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Реферат Revolts and revolutions often occur in the course of history, however, revolutions are considered to be a more recent development. The Frondes and a revolt. The French revolution. The comparison of a revolution and a revolt.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: История. Добавлен: 09.12.2004. Сдан: 2004. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

"A revolt rather than a revolution".
Is this a fair assessment of the Frondes?
The research area of this paper is the observation and discussion of the differences between "revolt" and "revolution" and whether the Frondes were right to assess this notion, exciting rebellions in France during the reign of Louis XIV.
It is a well-known fact that revolts and revolutions often occur in the course of history, however, revolutions are considered to be a more recent development. It is difficult to say for sure what is better: a revolt or a revolution, however, a thorough discussion of these two phenomena will give us an exact answer. For many centuries people's opinions have been divided: some have called for a revolution, while others have spoken in support of a revolt. For instance, a well-known movement the Fronde called for "a revolt rather than a revolution", and this claim was quite popular among nobles at that time. In order to evaluate it, let's observe the reasons, which led to their revolt, and on their example compare these two notions.
The Frondes and a revolt.
In the French history there was an event called the Fronde (1648-53) - an open rebellion of several great nobles during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parliament of Paris to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of the people against the financial burdens suffered under cardinals Richelieu and Mazarini. As a matter of fact, there were two periods of the Fronde: the Fronde of the Parliament (1648-49) and the Fronde of the Princes (several years later).
The first period began, when the parliament rejected a new plan for raising money, proposed by Anne of Austria and her adviser, Cardinal Mazarini. According to the scheme, magistrates of the high courts would give up four years' salary. The high courts opposed the proposal. As an answer to their deed, the government arrested several members of the parliament, but in August 1648 Anne and Mazarini were forced to release prisoners. However, they didn't stop at that, and sent the royal army to take action against the Fronde when the Thirty Years War ended. Anne, the king, and Mazarini secretly left Paris and the city was blockaded by royal troops under Louis II, prince de Conde. A peace was signed between the parliament and the regent at Rueil in 1649.
Evaluating this first period of the Fronde, it is necessary to pay attention to other reasons of the rebellion. In fact, the rebellion of the Fronde was justifiable at that time. When Mazarini came to power, he and Anne wasted much efforts on foreign policy, trying to strengthen the power of France, and they managed to do it1. However, the cost was awful. Reforms had postponed, taxes were high, and the people complained. Thus, the Fronde consisted of three revolts: one by the lower and middle classes against heavy taxation, a second by the nobles to increase their political power, and a third by the officeholders to protect their position. One result of the Fronde was that the French became willing to accept a much stronger, more centralised government under their king in order to prevent future civil wars. Another result was that the youthful Louis XIV decided to take whatever steps were necessary to avoid future disorders2.
However, the second period of the Fronde wasn't, in fact, useful and the revolt was only a political struggle between Mazarini and some nobles, receiving the name the Fronde of the Princes. It didn't start as a result of some reforms, or difficult position of nobles, or unlawful actions of the government. As a matter of fact, everything began from the prince de Conde, who expected to control Cardinal Mazarini and Anne after his help. His intrigues led to his arrest in January 1650, and caused a second outbreak, the Fronde of the Princes, or the New Fronde. Madam de Longueville decided to release her brother and called on Marshal Turenne for help. Government troops managed to defeat Turenne and his Spanish allies at Rethel (1650), however, Mazarini had to release Conde. Soon after the release he took up open warfare against the government. But he lost his principal support of Turenne, who took the side of the government after Louis XIV reached his majority. Conde concluded an alliance with Spain, but was defeated by Turenne. The princes soon made a peace agreement with the government, except for Conde, who commanded the Spanish forces against France until the Peace of Pyrenees (1659)3. The second Fronde was the last attempt of the nobility to resists the king by arms. It resulted in the humiliation of the nobles, the strengthening of royal authority, and the further disruption of the French economy. Louis XIV forced his nobility into the position of his courtiers and he developed the monarchy as a tax-gathering machine for the manufactures of France, so there was no need to touch the revenues of the nobility4. Thus, this episode, which even endangered his life, left a strong impression on Louis. As an adult, he was determined to prevent any further rebellion by controlling the nobility.
Thus, despite the fact that the second Fronde wasn't needed, as it had no special reasons, it turned France into one of the most powerful states in the world under the rule of Louis XIV, who, on the example of the first Fronde and the second Fronde, developed the necessary principals of his ruling.
The French revolution.
However, two Frondes were not the end of the rebellions. By the 1780's many in France were influenced by a movement called the "Enlightenment," which held that all persons should be equal before the law. These ideas led to the conflict that caused the revolt5. This was the beginning of the famous French revolution. On June 17, 1789, the Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly. On July 11, 1789, Louis XVI ordered his army to disband the National Assembly by force. On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris stormed the Bastille looking for arms and gun powder to protect themselves against the army and to protect the National Assembly. The next day the Marquis de Lafayette was appointed commander of the city's armed forces by a committee of citizens. The king had lost control of Paris. Throughout the country peasants revolted and called for reforms and an end to the old feudal relationships. Frightened nobility gave in to the demands and urged the National Assembly to end feudal rights.
The Revolution led to high unemployment and increased hunger in t и т.д.................

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