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Статья The formation of the Bund as the organization was laid union of the circles of the Jewish workers and artisans Russia empire, basis of the organizational structure. Creation of striking funds. Evolution of the organizational structure of the Bund.


Тип работы: Статья. Предмет: История. Добавлен: 14.10.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

The creation and activities of local organizations

of the Bund Belarus

The formation of the Bund as the organization was laid union of the circles of the Jewish workers and artisans western provinces of Russia empire. Have them on the basis of traditionally existed in the trades among mutual-aid funds (the Jewish craftsmen - hevres) for the benefit of mass labor movement in terms of economic recovery and encouraging the participation in the struggle to improve their conditions of workers and artisans, as put forward demands to increase wages wages, and shorter working hours, better working conditions were all clear and urgent.

Gradually, the union is "shop" Cass (a profession) in the city, and then the district. Reason for this is was, firstly, the need for financial support for strikers (especially if the strike was prepared in all crafts), and secondly, the desire of the Social Democrats to establish a network of closely related labor organizations, united by one goal. Cash gatherings used the Social Democrats to promote Marxist ideas, and later for the dissemination of revolutionary literature and training facilitators in the working environment.

Benevolent Fund, were also formed on an occupational basis - the shop. They were led by departmental gatherings that solve critical issues and the organization of the strike (which was very timely in the wake of the mass strike movement in the 90's. This has enabled the Social Democrats to use the mass workers' movement for political agitation and klasovogo education workers. Thus began the process of transformation mutual-aid funds to fund the fight, which took place under the influence and direct participation of the Jewish Social-Democrats, which have developed active in the province at the turn of the 80 - 90 years of the XIX century, and was most common in the mid 90's. With the end of the period promotion and transfer of Social Democrats to mass agitation in the working environment. The first such ticket was founded in Vilna in 1888 at chulochnits. [2, pp. 56]. By Remark Martov "became the head of the strike movement, helping to formulate the strikers their demands, the Social Democrats have reached a short AREM noticeable effect on the workers and Masa had to turn fragmented, the private struggle of individual groups of workers in class struggle against the oppressor of his poleiriata mass classes "[4, p.83].

This fund began to struggle not only at the head of the strike movement in the province, but also a center of education workers. Craftsmen fund set up everywhere and the Government as a source of antigovernment propaganda. In 1896, in Minsk acted Booking artisans bench and blacksmith shops of the 50 people on her needs met weekly for 10 kopecks. with the student and 20 kopecks. with apprentice [6, LL 2 on 9 on.]. The same cashier from 1894 existed at the tailors, cobblers, schetochnikov etc. [6, pp. 12 on. - 13 on].

Thus against the background of the strike movement has developed and matured a mass workers' organization, has united a community economic requirements for employers (increased wages, shorter hours, better working conditions, etc.). In October 1897 took place on 1 congress of representatives of 15 cities: Vilnius, Minsk, Warsaw, Dvinsk, Bialystok, Bobruisk, Smorgon, Lodz, Kovno, Mogilev, Gomel, Vitebsk, Odessa, Verzhbolova, Vilkovyshek [5, pp. 199]. Thus was created the Bund.

At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. basis of the organizational structure of the Bund continued to be cash struggle (strike funds). Their primary objectives are: to disseminate among the masses of social democratic ideas, the development of class and political consciousness of workers, improve their economic situation. The transition from propaganda in small circles to the general agitation among the working masses, marked changes in the tactics of the Social-Democrats, the middle 90's. XIX century., Demanded radical changes in prevailing before the work and organization. The reform plan was scheduled for leaders of the movement in Vilna, as follows: 1) the final conversion of shop insurance funds in public resistance (cash counter), etching of them the last remnants of peaceful mutual-aid funds, and 2) direct connection of the Social Democratic Center with these insurers through the permanent collections of prominent figures for each fund "with the center (meeting facilitators), and 3) adaptation of the circles to the problem of making the leaders of the mass movement of workers, so the clubs should be taken only active workers are able and inclined to engage in propaganda; classes in the groups must be free from academic and school nature, closer to life, 4) classes in the groups should be conducted primarily in the jargon, to make possible the participation of all capable of propaganda work of the proletarians [2, pp. 57].

In the late XIX-early XX centuries. in each city with a notable labor movement has established local committees of the Bund. Initially, their role was more of a coordinating and directing: equipment for the study circles of socialist literature and political readings, distributing illegal literature and issue proclamations supporting the strikers w и т.д.................

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