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Реферат Russia Empire in the XX century entered into a complex economic and political environment. Consequences of defeat of autocracy in war with Japan. Reasons of growing revolutionary motion in Grodno. Events of revolution of a 1905 year in Byelorussia.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: История. Добавлен: 14.10.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907

and the emergence of trade unionism

Russia Empire in the XX Century entered into a complex economic and political environment. Economic recovery late XIX century gave way to a prolonged economic crisis of 1900-1903. The defeat of the autocracy in the war with Japan had further aggravated the situation in the country. Grodno province experiencing the same negative processes, but with greater depth.

The working class of Grodno province was the most numerous among all 5 of Belarusian provinces. At the 417 enterprises were under the supervision of factory inspection, were employed 15496 workers [9, s.651]. Edge of the proletariat, as well as the entire working class of Russia, subjected to ruthless exploitation, was politically no rights. There are many enterprises were closed and switched to a shorter working day during the economic crisis.

This led to an increase in unemployment, while wages have declined by more than half. All this contributed to the rise of the labor movement.

Thus, in the period 1901-1904 he was a revolutionary situation. in the struggle to improve the economic situation of the workers participated in 9 cities and towns in Grodno Region: Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim, Smorgon, Oshmyan, Svisloch, Skidel, Lakes. It was organized 64 strikes, and the total number of strikers more than 5 thousand people.

Political struggle in the same period reached 11 cities and towns. Political strikes were held in Grodno (3), Smorgon (3), Slonim (2), Vaukavysk, Ashmyany, Ruzhany, Indura (one). Total province took place on 12 strikes, 11 demonstrations and 98 gatherings and demonstrations. The number of strikers has reached 11.5 thousand workers, demonstrators - 4,2 thousand, participants gatherings and demonstrations - 15,1 thousand

Almost workers Grodno province were in the vanguard of the liberation movement in Belarus [7, l.65-69, 76, 1, p.32].

The prologue of the revolution were the events of 9 January 1905. Results of "Bloody Sunday" in St. Petersburg stirred up the whole of Russia. The strikes, street demonstrations and rallies of protest swept across the country. The Belarusian provinces in January of 20 thousand workers were on strike (in Grodno - 1200). In Grodno, Bialystok, Brest-Litovsk, pots, Skidel Big Berestovitsa, Volkovysk, Slonim, and other cities and towns province stopped the factories, shops, closed shops, shops.

For example, the strike of solidarity with the St. Petersburg workers in the town of Grodno County Krynki 17-19 January 1905 it was prepared by the organization of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania and the Social-Democratic Committee of the Bund. Strikers all 46 tanneries town. Before working disarmed all the local authorities, captured by administrative agencies, the police broke up and destroyed all the affairs of the parish councils and portraits of the king in all institutions, cut down telephone poles through Volkovysk, Sokolki, Bialystok, Grodno. Many of the strikers were armed with revolvers. Demonstrators (more than 2 thousand people) marched through the town singing revolutionary songs and slogans: "Down with the autocracy government!", "Long live the people's revolution," "Give us 8-hour working day". The rebels drove the whole day all borough. By order of the Governor in Krynki were introduced troops, who with great difficulty, suppressed the action of the workers [6, l.11-12; 3, s.459].

The summer and during the October All-Russia political strike in the Grodno province recorded 39 of the workers and peasants. In response to a mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin "were the soldiers of individual parts of Grodno and Brest-Litovsk garrisons. Under the pressure of revolutionary events of the autocracy government was forced to make some concessions. Published October 17, 1905 royal manifesto proclaimed the freedom of speech, assembly, and association and the inviolability of person, the convening of the Duma with legislative powers. For the most part recorded in the manifest of the rights and freedoms were declarative in nature and by the autocracy government was an attempt to divert the workers from revolutionary action.

For the workers the same period of the beginning of the revolution became the stage of their political "maturity" and the tsar's manifesto on Oct. 17, 1905 - prompted the establishment of organizations that defend their rights and interests - trade unions.

According to reports, in Prinemanskogo region already in 1898 appeared union tanners. It unites workers Bialystok and Krynok and tanners Smorgon and Oshmyan (located at that time within the province of Vilna). Predecessors of the trade unions is different factory, shop assembly, commissions, strike fund. Grodno province that had emerged in the XIX-XX centuries, various social welfare and professional societies. For example, Bialystok professional society welfare craft workers emerged in the late XIX century and numbered in its ranks about 300 people [5, l.225]. These societies not only have provided material assistance to the sick and temporarily not working members of society, but also put forward requirements on employers to improve working conditions, higher wages.

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