) many books by Jack London? 10. How careless you are! You (to break) your mother's favourite cup.
Ex.55 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.I never (to hear) this story from my father. 2. He (to be) a reader of this magazine for years. 3. She (to be) ill last week. 4.I cannot tell you whether I like this book, as I not (to read) it. 5. My mother not (to come) home yet. 6. I (to be) there last year. 7. When you last (to see) him? 8.I cannot give you this book as I (to give) it to Ann. When you (to give) it to her? 9. The child (to be) quite all right for the last two weeks. 10. It is cold today. The weather (to change) since yesterday. 11. You ever (to visit) this picture gallery? 12.I (to lose) my textbook and cannot remember when I last (to see) it.
Ex 56 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. Не never (to be) in Germany. 2. He (not to answer) my letter. 3. My mother (to go) to the country a month ago. 4. His brother not (to go) to school yesterday. 5. Where you (to be) last night? 6. You (to receive) a letter from your father this week? 7.I (to see) Ann on Wednesday. 8. My mother just (to go) out. 9. She never (to read) this book. 10.I (not to come) to you yesterday because I (to be) very busy. 11. When you (to write) a letter to your friend? -- I (to write) a letter to him this week. 12. How many books you (to read) this week? 13. I (to be) at the theatre five or six times last month. 14. I (to reply) to his letter today. 15. They (to lose) their way. 16. I (to speak) to him about it over and over again. 17. I (to speak) to him about it yesterday. 18. He (to be) in Vienna several times.
Ex . 57 Choose the correct item.
1. We (live/have lived) in Hastinhs. 2. I (got/have got) two brothers and a sister. 3. He (plays/is playing) football once a week. 4. We (are/ have been) here since the shop opened. 5. I always (am drinking/drinks) black coffee. 6. (Has/does) he got a camera?7. When did you (got/get) home last night? 8. (We're/We) going to stay at home today. 9. We (knew/have known) them for a long time. 10. I (worked/am working) there two years ago.
Ex . 58 Put the words in the correct order.
1.I/on Saturday/didn't/you/at the party/see/night. 2. Some/in the library/ we/interesting/books/found. 3.Walked/ around the town/have/I. 4. Every week-end/do/clean/you/the house? 5.Slowly/he/getting/is/better.
Ex. 59 Переведите на английский язык.1)Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору? - Да. Вам он понравился? - Не очень. 2)Что ты делала в выходные дни? -Я ходила по грибы (to go mushrooms). 3)Когда ты приехал?- Я приехал на прошлой неделе. Ты хорошо (well) доехал?
1. I never ( cook) dinner myself.
2. She ( make ) a cake at the present moment.
3. He ( visit ) my granny next summer.
4. They ( see) this film last week.
5. My friend ( phone) me every day.
Ex.62 Измените предложения в соответствии с местом действия.
1. I write letters every day. ------- next month.
2. He has crossed the road.----------- 2 hours ago.
3. They are playing hockey now.------already.
4. She went to the theatre last month.----- once a month.
5. We will eat ice-cream tomorrow. -----now.
TEST . 5 TENSES.
Ex. 63 Choose the right tense.
1) He … newspapers after dinner every day . a) reads b) read c) has read
2) She …. home now . a) is going b) goes c) will go
3) Helen …. her friend in the street yesterday. a) see b) has seen c) saw
4) My brother … just … from work.. a) has come b) will come c) comes
5) I …. at 7 o`clock tomorrow. a) get up b) shall get up c) got
6) They often … to the theatre. a) go b) will go c) have gone
7)We …. an English lesson at this moment. a) have b) are having c) have had
8) My family … to England last year. a) went b) go c) has gone
9) I …. already …my homework . a) shall do b) did c) have done
10) I ….. to you tomorrow. a) shall come b) came c) will come
11) He … to school by bus every day. a)goes b) shall go c) will go
12) What … you … now ? a) are doing b) will do c) have done
13) Where …. you … yesterday ? a) did go b) have gone c) do go
14) I …. just …my breakfast . a) shall have b) had c) have had
15) They … to Moscow next week. a) will go b) go c) went
16) He usually …. coffee in the morning. a) shall drink b) drinks c) drank
17) You ….. for a walk now . a) have gone b) are going c) go
18) She …. you about it a day ago . a) has asked b) asked c) will ask
19) I …. supper next Sunday. a) shall prepare b) prepared c) have prepared
20) I … already … the window. a) have opened b) do open c) will open
Ex. 64 Use the necessary word.
1) Many people go in for … a) take b) beautiful c) sports
2) English helps people in cultural … a) relations b) own c) important
3) I like to watch sports … on TV. a) competition b) kinds c) favorite
4) I want to read foreign literature in the … a) develop b) original c) different
5) Sport is very … a) hear b) go c) useful
6) Today English is the … of the world . a) adventure b) foreign c) language
7) … is the most famous summer kind of sports. a) swimming b) skating c) skiing
8) Books help people in our … a) studies b) important c) often
9) We … many things from books a) learn b) self-education c) nature
10) I think a book is the best … a) often b) present c) favourite
Ex. 65 Choose the right word .
1) The gallery in Moscow is named in honour to … a) Tretyakov b) Surikov c) Rublyov
2) The history … begin in the year 1147. a) Moscow b) St. Petersburg c) Samara
3) The oldest part of London is called … . a) East End b) City c) West End
4) The first American president chose the place where the city now stands to build a capital and the city was named after … .
a) George Washington b) Winston Cherchil c) Abraham Lincoln
5) The … is the home of the president . a) Library of Congress b) White House c) Capitol
6) … is situated on several islands and has 5 districts. a) New York b) Boston c) London
7) Black Americans usually live in … where life is difficult. a) Broadway b) Harlem c) Brooklyn
8) Russia is bounded by … countries. a) four b) thirteen c) ten
9) Our … shows dramas, tragedies and comedies. a) cinema b) school c) theatre
10) The … begins when the third bell has rung. a) performance b) lesson c) competition
Ex. 66 Use the necessary form of the verb.
1) I … to school every day . a) go b) am going c) have gone
2) She … basketball last week. a) plays b) play c) played
3) Look. They … football now . a) had played b) played c) are playing
4) He … to the library every month. a) go b) goes c) went
5) We ….. the book this week. a)are reading b) were reading c)have read
6) Lena …. to the stadium tomorrow . a) was going b) has gone c) will go
7) John … to the cinema yesterday. a) is going b) went c) go
8) She … just … the exercise. a) is doing b) has done c) did
9) He …. his work by 6 o'clock. a) finished b) had finished c) was finished
10) They … a music lesson at 10 o'clock. a) have b) have had c) were having
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Настоящее завершено-длительное время
Present Perfect Progressive.
Ex. 67 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect Progressive.
1.John is in his room, he (to sit) there since the morning. 2. For two hours now we (to talk) about it and we haven't come to any conclusion yet. 3. John, do you know where my bag is? I (to look) for it for half an hour and I can't find it. 4. Look, your brother (to dance) with that red-haired girl since she came into the room. 5. He (to try) to solve this problem for several months now but he hasn't found a solution yet. 6. She (to teach) at school for twenty years. 7. Mr. Brown (to work) in his room since early morning. 8. The children (to sleep) for six hours.
Ex. 68 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Mr. Smith has been staying with them for a fortnight. 2. It has been raining all the morning. 3. He has been writing this exercise for two hours. 4. The boy has been fishing since early morning. 5. For a week you have been promising to take me for a walk. 6. The children have been playing in the garden since their mother came.
Ex. 69 Выпишите конструкции с Present Perfect Progressive.
1.No, I wasn't thinking of Martin's cottage. I must have been thinking of another one -- perhaps your own. 2. Surely you must have known that Martin took it. You can't have been thinking all this time that I did. 3. And I've not been thinking about it -- I've been torturing myself with it. 4. You've been living in a fool's paradise, and now ... you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in.
Ex. 70 Переведите на русский язык
1.I have been waiting for you since 12 o'clock. 2. She has been working here for 2 hours. 3. For how long have they been sleeping? 4. What have you been doing? -- I have been marking essays. 5. I have been pruning my roses. 6. I've been waiting here since three o'clock. 7. I've been drinking too much. 8. That noise has been going on since they came home. 9. The telephone has been ringing for five minutes, why don't you answer it? 10. Look at my hands I've been cleaning your shoes. 11. He has been coming here day after day for years. 12. I suppose you have been telling lies again.
Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее длительное время
Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее длительное время
Present Progressive, Past Progressive & Future Progressive
Ex. 71 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Progressive или Past Progressive.
1.Why you (to look) at me in that way? 2. He (to skate) yesterday from five till nine o'clock. 3. Why you (to smoke) in the room? 4. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 5. What you (to look) at? I (to look) at this monument. 6. He (to write) the article all the week. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) us for two hours about his trip to India. 8. I (to learn) to ride a bicycle now. 9.We (to work) at this problem during three months. 10.Be quiet, he (to write) a composition now.
Ex. 72 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.1. Не (not to wait) for us at 6 o'clock tomorrow. 2.I (to translate) this article, when my mother come. 3. The conference (to take place) from 2 till 6 o'clock on Monday. 4. How long you (to stay) at your parents?
Ex. 73 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.
1.Завтра я буду работать весь вечер. 2. Мы встретим их, когда они будут идти в институт. 3. Когда я приду сюда, мои дети будут играть. 4. Завтра мы будем проводить опыты с 2 до 5 часов. 5. Когда мы приедем в лабораторию, они будут показывать свои опыты. 6. Я буду гулять в парке с 7 до 8 часов. 7. Она будет делать уроки в 8 часов? 8. Мы не будем играть в шахматы весь вечер.
Ex. 74 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Future Progressive.
1.Don't ring him up at 11 o'clock tomorrow. He (to work) at that moment. 2. At this time tomorrow my brothers (to play) football. 3. Maybe we (to play) football tomorrow. 4. They (to come) soon. 5.I am afraid it (to rain) all day tomorrow. 6. When the train (to come) my parents (to wait) for me at the station. 7. I (to finish) this book very soon; I (to read) it all day tomorrow. 8. I must tell John that Nick (to wait) for him at ten o'clock tomorrow. 9. He (to be) busy tomorrow. He (to put) electric light in our country-house. 10. What you (to do) all day tomorrow? 11. I (to listen) to the radio till you come back. 12. Don't come tomorrow, I (to write) my report. 13. This time tomorrow, I (to leave) Moscow for Tula.
Ex. 75 Fill in the gaps with : will start , is finding out, has been , have been studying, lasted, were eating , came.
1) Natasha … never … in an American school. 2) The second class … 30 minutes yesterday. 3) Homeroom class … at 8 p. m. tomorrow.4) They… American History for a year.5) The teacher … which students are absent at the moment. 6)The guests … cake when he … home.
Ex. 76 Choose the proper form of the verb .
1) A . Pushkin .... a lot of books
a) wrote b) have written c) has written
2) She .... her first book fifteen years ago .
a) writes b) has written c) wrote .
3) ..... you ever ...... Italian food ?
a ) do try b) did try c) have tried .
4) I ..... in Glasgow for six years now and don't want to move .
. a) live b) have lived c) lived .
5) He ...... in Paris for thirteen years , and then in 1988 he .... to Lion .
a) lived , moved b) has lived , moved c) lived , has moved .
6) They usually ..... to the south for the summer , but this year they .... abroad .
a) go , will go b) goes , are going c) go , are going .
7) “ Why you ...... ? “ - ,, I ..... my watch “.
a) cry , lost b) do you cry , have lost c) are you crying , have lost .
8) ,, ......... you ........ the book ?'' - ,, Yes , I ..... it yesterday .”
a) did found , bought b) have found , bought , c) do find , have bought .
9) She ...... very nice with her hair up .
a) looks b) is looking c) look .
10) You always ...... the same mistake . I ..... it several times already .
a) make , correct b) are making , is correcting c) are making , have corrected
Ex. 77 Put in who ,what , which or that .
1) Do you know that gentlman ..... is talking to Peter ?
2) I visited the museum ..... is very famous .
3) A book .... was left on the table belongs to John .
4) Have you got back the things ...... were stolen ?
5) Jane works for the company .... sells washing machines .
6) I have lost all .... makes life pleasant .
7) The holiday was not at all ..... I expected .
8) The police haven`t found the man ..... stole my car .
9) Do you know a shop .... sells good coffee ?
10) You misunderstood - that isn`t ...... I meant .
Ex. 78 Choose the right answer .
1) How much ..... ? a) it costs b) does it cost c) it cost d) is it .
2) When ....... him last ? a) you saw b) have you seen c) you see d) did you see .
3) Who ....... the window ? a) break b) did break c) broke .
4) I hope she ...... come. a) will b) is going to c) comes d ) is coming .
5) I ` ll meet you ...... Wednesday . a) at b) on c) in .
6) You ..... touch the switch. It`s dangerous . a) can`t b) must not c) may not d) don`t have to .
7) He left without ..... goodbye . a) to say b) saying c) say d) he says .
8) I`ve know him ..... we were at school . a) since b) when c) for d) as .
Ex. 80 Ask all kinds of questions to the sentences .
1) After breakfast he goes to the university . 2) She is giving a lecture now . 3)You have had a tape-reorder. 4)He has been learning English for 5 years. 5)She studied very hard .
6)They were taking notes at the lecture at this time yesterday.7)We had done the translation by the time he came.
8)He had been doing the homework for two hours when she came.9)We shall have the exam tomorrow.10)I hope , I`ll have finished it by next Sunday.1 1)Tomorrow at this time you will be looking for it .12)He will have been writting a letter for three hours when you come.
Past Perfect Tense Прошедшее завершенное время