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Реферат Translation as a specific kind of human activity. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating informal lexicon. Euphemism and it's using in language of advertising, in slang and in a professional slang in languages.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 20.05.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

Discipline: "The English language"
"The basic features of translation informal lexicon"
Kyiv - 2009
The plan
1. Translation, as a specific kind of human activity
2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating informal lexicon
2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation
2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations
2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon
The list of the used literature
During last decades especially intensive development in area translation is observed. Principal causes of this phenomenon are the certain gravitation of the world community to integration. Constantly there is an exchange of the got information (not at all levels, it is usual), cultural properties. The international conferences both with scientific, and on social questions are carried out. There is a vigorous exchange in the field of the film-industry. Though, probably, it would be more expedient to tell, that there is an intensive inflow of the western film-industry on our market. All this appreciably predetermines development translation, in fact any area whether sciences, whether cultures, whether a social life the understanding, adequacy demands the certain approach, on the part of speaking another language partners.
Very much frequently while translating the scientific, technical whether economic literature the translator encounters the certain realities which not to clear our reader and at all have no conformity in our language. In such cases of a task of the translator consists in that is whenever possible more exact, понятнее and more shortly to recreate them in our language. Certainly, not always it is possible to reach all at once - sometimes it is necessary to endow conciseness, managing in a descriptive explanation of this or that lexeme; sometimes it is necessary to replace simply their reality on such, that the certain measure перекликается with ours, has the common with ours of an attribute, thus deforming the certain measure the maintenance of the original.
Nevertheless, not beginning from all this the certain sides of translation remain poorly investigated. So, one of such problems is translation so-called «informal (not literary) lexicon» - oral colloquial lexicon which if it is used outside of sphere of informal dialogue of people, creates comic or ironical effect. The colloquial lexicon, as well as book, in informal dialogue can be common, reduced (popular speech) and to exist as social dialects.
Social dialects as L. Stavitska rebukes, it is the version of language used as means of dialogue between people, the connected close social or professional generality, i.e. it is language of the certain social group. Considerable the factor which causes occurrence of social dialects is social heterogeneity of a society which has various professional, and also century groups. The reason of occurrence of social dialects can be and social-class heterogeneity of a society [L. Stavitska, 2005: 20].
The most convenient in opinion Stavitska, there is such terminological - conceptual paradigm «social dialects»: jargon, professional jargon, slang, not normative lexicon [53, With 22]. And authors of the illustrated dictionary American slang M. Moskovtsev and S. Shevchenko in the definition of informal lexicon, except for slang and not normative lexicon, including the most rough and vulgar words and expressions, allocate also euphemisms [34, C.25]. Popular speech, or the reduced (not normative) lexicon, characteristic for informal conversation, includes insulting, humiliating or swear words, and is mainly used in informal dialogue. It be rather relative covers for slang and slangs, and the greater attention concentrates on vulgarisms and depreciate to lexicon.
The use such gives a layer of lexicon speech of ironicalness and expressiveness, and recently starts to penetrate more and more to publicist, though and not to a semi-official organ.
Without knowledge of it to a layer of lexicon, on an idea of Century. Devkin's, at investigated foreign language to do without very hardly. This lexicon represents powerful enough, absolute integral part of a lexicon [15, With 5]. Acquaintance to it necessary - to understand daily language to seize the important part regional geography to be able to decipher implied sense, witty expressions, the associative plan of statements what the good translator who aspires to pull together the reader to the author maximum cannot do without.
Therefore, very much frequently during translation of any literary work, a film, etc., having faced such foreign analogues, before the translator there is a question: how to transfer this or that word? How to recreate that or other expression? In fact, in most cases, the literal translation does not find exact display in language on which translation is carried out. And usual omission or unjustified mitigation vulgarisms, slangy words, or their replacement euphemisms very much frequently damages translation through discrepancy of transfer of mood, emotions of the hero, to style of the author. Therefore, we adhere to idea which it is possible and sometimes it is necessary to shift the author's uses of such lexemes adequately.
The linguist - translator who deals with language in all its real variety, cannot shut eyes to that objectively exists. Which unadopted this lexicon would not be, it is and demands to itself attention. Any there ten words which cannot be used in the cultural society, known to everyone and their ignorance can lead to to serious funny things.
To receive the answer to the questions, the translator should be guided by the certain positions; there should be the certain scientific works devoted to a theme of translation slangy and informal lexicon (including), the certain parallel between such lexicon in language of the original and in language on which translation is carried out should be abusive. Insufficient amount of the works devoted to this theme, absence of the information in modern bilingual dictionaries about situations of the use of corresponding lexicon which in any measure complicates work of professional translators, and натолкнула us on an idea to investigate this of a layer of lexicon, his{its} adequate reproduction in translation into the Ukrainian language.
If to base on classical literary works, it is possible to tell, that in the Ukrainian language there is no, so to say, «dirty a swear word». To tell the truth, in a program fragment from «Eneida» we read I. Kotljarevskogo: «…but malicious Yunona, the daughter of bitch…» [I. Kotljarevsky, t.1, an item 65]. The designated lexeme fixes «the Dictionary of the Ukrainian language» with a mark «abusive». It gives us the basis to not consider similar words «dirty a swear word» though in such context they have strong emotional painting.
As to the present the slangy and not normative lexicon, even more often appears in literary works of young Ukrainian writers, such as Oksana Zabuzhko, Jury Andruhovich, Irena Karpa where we can find rather realistic reproduction of an alive spoken language. Probably, in them there are those words and expressions which are perceived as «dirty a swear word», but there is no yet a unequivocal estimation of critics and public idea in this occasion.
The given lexicon can serve for emotional discharge. Expansion of sphere of action of a slang, a slang and not normative lexicon, their aggressive universal distribution should not only cause anxiety apologist morals but also as the phenomenon mass, it should predispose to itself attention of linguists, culturologists, sociologists. That is in language, should be collected and described. It is impossible to object objectively available! The task - to explain it.
In English there are linguistic works which shine this theme in different aspects. So, known works of such leading linguists, as Richard A. Spiers «The Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder «Additional Russian-English the Dictionary», Harold Uentuort and Stuard Fleksner «Dictionary of American Slang», etc.
On a material of the Ukrainian language linguists of Institute of the Ukrainian language were engaged in it this theme. O. Potebni. This lexicon on lexicographic a level G. Sagach in work «investigated Emotional suffixes of nouns in modern Ukrainian language». Lesya Stavitska in the monography of changes the Ukrainian language «the Slang, a slang. «Social differentiation the Ukrainian language» treats the basic jargon (criminal, youth, professional slangs) as phenomena, which structure language pictures of the world. In work is showen functioning of the Ukrainian colloquial lexicon and national - language aspects modern using of slang, and also a role of slang in a language life of the Ukrainian city.
Thus, the theme of slang lexicon, and especially not normative, abusive lexicon and type, in English and the more so in the Ukrainian language at present poorly investigated, and in translational aspect also was not analyzed at all.
In the given work as us research of expressively-emotional lexicon of oral informal conversation - informal lexicon which presently is one of the most interesting for research of language systems of modern linguistics is offered: argo, jargon, professional jargonand slang.
Proceeding from this, the purpose of the given work is:
· Upholding?the assumption, that informal (colloquial, nonliterary) lexicon - the phenomenon?in?language?independent?and such lexicon should consider in?modern knowing language precisely a separate category.
· Illumination?of some?the problems connected to existence of such phenomenon as informal lexicon.
· Research?of classification and feature of translation of such lexicon.
· The analysis of features of translation?slang??lexicon?which?meets?in?products?of the modern English literature and publicistic texts.
For achievement of this purpose we put before themselves the following problems of the suggested work:
· ?Definition?of sphere of existence of informal lexicon.
· Research?of functioning of such lexicon as systems.
· Tracking?sources of its occurrence.
· Research?of its?division?into versions and?investigation?of features and problems?which?arise during translation of such lexicon.
In research work the following methods have been used: describably-analytical and statistical methods, the descriptive, comparative analysis, a method of continuous sample.
Theoretical value of the given work consists that:
· ?Comparative research of the above-stated lexical subsystems in English and Ukrainian languages is carried out.
· Attempt to develop?uniform?criteria of classification of the English and Ukrainian informal lexicon behind?different?aspects and features of its translation?is carried out.
· Different?methods and approaches while translating informal lexicon from the English language on Ukrainian are considered.
Practical value of work:
· ?The offered?materials on slang (youth,?office,?professional,?political, mass-media, computer).
· Definition?of the most expedient methods and receptions while translating informal lexicon from the English language on Ukrainian.
· The conclusion?anglo-ukrainian?the dictionary?of the most popular words and expressions of English slang.
The given works allow to expand knowledge of stylistic and grammatic features of translation of informal lexicon.
The basic sources which were used for a spelling of our work, were lexicographic editions (sensible and bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of terms) and materials from the Internet. We used also works of above-stated linguists Richard of A.L. Spersa «the Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder» Additional Russian-english the Dictionary», Harold Uentuorta and Steward Flacksner «Dictionary of American Slang», M. Moskovtseva and S. Shevchenko «Is illustrated the dictionary American slangs», Lesya Stavytska» the Ukrainian slang. The dictionary» and the monography «the Slang, a slang. Social differentiation of the Ukrainian language», T. Kondratyuk «the Dictionary of modern Ukrainian slang», L. Zharkovo's scientific work «Emotional - estimated lexicon of modern Ukrainian language the/general names of persons /», etc. We were the used works from the theory of translation of such linguists as Z. Lvovska, Century. Komisarov, O. Schweitzer, I. Galper_n, V. Zhirmunsky, V. Homjakov, V. Krupnov, etc. Addressed to fiction of mainly modern English and Ukrainian writers and to periodicals.
In work the general theoretical problems of translation are considered, in particular, translation as a specific kind of human activity, is considered translational aspect of informal lexicon: methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating emotionally painted expressions of colloquial lexicon.
As addition serves english-ukrainian the dictionary of the most popular words and expressions American slang which of dictionaries of modern Ukrainian slang found similar Ukrainian slangimisms, that include approximately same expressivity. The dictionary also contains the information on situations of the use corresponding slangimism in modern products of the English literature.
1. Translation as a specific kind of human activity
As the theme elected by us rather specific and to us was not possible to find the scientific researches devoted especially of translation of informal lexicon, we have addressed to the general{common} theories of translating.
There are some approaches to a technique of translation.
So, A. Fedorov in the linguistic sketch «Bases of the general theory of translation» considerstwo basic directions in the decision of problems of translating, such as grammatic questions of translation. Also it considers features of translation of different styles of language where rather in details submits the linguistic questions connected to interpretation of texts of fiction.
Interesting to us there was that idea which while translating of slang and popular speech (and all these concern to informal lexicon above the specified categories) the translator should recreate them on same stylistic equal, not managing {not going right} to replacement by literarier, book words and expressions. The author marks: «…if in translation which recreates dialecticisms, some elements of the original, at infringement of an author's plan are supposed especially literary words or word-combinations the last brings to nothing all efforts on reproduction of stylistic painting the original, destroys impression about integrity» [A. Fedorov: C.318]. Also A. Fedorov considers, that though both in practice, and in the theory while translating special attention it is given lexicon, not smaller value can get grammatical means that are capable to recreate stylistic painting of informal lexicon, in particular suffixes of value judgment, syntactic shifts and т.п.
V. Komisarov in work «the Word about translation» offers other approach to problems I shall translate and results some theories which, in our opinion, cover a number of problems which arise while translating more full. Advantage is that the author considers a question of translating not only in language aspect, and puts forward the theories connected to communicative function. Useful there is that last approach can be applied and in relation to informal lexicon as it frequently appears in direct language and carries out directly communicative function.
Pragmatically aspects of translation are shined also with O. Schweitzer in the book «the Theory of translation: the status, problems, aspects». Interesting its research concerning equivalence and adequacy of translation which explain translation process and possible criteria of its estimation as result.
Rather successful approach to classification of models of translation, in our opinion, offers Z. Lvovska in work «Theoretical problems of translation». Being guided by a principle of communication between language values and the maintenance of activity, the author divides all existing theories of translation on two basic types: language and communicative, thus an accessory of some theories to so-called transitive cases [30, C.43].
As the informal, colloquial lexicon represents that layer of lexicon which is directly connected to human dialogue, we would like to stop more in details first of all on communicative models of translation. To Z. Lvovska's this category carries the theory of dynamic equivalence and the theory of levels of equivalence.
The author counts main principle of the theory of equivalence idea of the functional contents of the initial message which is defined by communicative installation of the author of the original [30, With 66]. On the basis of this idea the author makes a line of conclusions, namely, necessity to take into account «person» of the author of the original as its communicative installation is a category subjective. So, the problem of the translator will be to understand and keep in the text of translation this communicative installation, and it is possible only under condition of a parity of value of the text or the statement with language a situation. Also this idea provides functional equivalence of the text of translation to the text of the original which is defined not on the basis of formal conformity of texts, and on the basis of reaction of the speaking another language addressee. I.e., in the text of translation reaction of the addressee has as to answer communicative installation of the sender, as well as in the text of the original (30, With 67).
Taking into account that not normative lexicon carries on itself precise expressively-emotional mark, the theory of dynamic equivalence is given out to us rather successful for application of it while translating texts which contain words and expressions of lexicon of informal dialogue. In fact, as marks Z. Lvovska, the dynamic model of translation includes a line of structural, semantic and stylistic - functionally-stylistic restrictions which narrow a choice and define a direction of translational transformations. And among these restrictions first of all it is necessary to note expressive characteristics of the text of the original, its stylistic features, rate of the use of this or that lexical unit in language of translation within the limits of corresponding style and etc.
Other theory of communicative models of translation is the theory of levels of the equivalence, for the first time the offered V. Komisarov, Z. Lvovska, having processed this theory on a material of the Spanish language, gives its more brief description. We shall result substantive provisions and we shall try to determine expediency of application of the specified theory for text translation in English where not normative lexicon is used.
The theory of levels of equivalence is based on idea that the plan of the maintenance language products has the «multilayered» structure. In it is possible to allocate the certain levels and to establish between them hierarchical communications. The top level - the purpose of the communications, which is put by the author in language product. The trace go four equal, that submit each other and the purposes of the communications:
· ?A level of the description of a situation (the information on material and ideal objects of the validity and communication between them);
· A level (structures)?the message?(a choice of one of possible synonymic ways of the description of a situation of the validity);
· A level of the statement (a linear number{line}?in?a special way of the selected signs?which?are united by any rules and settle down?in?the certain order) and
· A level?of language?signs (words).
Process of translational activity according to the given theory occurs the following grade. At an analysis stage of the statement of the original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all levels of the maintenance). At a stage of synthesis of the statement language of translation «the translator passes all hierarchy of levels in the returnable order, consistently checking, whether defines unequivocally each level of the maintenancea final variant of translation» [30, With 69]. If it appears, that any level demands the obligatory use of the certain forms, the translator selects a variant language of translation, so to say, irrespective of the original.
Nevertheless we count, that in some cases this theory can be not absolutely expedient. The purpose of the use of the reduced lexicon, as usual, is statements of the negative attitude of the sender to the addressee or its prompting to any actions which in itself does not represent a problem for judgement. All we need is only as much as possible adequately to choose the lexical form of transfer of this purpose in the text of translation. Taking into account that in that case this problem has semantic character more likely, we count what to achieve it is possible, having executed not such difficult translational transformations. For example, application of translational lexical changes of the general type can be effective enough in that case.
So, as it is seen, while translating informal lexicon it is possible to apply both linguistic, and communicative methods of translation, but it is necessary to use the most rational methods. If on equal judgments of the purpose of the statement there are no problems, we count not obligatory application of such difficult methods, as a method of levels of equivalence. It is enough to apply simple translational receptions, for example, such, as the deputy.
2. Methods, approac и т.д.................

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