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Реферат The classical definition of democracy. Typical theoretical models of democracy. The political content of democracy. Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy. Concept of corporate political science and other varieties of proletarian democracy.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Политология. Добавлен: . Страниц: 2. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

    The main part. The political content of democracy
    Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy
    Concept of corporate political science, and other varieties of proletarian democracy
Home contradiction of democracy - a contradiction between the idea of democracy as the authority of the people and the impossibility of its practical implementation. The famous British philosopher Karl Popper believed democracy is not only impossible but also irrelevant. Indeed, democracy in its direct sense (as direct people power) is impossible even purely technically, because there are no mechanisms to provide direct narodopravstvo with any government issue at all levels. Moreover, such narodopravstvo inappropriate and in terms of efficiency of state power, since the absolute majority of people incompetent in dealing with specific cases of government and society. Moreover, the ruling majority, as people in general, under certain conditions may be as a tyrant, as sole despot.
In the western world today many common conception of democracy. All of them one way or the extent take into account the nature of society as a post. Most political analysts based on the fact that the fundamental characteristic of democracy is open decision-making through representative government, that this process at any level is the participation of elected representatives of the people. Democracy, which exist today in the western world, anyway partly based on the principles of classical liberal democracy that emerged in the eighteenth century. Through a long search found a political thought in her form of government that is best designed to combine the freedom, democracy and law.
In an ideal democracy understand that its current standard by which assess various forms of democratic governance. It is the starting point for the "construction" of various concepts (in theory) and different models (in practice) democratic system. Depending on how people imagine themselves to the democratic ideal that the most value and why accentuate the notion of democracy depends on their commitment to certain concepts or certain kinds of democracy.

The main part. The political content of democracy

The concept of democracy has been two and a half thousand years. In different centuries in the history of political thought was given to the term ambiguous interpretation. With the complication of political stratification and pictures on her political doctrines that appeal to democracy, the latter took on various interpretations.

However, there are similarities, that allow to determine the general features that characterize this or that system as democratic, and in particular on quantitative parameters - as more democratic or less democratic.

The classical definition of democracy is inextricably linked to its etymological origin. The term comes from the Greek word, which in turn consists of two words: demos - the people and kratos - the power of government. Born in antiquity, democracy literally means "people power" or "the people" [4].

In political science the term "democracy" is used in four senses:

how people power;

as a form of structure of any organization based on principles of equality of its members, selectivity and decision making by majority (party-Profsoyuzna, youth, etc.);

as an ideal social order and its associated worldview and value system;

as a movement for democracy (social democratic, Christian democratic, etc.) [2].

However, over the longer one century in the history of political thought in the concept of "nation" by different authors, academic schools and concepts fit different meaning. The same can be said about the different interpretations of the mechanism of democracy.comparison of democratic practice to the concepts of democracy shows that the latter, on the one hand, often followed the empirical material, on the other - have sought to develop an ideal model of democratic system which takes into account the experience of the historical development of its negative and positive effects. Therefore, if you deeply analyze the essence of democracy, it would bring under real political system with the real needs of social development.

All this necessitates Typing theoretical models of democracy, which in turn resulted in a real practice of political development. One of the first attempts typification of these models was made by Canadian political scientist S. McPherson. Explorer problem is the English political scientist J. Held, who in his work "model of democracy" singled out different types of democracy: classical, ancient democracy (democracy in ancient Greece, Athenian democracy), republicanism (republicanism in ancient Rome and the medieval city Republic), the protective democracy, democracy, developing the theory of mortality of state (Marx); elitaryzm competitive, pluralistic democracy, democratic theory partitsypatornoyi; legal model of democracy [4].

If talking is that the historical genesis of democracy a long and controversial. Born in ancient Greece the idea of democracy is not found there ardent supporters among philosophers. Concept of the brightest representatives of the time of Plato and Aristotle were based on the opposition between "right" and "distorted" forms of government and power. Democracy they zarahovuvaly to "distorted" form. In the next century as dominated skeptical of democracy. After the French bourgeois revolution, it became clear that democracy is the way it is more reasonable political and social organization of society, the state government. In the nineteenth century. in a democracy had its ups and downs, but in general, to it was negative. After the publication of the Alexis de Tocqueville's book (1805-1859)"Democracy in America" began to form positive attitudes to democracy. In the early twentieth century. practically no time left political doctrines, including Bolshevism and fascism, which is based in their ideological constructions not be laid for democracy all sorts. After the 1917 revolution in Russia was proclaimed a dictatorship of the proletariat as a higher type of proletarian democracy.

Great significance in strengthening the modern norms of democracy played Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN (1948), Helsinki Meeting (1975), the human rights movement in post-socialist countries, the Paris meeting of the heads of European governments and adopted its "Charter of Paris for a New Europe " (1990) [5, 421].

One of the basic principles of democracy is the principle of majority. Majority rule is the essence of the doctrine of popular sovereignty, under which the people declared source of supreme power in a democratic society. Democracy presupposes free activities of all political parties, socio-political associations, organizations, movements, acting within the law. For democratic government characterized by multi.

An important attribute of democracy - the principle of separation of powers in the system of government. According to this principle of legislative, executive and judiciary are separate and quite independent of one another. However, they constantly interact and counterbalance one another. The indispensable condition of democracy is transparency of all activities of state bodies, political parties and public organizations. The independent status of the media - is also an attribute of a democratic society.

In a democratic society a significant role in the system of government is given to local government, is a rational division of competence and powers of various levels of government. That local government closest to the people and of its action depends on the daily lives of citizens. Therefore, the degree of democratic society is measured by the fact that the status and scope of local authorities, as well as its level of accessibility for people [1, 125].

In our work we are not able to examine in detail all the concepts of democracy. Therefore, we will cover only those concepts that are associated with the theory and practice of modern democracy that goes back to the XVII-XVIII centuries.

Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy

In public consciousness of democracy is equated with democracy. This form of government in terms of the mechanism of expression of popular sovereignty serves as a direct and representative democracy. The first involves the direct expression of associations of individuals - government officials - or those of the life of this association, such as the referendum. Apparatus of power will take the role of organizer and guarantor of the general will. It is determined by people power takes the political decision, specifying and protecting the public will. Representative democracy assumes that the main decisions taken by the authorized representatives of the People's Assembly (parliament, the National Assembly, the Congress) are elected government officials. This representative institutions, their activities are controlled by associations [7, 215].

Different theoretical solution contradictions between the ideal of democracy and its reality is meaning the existence of diverse concepts of democracy. Historically, the first such concept and form of its practical implementation was a classical liberal democracy, which is the most comprehensive measure is based on the principles of democracy (equality, freedom, popular participation in state government, majoritarism, civic consensus, elected government, protection of minorities).

The main idea of liberalism - the idea of ?individual freedom. According to her liberal democracy to the forefront of putting civil liberties like privacy of an individual's independence from political power. Ensuring civil freedom is based primarily on the implementation of individual rights and freedoms of the individual: the right to life and personal immunity, freedom and resistance to violence, property rights and free economic activity, freedom of private life - the inviolability of home and privacy of correspondence, freedom of movement and choice accommodation and so on. But the presence of individual political rights and freedoms gives him the opportunity to participate in the exercise of state power to influence the state to meet the personal and common interests and needs.

Liberal democracy does not deny the will of the people directly, but prefer representative democracy that allows the most complete way to combine the ideal of democracy and the possibility of its practical implementation. Accordingly, democracy understood as a responsible government, government can make decisions and bear responsibility for them. The main elements of representative democracy, constitutionality and defined limits of political domination. So called liberal democracy still a constitutional democracy in which the will of the people shown do not fully and openly, directly, but delegated to representatives who are in the process of political decision-making that will express themselves and under own responsibility.

The essence of liberal democracy in concentrated form was reflected in the proposed U. S. President Abraham Lincoln's formula: government of the people, by the people, for the people (government of the people, elected by the people and for people).

Characterized by emphasis on individual freedom of liberalism leads to social polarization of society, the aggravation of class struggle, generates political instability, etc. [6].

Designed to overcome the shortcomings of liberalism concept of a pluralistic democracy (from Lat. Pluralis - plural) as a kind of modern liberal democracy. Such a democracy is based on consideration of all the plurality, diversity of social interests. The main feature is its open nature of decision-making through representative government. Adoption of the authorities or those making under such conditions is the result of interaction and competition among various political forces, especially political parties and diverse interest groups.

The concept of a pluralistic democratic political system of society is considered as a mechanism that balances the interests of class, ethnic, demographic, professional, regional, religious and similar groups and organizations. Each of them affects the policy-making, but none have a monopoly. There dribnennya political power between state and public institutions. Various social interests, the interests of workers zokremai so closely considered. If it is any social group believes that what politics does not correspond to its interests, it has the ability to pursue an open discussion of relevant issues and take the necessary political decisions.

concept democracy political proletarian
The concept of a pluralist democracy was the most powerful in the 60's - early 70's of XX century. At first glance, pluralistic democracy - a democracy for all. However, it is not devoid of some drawbacks. One of them is that for the interests and needs of certain social groups such as youth, women or the poorest, a real equal opportunities for their participation in the exercise of state power to these groups to provide certain benefits and privileges. But fixing any privileges and benefits for these or those social groups contradicts one of the basic principles of democracy - equality of all citizens before the law. Expansion of actual equality jeopardizes a fundamental principle of democracy as freedom.
In addition, the concept of pluralistic democracy absolyutyzuye opportunities for political representation of social interests through political parties and organizations as diverse interest groups. Ordinary members of parties and NGOs really play a s и т.д.................

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