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курсовая работа Деловые письма на английском языке
Тип работы: курсовая работа.
Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%
является значительной частью общения,
частью личного опыта. Любой автор
любого письма имеет характерные только
для него способы и стиль написания письма,
способы выражать свои мысли, чувства
и факты, но следует подчеркнуть, что процесс
написания официальных или полуофициальных
писем требует использования некоторых
устоявшихся и принятых идиом, фраз, образцов
и грамматики, которые являются наиболее
предпочтительными в наши дни. При помощи
практики должны быть приобретены определенные
навыки, а детали написания деловых писем
должны быть тщательно изучены, так как
в наше время широких международных связей
трудно представить себе переводчика
или референта, который не умеет составлять
деловые документы. Для того чтобы делать
это правильно, необходимо знание соответствующих
правил и принципов.
главной целью данной курсовой работы
является собрание теоретического и
практического материала о составлении
деловых писем для использования
его в дальнейшем. Для достижения
этой цели курсовая работа ставит перед
собой несколько задач. Во-первых, следует
вкратце ознакомиться с историей деловых
писем. Во-вторых, необходимо изучить общую
структуру деловых писем и, в-третьих,
ставится задача получить конкретные
практические знания, связанные с особенностями
составления тех или иных деловых писем.
работа актуальна в силу того, что
мы постоянно сталкиваемся с определенными
трудностями при составлении
деловых писем, будь то резюме, заявление
о приеме на работу или просто заказ.
of writing business letters in brief.
of writing business letters is undoubtedly connected with the history
of development of legal language. English is in fact a latecomer as
a legal language. Even after the Norman Conquest court pleadings in
England were in French, and before that lawyers used Latin. Perhaps,
some of our difficulties arise due to the fact that English was unacceptable
in its childhood.
Contract in English suggest Anglo-American contract rules. The main
point is always to be aware that there are differences: the way they
may be resolved usually is a problem for lawyers. With contracts the
applicable law may be the law of the place where the contract is made;
in other cases it may be the law of the place where the contract is
to be performed. It is specified in preliminary negotiations which system
of law is to apply.
Diversity is characteristic feature of English; here is a wide range
of alternatives to choose from in saying things, although the conciseness
is sometimes lacking. Consequently, the use of English is a creative
challenge. Almost too many riches are available for selection, which
leads occasionally to masterpieces but more frequently to mistakes.
English is less refined in its distinctions than French, for example,
and this makes it harder to be clear.
That does not mean that English is imprecise for all things are relative.
If we compare English with Japanese, we will see that the latter possesses
enormous degree of politeness to reflect the receptiveness of speaker
and listener as well as of addresser and addressee.
From the lexicological
point of view isolated words and phrases mean very little. In context
they mean a great deal, and in the special context of contractual undertakings
they mean everything.
is a prose organised according to plan. And it includes, without limitation,
the right but not the obligation to select words from a wide variety
of verbal implements and write clearly, accurately, and/or with style.
Two phases of
writing contracts exist: in the first, we react to proposed contracts
drafted by somebody else, and in the second, which presents greater
challenge, we compose our own.
letter of international model has a clear structure, a definite set
of properties and a standard disposition of each.
It has the
Reference (№ doc.)
||2. Reference (№ doc.)|
Special mailing indication|
For the attention of|
the body of the letter|
Initials of persons in charge|
Post script (P.S.)|
all of them in details:
is situated in the top part of a sheet according to a model, which has
been developed before. The parts of a letter head are: the symbol of
a company, the name of this company or organization, mail address, telephone
number, fax, telex.
A kind of
a company is indicated in the letter head. If the company is a branch,
you should show a founding company, avoiding an overload of information
a part of this information should be transferred to the low part of
the letter. A company’s blank in the letter head gives you information
about this company and shows the kind of a company.
Reference (the number of a document)
of a document is shown for comfortable working with the correspondence.
For example: receiving a letter your reference should be written,
answering a letter – our reference. The number of a document
can be written by both letters and numbers. The initials of the people
who write this letter or receive it can be used there. For example:
should be written under the sender’s address in the right or left
part, sometimes a line can be left between them, If you have got the
company’s blank with the address, in such case the date should be
shown in the right corner. You shouldn’t use the numbers writing the
month in the date, also you shouldn’t shorten the name of the month.
4. Special mailing indication
If the letter
is sent by some unusual mail you can indicate it under the date.
means that the letter can be opened by the receiver only or by the confidential
of the receiver should be indicated under the sender’s address on
the opposite side. If you know the receiver’s name or surname, you
can show them under the address using his rank or a polite form of salutation.
There are some polite forms you can use: Mr, Mrs, Ms, Missrs;
ranks: Dr, Prof, Capt, Maj, Gen.
For the attention of
means that you can familiarize with the letter’s matter. This item
should be situated under the inside address. For example: Attn: Production
which at the same time is the form of greeting, should be situated under
the inside address without any gaps from the text’s left border. The
form of salutation depends on the receiver. For example:
– if the receiver’s name is unknown;
– if you write the letter to some organization or company;
– if you don’t know the woman’s name;
or Madam – if the sex of the receiver is unknown;
or Prof. Smith – if you don’t know the initials;
– if you write a letter to organization.
a short name given in the headline. It goes after the salutation and
begins with word Subject or Regarding. For example:
(Re): New Enrolment rules
The body of the letter
text is divided into 3 parts with a gap between each of them.
1. The main
point of a problem;
3. Sum up.
close should be situated above the sender’s signature.
some examples of the complementary close:
… - yours faithfully/sincerely….
left 3-5 lines to make a signature. In addition to your signature you
should write your name and surname and may be even your position.
Initials of persons in charge
companies it is used in order to keep all the necessary information
about the person who made up the letter.
In the low
left corner you can make a note: Enc: 2 ; Enc: Application forms
(2 copies). This is the information about other documents enclosed
with your letter.
of one letter can be sent to several persons, that’s why you should
indicate the number of copies made. You can write C.c.-carbon
copy – if you indicate other receivers’ names and addresses, or
you can write B.c.- blind copy –just the quantity of sent copies.
Post script (P.S.)
information in the end of the letter which wasn’t included into the
body of the letter.
examine different kinds of the letters and the examples of writing them.
There is a great number of various business documents and it’s hardly
possible to count and even examine all of them. We’ll take into our
consideration some of the most important letters in our work, they are:
resume, covering letter and curriculum vitae.
a vital part of employment process. Resume should give a lot of information
about you. You need to determine your main “selling points” and
then to select and order facts in a way that will impress your reader.
Match your skills
and experience to the needs of organization
what sets you apart from the crowd
Primary aim is to
rise the employers interest
Your resume should include
enough information about you for the employer to feel that you are worth
A brief structure of
Name and address
at the top of the page. Resume unlike CV is limited 1 page only.
– the basis of your experience, level of responsibility.
Job objective –
you should snow that you have definite career goals.
1. If you are student,
you are trying to suggest that you have career goals.
2. If you want to get
the specific job in a large organization with the number of vacancies
it’s better to give not the position you would like.
qualification (most important attributes)
from recent education attainment or your most advanced)
most resumes this information is in major focus.
(other than your phone number, address)
will be supplied on the request)
376 West 186th
Street, Apartment #6-3
OBJECTIVE A position
as a mechanical engineer
SUMMARY 15 years
varied experience in mechanical engi-
and developed both automatic and special machines. Installed machinery
and equipment. Familiar with use of industrial engineering techniques
and machine shop practices.
EXPERIMENCE BROWN MMANUFACTURING
Planed and designed both automatic and special machines, instrumental
system, and pneumatics .
1974-1986 KHARKOV MACHINE
at the Automation Department Designed various automatic machines.
EDUCATION KRARKOV POLYTECHIC
M.S. in Mechanical
PERSONAL Arrived in the
United States August 1989.
OBJECTIVE A position as
an accountant with emphasis
financial planning and general accounting functions.
accounting professional who
well under pressure, has good oral and written communication skills,
knowledge of computers and administrative abilities.
all books of account, general ledgers,
balance sheets at the of fiscal year, prepared financial statements.
Prepared accounts payable, accounts receivable and financial statements,
handed cash and kept checking receipts, kept all books of account, general
ledgers and balance sheets.
INSTITUTE, Department of Economics.
USSR. Degree: MA in economics.
in the United states June,1978.
US itizen-October5,1985 Married, one child.
REFERENCES Mr. James
Smith, Senior Accountant.
Business Services, Inc.
Joyce Reed, Accountant.
attract the employer’s attention to your resume, to make him want
to read your resume. Your aim is to inquire any vacancies and opening
positions in the company and inform for which position you interest.
of covering letters:
include a covering letter when sending your resume to anyone. Resumes
are impersonal documents that contain information about your skills
abilities and qualifications. Covering letter should be more than state
“here is my application and resume”. A well written covering letter
shows important communication skills. Covering letter should be brief,
letter answers the following questions:
1. Why are you writing to me
and why should I consider your candidacy?
2. What qualifications or value
do you have that I could benefit from?
3. What are you prepared to
do to further sell yourself?
of covering letter:
produce identical letters.
Get the reader’s
attention, try to say something that will make the reader want to read
on. (it could be your qualifications or a reason for your interest in
State your purpose
(aim). Don’t beat around the bunch. Be specific.
shouldn’t exude 1 page. The shorter the better.
If you found this
announcement in the newspaper you should ask about this company, call
and ask about annual report.
In this letter you
should point the source of information (channels, article from the newspaper
with date etc.). Give the short description of your education and experience,
giving the most attention for those statements of your resume, what
are suitable for this position.
Tell about recommendations
and other documents express your readiness to apply the full information
and go through the interview, thank for somebody’s attention and tell
about your hope for the positive answer.
Link your skills
to the employer’s needs.
4701 Pine Street,
April 2, 1992
Dear Mr. Mrinichenko:
I am a first-year student in
the M.B.A. program at the Wharton Business School in Philadelphia.
I understand that you are heading
the independent Ukrainian airline. I’ve heard from my friend Mr. Bill
Eastmann, a student at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business,
that you might wish to have an American M.B.A. student work with your
airline this summer as an intern. I am very interested in the possibility
of such an internship during the summer of 1992.
My professional experience
has given me an in-depth knowledge of the air transportation industry.
I have, in particular, worked for American Airlines, The Federal Aviation
Administration, and Kurth & company, Inc., an aviation consulting
firm where I was Manager of Airline Analysis. I wish to replace this
experience at the disposal of your airline. I believe strongly that
my knowledge of the deregulated air transportation industry in the United
States could be quite beneficial to your career.
I would be interested in meeting
you in mid-April in New-York to discuss further the possibility of such
a summer position, and your requirements.
I look forward to hearing from
Curriculum vitae is different
from resume by the volume, it should be written by the candidates for
the highest positions. You should give full information about yourself
in all details, writing this kind of letters. You should give the information
about your education, qualifications. Curriculum vitae unlike resume
can be written to 2-3 pages.
The main parts of Curriculum
Education and training:
Name: Maria Ivanova
Address: ul. Tverskaya,
dom 55, kv. 134
Telephone number: Home:
(095) 292 52 22
Education and training:
December 1991 - April 1994 Moscow
State Linguistic University, Department of English Lexicology.
Researcher; PhD diploma was obtained in April 1994
September 1981 – June 1986 Moscow
State Linguistic University, Department of
Qualifications: Higher education
diploma: teacher of English and German
April 1997 Computer training
courses in Xylos (Microsoft Authorised Training Center in Moscow)
Employment: Price Water
House, Translating and Interpreting Department.
Position: Translator from\to
English and German.
audit documents translation from\to English and German
August 1995 –July 1996 British
Position: Translator and Administrative
from\to English and German, administrative duties performance.
August 1994 – August 1995
Position: Translator and interpreter
from\to English and German (commercial contracts, legal documents, etc.)
August 1986 – August 1994 English
language teaching at the Department of English Lexicology of the Moscow
State Linguistic University.
Position: Tutor of English
English and Grammar for third year students, Stylistics.
1986 up to present Free-lance
interpreter and translator at the Chamber of commerce and Industry.
Skills: Good typing skills,
strong organizational skills, ability to work under pressure, customer
oriented, good time management.
Computer literacy: Word
Perfect, MS Word for Windows, Lotus Ami- Pro 3.1., Lotus 1-2-3, e-mail,
Languages: Native Russian,
professional level of English and German
classical literature, world history, jazz music
Sporting Swimming, skiing
Countries visited: UK, USA,
Spain, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand
References: are available
Jack Holden: I'm pleased
to meet you, Peter. My sister Linda has often spoken about you.
Peter Dubinsky: I'm
happy to meet you!
Jack: So you're a newcomer
from Russia. How long have you been in New York?
Peter: I've been living
here about 10 months.
Jack: Do you like living
Peter: Yes, I do. New
York is a fascinating city.
Jack: Do you have a
Peter: Yes, I do. But
that is a sad story. I'm an electronics engineer without American experience.
Now I'm a cab driver.
Jack: Don't loose heart.
Driving a cab is not what you have dreamed of. But if you have a good
professional background, sooner or later you will get a job in your
special field. Do you have a resume?
Peter: Yes, I do. I
have it with me.
Jack: Could you show
it to me? I happened to work for the personnel department of a large
Peter: Here it is.
Jack(reading the resume):
That kind of resume won't get you a high-level job. Major companies
receive about 300 resumes a week. They ignore 290 of them. Peter:
What's the reason for it?
Jack: Many job hunters
stress details that don't count. In this resume of yours, these long
Russian words and names are rather confusing for an American employer.
Peter: But my resume
should reflect professional experience, shouldn't it?
Jack: Yes, of course.
You describe yourself as an electronics engineer. That's not enough.
No doubt, you have advanced knowledge. But what is your objective? What
kind of position do you want? What abilities qualify you for a job as
an electronics engineer with Manhattan Electronics to name just
an example? You should tell about your strengths and experiences which
will let you do that job. Your strengths should be given more space.
Other information should be left out.
Peter: Sometimes it's
rather difficult to decide what to stress and what to leave out.
Jack: An employer's
main interest is in what you can do for the company. Include information
that shows that you are the right kind of person for
the job. Leave out anything that might give an employer reason for passing
Peter: But what about
the lack of American experience? That's a serious obstacle to getting
Jack: If the employer
realizes that you are the right man for a particular position
he will give you an appointment. I know quite a few Russians who hold
top positions. Write another kind of resume and show it to me.
Peter: Thank you so
Jack: You are welcome.
Call me as soon as your resume is ready.
PREPARING FOR A JOB
Jack: Now you have a
reasonable resume. By reading it your potential employer can see what
abilities qualify you for a job as an electronics engineer. Your job
objective is indicated. I hope you revised resume will lead to job
Peter: When thinking
of an up coming interview, I am really scared. My English
is not good enough, and I don't know how to behave when being
Jack: Before going to
the interview, try to get information about the company or
the job you would like to get into. For example, if you have an interview
at a large electronics firm, you will make a better impression when
you are familiar with articles about that company. Doing anything well
takes some information. That implies to job hunting too. Any good library
has books which will tell you the names of companies in industries of
interest to you, as well as the names of people representing those companies.
Peter: You are perfectly
right, Jack. But how can I overcome my nervousness?
Jack: If you are well
informed your confidence is up. You are familiar with the American terminology
in your field. You are an experienced specialist. People can tell when
you are well prepared. You will be asked questions that you can answer
easily. You won't be nervous in an upcoming interview. Your best guide
is to rely on your own common sense. There are, however, some common
rules for the interviews.
Peter: could you give
me some examples?
Jack: When greeting
the representative of the company, wait until he moves to shake hands.
You should also wait until he offers you a seat.
Peter: But what about
the usual questions people are asked in an interview?
Jack: The most common
questions are, for instance: Why are you interested in joining our company?-Why
do you feel qualified for this job?-What do you know about the company?-Do
you enjoy working with others? - Are you willing to work overtime? -Tell
me about your experience. -What can I do for you?
Peter: Are there any
Jack: You should anticipate
questions as: Why should I hire you?-What are your three greatest strengths
for this job?
Peter: I see. These
are rather tricky questions. Are there any topics I should avoid discus
sing with the interviewer? Jack: In discussing your previous job, avoid
criticizing former employers or fellow workers. Don't discuss your personal,
domestic or financial problems unless you are specifically asked about
Peter: If I am offered
a job, is it appropriate to ask questions referring to the salary?
Jack: Absolutely. You
can state the salary you want, but not until the employer has introduced
Peter: I greatly appreciate
your giving me this valuable information.
Read and translate the text given below.
dated 2 March,199. .
Contact is made between:
Management Ltd, London, United Kingdom, hereinafter referred to
as Organiser and Economtraining, Moscow, Russian Federation,
hereinafter referred to as Customer.
Contract concerns the Programme for a Group of 10 senior bankers and
foreign trade company executives (the Participants) from the Russian
Federation as nominated by the Customer, scheduled to take place in
London during 8 days in November, 199. .. The exact dates are to be
specified before 20 October.
parties to this Contract are bound by the terms and conditions of the
Contract as set out below.
by the Organiser
The Organiser shall provide Business Skills Courses during the Programme
which shall collectively amount to not less than 15 hours of intensive
classroom tuition, to be divided into 15 classroom "Sessions".
Classroom Sessions shall take place on Training Days (Monday through
The Organiser shall provide professional trainers to teach the Business
Skills Courses who shall have appropriate professional and/ or academic
experience and expertise.
The Organiser shall provide an appropriate conference room at the Hotel
in which the Business Skills Courses shall be conducted.
Pete studied the Contract carefully, the businessmen sign two copies,
one for each party.
Pete invites David to celebrate the event at the restaurant in the evening.
The next day David leaves Moscow for St. Petersburg.
Premises - помещение
somebody's premises - в чьём-либо помещении один
экземпляр контракта, который он подготовил
a copy of the Contract he
has prepared - один экземпляр контракта, который
referred to as - именуемый
nominate - назначать, определять называть
nominated by - названный, определенный кем-либо
schedule - назначать, намечать, планировать
party - сторона
parties to the Contract - обе стороны, заключившие
bind - связывать
set out below - как указано далее
undertaking - обязательство
to amount to not less than
- составлять не менее
to conduct - проводить
Find English equivalents in the text of the Contract:
от 2 марта
Complete the following sentences according to the text
заключен между ...
в дальнейшем "Организатор"
в дальнейшем "Заказчик"
Контракта является Программа ..
которая должна проходить в Лондоне
должны быть определены до...
заключившие данный Контракт, связаны
условиями, указанными ниже
обеспечивает проведение курса обучения
деловым качествам (умениям).
в целом составит не менее 15 часов
обучение в аудитории
которое будет состоять из 15 аудиторных
обеспечивает профессиональных лекторов.
курса обучения деловым качествам (умениям)
которые должны иметь соответствующий
профессиональный и/ или научный опыт
обеспечивает соответствующий конференц-зал,
где будет проходить обучение.
is made between ... Organizer and ... Customer.
... bound ... set out below.
shall ... trainers to teach ... Courses who shall have appropriate ...
shall provide an appropriate ... in which the Business Skills Courses
III. Make up the sentences
from the words given below.
is, vital, part,
process, Resume, of, a, employment.
should, are, writing,
to, candidacy, me, and, why, Why, I, consider, you, your?
letter, exude, shouldn’t,
page, Covering, 1.
and, your, skills, Match, needs, organization, to, of.
* Примечание. Уникальность работы указана на дату публикации, текущее значение может отличаться от указанного.