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Реферат System of education from an elementary school up to high school and some areas of a countryside in Great Britain. In high school pass examination on the certificate GCE. Universities in GB that have turned to national legends: Oxford and Cambridge.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 09.02.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

1. System of education of Great Britain (simplified circuit of education of Great Britain)

Initial school education 5-12 years preparatory schools 5-7 years of elementary schools, 7-12 years of a day time type (private(individual) and state) or boarding-schools (as a rule, private(individual)); schools for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training Average school education 11-18 years. Five obligatory classes for reception of the certificate GCSE:
- Various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
- School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training;
- Certificate GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) - analogue of the Russian school-leaving certificate; the further education - not necessarily Sixth class 1-2 academic years for reception of the certificate GCE - A Level (General Certificate of Education Advanced Level) or preparatory rates 16-18 years various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
- School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training; the certificate GCE - A Level or diploma about the termination (ending) of preparatory rates - necessary condition for receipt in high school the Further education 2-year's training in private(individual) or state college or institute on one of academic or professional specialties;
- Reception of the maximum national diploma - HND (Higher National Diploma) Maximum education 3-4 years training on day time branch of college, polytechnic institute or university on one of the academic or professional programs;
- Reception of a degree of the bachelor Maximum education 1-2 years of study on day time branch of polytechnic institute or university, including training or research job and protection of the diploma;
- Reception of a degree of the Foreman Maximum education 1-3 years of independent research job at university under the direction of the professors, protection of the dissertation;
- Reception of a degree of the doctor.
However highly the British education in the world, nevertheless in middle fifties was appreciated. The government of Great Britain has begun reform
All system, from an elementary school up to high school. Completely this reform is not completed and to this day. In result today in the country some types of high schools peacefully coexist, for example. The base educational minimum is legislatively fixed which should be given by (with) any school is not dependent on a type and programs of training. Obligatory secondary education (children also is study till 15-16 of years), and this obligatory education - free-of-charge. The graduates of high schools pass examinations and, as well as our Russian schoolboys, receive first in life the certificate - GCSE, however as against the Russian analogue GCSE does not give the right to act in high schools. After that the young people appear before a choice - either to look for job, or to continue to study.
The old system of high schools was saved in some areas of a countryside. Here after termination (ending) an elementary school by results of test.
Examinations children are distributed (allocated) for three types of high schools - most capable act in special school, others direct or to technical schools, or in modern school. At average technical schools is given general educational, general technical and initial professional training. The modern school was so is named because in the base program of training there were no ancient languages (Latin and ancient Greek), were taught only modern. At these schools the usual secondary education is given, but the significant part of the program is made by (with) practical employment (occupations). At once after leaving school the graduates basically act on job.
The reorganization of high school has resulted that in large cities the complex schools for children from 11 till 18 years have appeared. About it will be in detail told in the chapter devoted high school. High school finishing by examinations GCSE, - five years. Those who is going to further to act in high school, should end the sixth class and pass examination on the certificate GCE - A Level - general (common) certificate on the profound educational level. If to compare our system of education to English, the certificate GCE - A Level actually corresponds (meets) to the document on the termination (ending) of preparatory rates of high school, in which you are going to act. The terms " the sixth class" and "the programs of an And - level" are in Great Britain nominal and designate the various programs and rates conducting to reception GCE - A Level. For receipt in high schools in Great Britain besides schools there are colleges of the sixth class, younger biennial colleges and it is simple colleges, in which teach not only general educational subjects of the sixth class, but also professional disciplines.
After the certificate GCE - A Level is received, before the young people the further and maximum education is open. The term "maximum education" concerns to the programs, which purpose - award of a degree of the bachelor, foreman or doctor. " The Further education " of an academic degree does not give, it, as a rule, professional training. The rate of the "further" training is finished by examinations and reception of the maximum national diploma HND. In the field of vocational training the diplomas given by one of three professional committees are most appreciated: CGLI (City and Guilds of London Institute), RSA (Royal Society of Arts), BTEC (Business and Technical Education Council). Many colleges and institutes are authorized to give out the diplomas on behalf of one of these three committees. Other educational institutions give out or own diplomas and certificates, or diplomas of other examination committees.
The diploma HND is important for receiving by the one who is going to at once to begin job on the elected specialty and is not going to be protected on a degree of the bachelor. From the point of view of professional career, this diploma allows to advance on a service within the limits of the average technical or younger administrative board of firm. Besides having this diploma, it is possible to enter university (if all the same are convinced of necessity of maximum education), and to begin training at once from the second rate. Maximum education the Englishmen receive in colleges, polytechnic institutes and universities. After 3-4 years of study on day time branch the youth receives a degree of the bachelor. Having this degree, it is possible to count on a good post in a non-production part or average administrative board private(individual) or state-owned firm, at the industrial enterprise, or to open own private(individual) practice (for doctors and lawyers).
The degree of the bachelor suffices for some trades, and further education it is not required. But for the majority of specialties the degree of the foreman opens much more opportunities. For example, having the bachelor's degree of medicine, it is possible to work in clinic or to have small private (individual) practice. But to head branch in any hospital or even the whole clinic, the diploma of the foreman is necessary for expansion of private (individual) practice.
The degree of the foreman approximately corresponds (meets) to our diploma about maximum education, and degree of the doctor - degree of the candidate of sciences in Russia. The equivalent of a degree of the doctor of sciences in Great Britain does not exist. There is a number (line) of general (common) important features, characteristic for all universities. All of them appropriate (give) own degrees. Everyone have the identical requirements at reception on training under the program of the bachelor. The large universities such as London inside themselves are subdivided into colleges. These colleges are a part of university and give education on the certain specialty. Separately in structure of university the colleges specializing on preparation of the entrants to receipt on the basic programs (faculties) of university, improvement of professional skill of the experts, teaching of English language for the foreigners are allocated. The small universities are subdivided into faculties, and the name of colleges is appropriated (given) to preparatory branches and language rates of the large universities. Polytechnic institutes. The system of polytechnic institutes works in parallel university. Under the status all institutes are independent educational corporations. They appropriate (give) the diplomas and degrees on its own behalf or on behalf of the national authorized Advice (council) CNAA. On many parameters these institutes are very similar to universities, but have a number (line) of differences. Most important: in polytechnic institute it is possible to study wider spectrum of rates, than it is necessary on the chosen specialty. The second feature is the semi-annual or annual course job on a specialty which is carried out in one of the commercial or industrial companies. As well as university, the polytechnic institute gives education under the program of the bachelor, and then foreman and doctor. Recently some of polytechnic institutes were renamed into universities, but the features of training in them were saved.
Colleges of maximum education. It is the third variant of reception of maximum education in Great Britain. The colleges award nationally the recognized degrees and diplomas both on academic, and on professional disciplines. The graduates of colleges receive the maximum national diploma HND or degree of the bachelor, and the diplomas are awarded after each successfully finished program. The colleges seldom have rates under the program of the foreman and practically never are engaged in preparation of the students under the program of a scientific degree of the doctor of philosophy. Many colleges have special preparatory rates, at which successful termination (ending) the graduates are enlisted without examinations and competition for the further training under the program of the bachelor in polytechnic institutes and universities.
2. School

In Great Britain 30.000 comprehensive schools and 2300 - private (individual), named "independent sector" work. The majority of comprehensive schools (from 60 up to 90%) - mixed. The private schools work as mixed basically for the younger schoolboys, the training in the senior classes is conducted separately. In comprehensive schools children study, as a rule, complete day, the educational week makes 5 days. In England and Wales the school year proceeds since September till July. In Scotland - from middle of August till the end of June, in Northern Ireland - since September till July. The academic year is divided (shared) into three terms for 13 weeks everyone.< и т.д.................

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