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The history of writing business letters in brief.
The history of writing business letters is undoubtedly connected with the history of development of legal language. English is in fact a latecomer as a legal language. Even after the Norman Conquest court pleadings in England were in French, and before that lawyers used Latin. Perhaps, some of our difficulties arise due to the fact that English was unacceptable in its childhood.
Contract in English suggest Anglo-American contract rules. The main point is always to be aware that there are differences: the way they may be resolved usually is a problem for lawyers. With contracts the applicable law may be the law of the place where the contract is made; in other cases it may be the law of the place where the contract is to be performed. It is specified in preliminary negotiations which system of law is to apply.
Diversity is characteristic feature of English; here is a wide range of alternatives to choose from in saying things, although the conciseness is sometimes lacking. Consequently, the use of English is a creative challenge. Almost too many riches are available for selection, which leads occasionally to masterpieces but more frequently to mistakes. English is less refined in its distinctions than French, for example, and this makes it harder to be clear.
That does not mean that English is imprecise for all things are relative. If we compare English with Japanese, we will see that the latter possesses enormous degree of politeness to reflect the receptiveness of speaker and listener as well as of addresser and addressee.

From the lexicological point of view isolated words and phrases mean very little. In context they mean a great deal, and in the special context of contractual undertakings they mean everything.
Contract English is a prose organised according to plan. And it includes, without limitation, the right but not the obligation to select words from a wide variety of verbal implements and write clearly, accurately, and/or with style.
Two phases of writing contracts exist: in the first, we react to proposed contracts drafted by somebody else, and in the second, which presents greater challenge, we compose our own.

The letters structure.
A business letter of international model has a clear structure, a definite set of properties and a standard disposition of each.
It has the following structure:
1. Letter head
2. Reference ( doc.) 2. Reference ( doc.)
3. Date 3. Date
4. Special mailing indication
5. Confidential
6. Inside address
7. For the attention of
8. Salutation
9. subject
10. the body of the letter
11. Complementary close
12. Signature
13. Initials of persons in charge
14. Enclosures
15. Copies
16. Post script (P.S.)

Lets study all of them in details:
1. Letter head
Letter head is situated in the top part of a sheet according to a model, which has been developed before. The parts of a letter head are: the symbol of a company, the name of this company or organization, mail address, telephone number, fax, telex.
A kind of a company is indicated in the letter head. If the company is a branch, you should show a founding company, avoiding an overload of information a part of this information should be transferred to the low part of the letter. A companys blank in the letter head gives you information about this company and shows the kind of a company.

2. Reference (the number of a document)
The number of a document is shown for comfortable working with the correspondence. For example: receiving a letter your reference should be written, answering a letter our reference. The number of a document can be written by both letters and numbers. The initials of the people who write this letter or receive it can be used there. For example: DS/MR; 611/17.

3. Date
The date should be written under the senders address in the right or left part, sometimes a line can be left between them, If you have got the companys blank with the address, in such case the date should be shown in the right corner. You shouldnt use the numbers writing the month in the date, also you shouldnt shorten the name of the month.

4. Special mailing indication
If the letter is sent by some unusual mail you can indicate it under the date.

5. Confidential
This information means that the letter can be opened by the receiver only or by the confidential agent.

6. Inside address
The address of the receiver should be indicated under the senders address on the opposite side. If you know the receivers name or surname, you can show them under the address using his rank or a polite form of salutation. There are some polite forms you can use: Mr, Mrs, Ms, Missrs; ranks: Dr, Prof, Capt, Maj, Gen.

7. For the attention of
This item means that you can familiarize with the letters matter. This item should be situated under the inside address. For example: Attn: Production manager.

8. Salutation
The salutation, which at the same time is the form of greeting, should be situated under the inside address without any gaps from the texts left border. The form of salutation depends on the receiver. For example:
Dear Sir if the receivers name is unknown;
Dear Sirs if you write the letter to some organization or company;
Dear Madam if you dont know the womans name;
Dear Sir or Madam if the sex of the receiver is unknown;
Dear Mr or Prof. Smith if you dont know the initials;
Gentlemen if you write a letter to organization.

9. Subject
There is a short name given in the headline. It goes after the salutation and begins with word Subject or Regarding. For example:
Dear Mr Thompson
Subject (Re): New Enrolment rules

10. The body of the letter
The letters text is divided into 3 parts with a gap between each of them.
1. The main point of a problem;
2. Evolving the theme;
3. Sum up.

11. Complementary close
Complementary close should be situated above the senders signature.
Here are some examples of the complementary close:
Dear Sir/Madam - yours faithfully/sincerely.
best wishes
best regards
Yours truly.
Cordially yours..

12. Signature
You should left 3-5 lines to make a signature. In addition to your signature you should write your name and surname and may be even your position.

13. Initials of persons in charge
In large companies it is used in order to keep all the necessary information about the person who made up the letter.

14. Enclosures
In the low left corner you can make a note: Enc: 2 ; Enc: Application forms (2 copies). This is the information about other documents enclosed with your letter.

15. Copies
The copies of one letter can be sent to several persons, thats why you should indicate the number of copies made. You can write C.c.-carbon copy if you indicate other receivers names and addresses, or you can write B.c.- blind copy just the quantity of sent copies.

16. Post script (P.S.)
Its extra information in the end of the letter which wasnt included into the body of the letter.

Now lets examine different kinds of the letters and the examples of writing them. There is a great number of various business documents and its hardly possible to count and even examine all of them. Well take into our consideration some of the most important letters in our work, they are: resume, covering letter and curriculum vitae.


Resume is a vital part of employment process. Resume should give a lot of information about you. You need to determine your main selling points and then to select and order facts in a way that will impress your reader.
Some guidelines:
      Match your skills and experience to the needs of organization
      Stress (underline) what sets you apart from the crowd
      Primary aim is to rise the employers interest
    Your resume should include enough information about you for the employer to feel that you are worth interviewing.
    A brief structure of writing resume:
      Name and address at the top of the page. Resume unlike CV is limited 1 page only.
      Present employment the basis of your experience, level of responsibility.
      Job objective you should snow that you have definite career goals.
      1. If you are student, you are trying to suggest that you have career goals.
      2. If you want to get the specific job in a large organization with the number of vacancies its better to give not the position you would like.
      Summary of qualification (most important attributes)
      Education (start from recent education attainment or your most advanced)
      Work experience (reverse order)
    In most resumes this information is in major focus.
      Personal information (other than your phone number, address)
      References (references will be supplied on the request)

        Alexander Bermann
    376 West 186th Street, Apartment #6-3
      New York, N.Y. 10033
        Tel.(212) 973-6792
OBJECTIVEA position as a mechanical engineer
SUMMARY15 years varied experience in mechanical engi-
          neering. Designed and developed both automatic and special machines. Installed machinery and equipment. Familiar with use of industrial engineering techniques and machine shop practices.
    1986-1988Paterson, N.J.
          Design Engineer. Planed and designed both automatic and special machines, instrumental system, and pneumatics .
          Kharkov, USSR.
          Design Engineer at the Automation Department Designed various automatic machines.
          Installed machinery and equipment
    1969-1974Kharkov, USSR
          M.S. in Mechanical Engineering.
    PERSONALArrived in the United States August 1989.
          Permanent US resident.
          Married, two children.

          Simon Segal
        64-39 108 Street,Apt.4-D
        Forest Hills, N.Y. 11375
        Tel.:(718) 459-2330
    OBJECTIVEA position as an accountant with emphasis
        on financial planning and general accounting functions.
SUMMARYExperienced accounting professional who
        works well under pressure, has good oral and written communication skills, knowledge of computers and administrative abilities.
QUALIFICATIONSKept all books of account, general ledgers,
        and balance sheets at the of fiscal year, prepared financial statements.
        Flushing, N.Y. 1978-1988.
        Position: Bookkeeper.
        Duties: Prepared accounts payable, accounts receivable and financial statements, handed cash and kept checking receipts, kept all books of account, general ledgers and balance sheets.
        Moscow, USSR. Degree: MA in economics.
PERSONALArrived in the United states June,1978.
        Naturalized US itizen-October5,1985 Married, one child.
REFERENCESMr. James Smith, Senior Accountant.
        Innovative Business Services, Inc.
        Jamaica Consulting Services.
        New York, N.Y
        Mrs. Joyce Reed, Accountant.
        Management Consulting Services.
Covering letter
You should attract the employers attention to your resume, to make him want to read your resume. Your aim is to inquire any vacancies and opening positions in the company and inform for which position you interest.
Some types of covering letters:
You must include a covering letter when sending your resume to anyone. Resumes are impersonal documents that contain information about your skills abilities and qualifications. Covering letter should be more than state here is my application and resume. A well written covering letter shows important communication skills. Covering letter should be brief, energetic interesting.
Covering letter answers the following questions:
1. Why are you writing to me and why should I consider your candidacy?
2. What qualifications or value do you have that I could benefit from?
3. What are you prepared to do to further sell yourself?
Some guidelines of covering letter:
    Applicant shouldnt produce identical letters.
    Get the readers attention, try to say something that will make the reader want to read on. (it could be your qualifications or a reason for your interest in the firm)
    State your purpose (aim). Dont beat around the bunch. Be specific.
    Covering letter shouldnt exude 1 page. The shorter the better.
    If you found this announcement in the newspaper you should ask about this company, call and ask about annual report.
    In this letter you should point the source of information (channels, article from the newspaper with date etc.). Give the short description of your education and experience, giving the most attention for those statements of your resume, what are suitable for this position.
    Tell about recommendations and other documents express your readiness to apply the full information and go through the interview, thank for somebodys attention and tell about your hope for the positive answer.
    Link your skills to the employers needs.

Mark Diamond
4701 Pine Street, # K-13
Philadelphia, PA 19143
Tel. 1-(215)-748-3037

April 2, 1992
Dear Mr. Mrinichenko:
I am a first-year student in the M.B.A. program at the Wharton Business School in Philadelphia.
I understand that you are heading the independent Ukrainian airline. Ive heard from my friend Mr. Bill Eastmann, a student at Duke Universitys Fuqua School of Business, that you might wish to have an American M.B.A. student work with your airline this summer as an intern. I am very interested in the possibility of such an internship during the summer of 1992.
My professional experience has given me an in-depth knowledge of the air transportation industry. I have, in particular, worked for American Airlines, The Federal Aviation Administration, and Kurth & company, Inc., an aviation consulting firm where I was Manager of Airline Analysis. I wish to replace this experience at the disposal of your airline. I believe strongly that my knowledge of the deregulated air transportation industry in the United States could be quite beneficial to your career.
I would be interested in meeting you in mid-April in New-York to discuss further the possibility of such a summer position, and your requirements.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours sincerely,
Mark Diamond
Mark Diamond
Curriculum Vitae
Curriculum vitae is different from resume by the volume, it should be written by the candidates for the highest positions. You should give full information about yourself in all details, writing this kind of letters. You should give the information about your education, qualifications. Curriculum vitae unlike resume can be written to 2-3 pages.
The main parts of Curriculum vitae:
Telephone number:
Education and training:

Name:Maria Ivanova
Address:ul. Tverskaya, dom 55, kv. 134
Telephone number:Home: (095) 292 52 22
Education and training:
December 1991 - April 1994Moscow State Linguistic University, Department of English Lexicology.
Qualifications:Linguistic Researcher; PhD diploma was obtained in April 1994
September 1981 June 1986Moscow State Linguistic University, Department of
German Languages.
Qualifications:Higher education diploma: teacher of English and German
April 1997Computer training courses in Xylos (Microsoft Authorised Training Center in Moscow)

Employment:Price Water House, Translating and Interpreting Department.
Position:Translator from\to English and German.
Responsibilities:Interpreting audit documents translation from\to English and German
August 1995 July 1996British Petroleum
Position:Translator and Administrative Assistant.
Responsibilities:Translator from\to English and German, administrative duties performance.
August 1994 August 1995 Norton Rose
Position:Translator and interpreter
Responsibilities:Translator from\to English and German (commercial contracts, legal documents, etc.)

August 1986 August 1994English language teaching at the Department of English Lexicology of the Moscow State Linguistic University.
Position:Tutor of English
Responsibilities:Practical English and Grammar for third year students, Stylistics.
1986 up to presentFree-lance interpreter and translator at the Chamber of commerce and Industry.

Skills:Good typing skills, strong organizational skills, ability to work under pressure, customer oriented, good time management.
Computer literacy:Word Perfect, MS Word for Windows, Lotus Ami-Pro 3.1., Lotus 1-2-3, e-mail, internet user
Languages:Native Russian, professional level of English and German
Social\CulturalTravelling, classical literature, world history, jazz music
SportingSwimming, skiing
Countries visited:UK, USA, Spain, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand
References:are available upon request.

Jack Holden: I'm pleased to meet you, Peter. My sister Linda has often spoken about you.
Peter Dubinsky: I'm happy to meet you!
Jack: So you're a newcomer from Russia. How long have you been in New York?
Peter: I've been living here about 10 months.
Jack: Do you like living here?
Peter: Yes, I do. New York is a fascinating city.
Jack: Do you have a job?
Peter: Yes, I do. But that is a sad story. I'm an electronics engineer without American experience. Now I'm a cab driver.
Jack: Don't loose heart. Driving a cab is not what you have dreamed of. But if you have a good professional background, sooner or later you will get a job in your special field. Do you have a resume?
Peter: Yes, I do. I have it with me.
Jack: Could you show it to me? I happened to work for the personnel department of a large company.
Peter: Here it is.
Jack(reading the resume): That kind of resume won't get you a high-level job. Major companies receive about 300 resumes a week. They ignore 290 of them. Peter: What's the reason for it?
Jack: Many job hunters stress details that don't count. In this resume of yours, these long Russian words and names are rather confusing for an American employer.
Peter: But my resume should reflect professional experience, shouldn't it?
Jack: Yes, of course. You describe yourself as an electronics engineer. That's not enough. No doubt, you have advanced knowledge. But what is your objective? What kind of position do you want? What abilities qualify you for a job as an electronics engineer with Manhattan Electronics to name just an example? You should tell about your strengths and experiences which will let you do that job. Your strengths should be given more space. Other information should be left out.
Peter: Sometimes it's rather difficult to decide what to stress and what to leave out.
Jack: An employer's main interest is in what you can do for the company. Include information that shows that you are the right kind of person for the job. Leave out anything that might give an employer reason for passing you by.
Peter: But what about the lack of American experience? That's a serious obstacle to getting a job.
Jack: If the employer realizes that you are the right man for a particular position he will give you an appointment. I know quite a few Russians who hold top positions. Write another kind of resume and show it to me.
Peter: Thank you so much.
Jack: You are welcome. Call me as soon as your resume is ready.


Jack: Now you have a reasonable resume. By reading it your potential employer can see what abilities qualify you for a job as an electronics engineer. Your job objective is indicated. I hope you revised resume will lead to job interviews.
Peter: When thinking of an up coming interview, I am really scared. My English is not good enough, and I don't know how to behave when being interviewed.
Jack: Before going to the interview, try to get information about the company or the job you would like to get into. For example, if you have an interview at a large electronics firm, you will make a better impression when you are familiar with articles about that company. Doing anything well takes some information. That implies to job hunting too. Any good library has books which will tell you the names of companies in industries of interest to you, as well as the names of people representing those companies.
Peter: You are perfectly right, Jack. But how can I overcome my nervousness?
Jack: If you are well informed your confidence is up. You are familiar with the American terminology in your field. You are an experienced specialist. People can tell when you are well prepared. You will be asked questions that you can answer easily. You won't be nervous in an upcoming interview. Your best guide is to rely on your own common sense. There are, however, some common rules for the interviews.
Peter: could you give me some examples?
Jack: When greeting the representative of the company, wait until he moves to shake hands. You should also wait until he offers you a seat.
Peter: But what about the usual questions people are asked in an interview?
Jack: The most common questions are, for instance: Why are you interested in joining our company?-Why do you feel qualified for this job?-What do you know about the company?-Do you enjoy working with others? - Are you willing to work overtime? -Tell me about your experience. -What can I do for you?
Peter: Are there any surprise questions?
Jack: You should anticipate questions as: Why should I hire you?-What are your three greatest strengths for this job?
Peter: I see. These are rather tricky questions. Are there any topics I should avoid discus sing with the interviewer? Jack: In discussing your previous job, avoid criticizing former employers or fellow workers. Don't discuss your personal, domestic or financial problems unless you are specifically asked about them.
Peter: If I am offered a job, is it appropriate to ask questions referring to the salary?
Jack: Absolutely. You can state the salary you want, but not until the employer has introduced the subject.
Peter: I greatly appreciate your giving me this valuable information.


I. Read and translate the text given below.
Contract dated 2 March,199. .
This Contact is made between:
International Management Ltd, London, United Kingdom, hereinafter referred to as Organiser and Economtraining, Moscow, Russian Federation, hereinafter referred to as Customer.
This Contract concerns the Programme for a Group of 10 senior bankers and foreign trade company executives (the Participants) from the Russian Federation as nominated by the Customer, scheduled to take place in London during 8 days in November, 199. .. The exact dates are to be specified before 20 October.
Both parties to this Contract are bound by the terms and conditions of the Contract as set out below.
Undertakings by the Organiser
The Organiser shall provide Business Skills Courses during the Programme which shall collectively amount to not less than 15 hours of intensive classroom tuition, to be divided into 15 classroom "Sessions". Classroom Sessions shall take place on Training Days (Monday through Friday).
The Organiser shall provide professional trainers to teach the Business Skills Courses who shall have appropriate professional and/ or academic experience and expertise.
The Organiser shall provide an appropriate conference room at the Hotel in which the Business Skills Courses shall be conducted.
After Pete studied the Contract carefully, the businessmen sign two copies, one for each party.
Then Pete invites David to celebrate the event at the restaurant in the evening. The next day David leaves Moscow for St. Petersburg.

Words and expressions

Premises -
at somebody's premises - - ,
a copy of the Contract he has prepared - ,
referred to as -
to nominate - ,
as nominated by - , -
to schedule - , ,
party -
both parties to the Contract - ,
to bind -
as set out below -
undertaking -
to amount to not less than -
tuition -
expertise -
to conduct -

II. Find English equivalents in the text of the Contract:
    , , ,

    , 15

    , 15

    , /
    -, .
II. Complete the following sentences according to the text :
This Contract is made between ... Organizer and ... Customer.
Both parties ... bound ... set out below.
The Organizer shall ... trainers to teach ... Courses who shall have appropriate ...
The Organizer shall provide an appropriate ... in which the Business Skills Courses ...

III. Make up the sentences from the words given below.
    is, vital, part, process, Resume, of, a, employment.
    should, are, writing, to, candidacy, me, and, why, Why, I, consider, you, your?
    letter, exude, shouldnt, page, Covering, 1.
    the, experience, and, your, skills, Match, needs, organization, to, of.

* . , .