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Реферат Биография Пабло Пикассо. Некоторые факты его личной жизни. История его творческого пути. Политические убеждения художника, пацифистская деятельность. Периоды: голубой, розовый, африканский. Направления его творчества: кубизм, классицизм, сюрреализм.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Культурология. Добавлен: 30.09.2007. Сдан: 2007. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

Pablo Picasso

Picasso (January 1962)
Birth name
Pablo Diego Josй Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Marнa de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santнsima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruiz y Picasso
October 25, 1881(1881-10-25)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Flag_of_Spain.svgMбlaga, Spain
April 8, 1973 (aged 91)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Flag_of_France.svgMougins, France
Painting, Drawing, Sculpture, Printmaking, Ceramics
Jose Ruнz (father), Academy of Arts, Madrid
Famous works
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Guernica (1937) The Weeping Woman (1937)
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973), often referred to simply as Picasso, was a Spanish painter and sculptor. His full name is Pablo Diego Josй Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Marнa de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santнsima Trinidad Clito Ruiz y Picasso.[1] One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.



Pablo Picasso, self-portrait Yo, Picasso, 1901,

Pablo Picasso was born in Mбlaga, Spain, the first child of Josй Ruiz y Blasco and Marнa Picasso y Lуpez. He was christened with the names Pablo, Diego, Josй, Francisco de Paula, Juan Nepomuceno, Maria de los Remedios, and Cipriano de la Santнsima Trinidad.[2]
Picasso's father was a painter whose specialty was the naturalistic depiction of birds and who for most of his life was also a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. The young Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age; according to his mother,[3] his first word was "piz," a shortening of lбpiz, the Spanish word for pencil.[4] It was from his father that Picasso had his first formal academic art training, such as figure drawing and painting in oil. Although Picasso attended art schools throughout his childhood, often those where his father taught, he never finished his college-level course of study at the Academy of Arts (Academia de San Fernando) in Madrid, leaving after less than a year.

Personal life

After studying art in Madrid, he made his first trip to Paris in 1900, the art capital of Europe. In Paris, he lived with Max Jacob (journalist and poet), who helped him learn French. Max slept at night and Picasso slept during the day as he worked at night. There were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work had to be burned to keep the small room warm. In 1901, with his friend Soler, he founded the magazine Arte Joven in Madrid. The first edition was entirely illustrated by him. From that day, he started to simply sign his work Picasso, while before he signed Pablo Ruiz y Picasso.
In the early years of the 20th century, Picasso, still a struggling youth, divided his time between Barcelona and Paris, where in 1904, he began a long-term relationship with Fernande Olivier. It is she who appears in many of the Rose period paintings. After acquiring fame and some fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom Picasso called Eva. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works.
Pablo Picasso, Nature morte а la chaise cannйe,1912
In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including Andrй Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, and writer Gertrude Stein. Apollinaire was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre in 1911. Apollonaire pointed to his friend Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.[5]
He maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women. In 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome. Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo, who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. In 1927 Picasso met 17 year old Marie-Thйrиse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thйrиse Walter and fathered a daughter, Maia, with her. Marie-Thйrиse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.
The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.
During the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. Picasso's artistic style did not fit the Nazi views of art, so he was not able to show his works during this time. Retreating to his studio, he continued to paint all the while. Although the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso continued regardless, using bronze smuggled to him by the French resistance.
After the liberation of Paris in 1944, Picasso began to keep company with a young art student, Franзoise Gilot. The two eventually became lovers, and had two children together, Claude and Paloma. Unique among Picasso's women, Gilot left Picasso in 1953, allegedly because of abusive treatment and infidelities. This came as a severe blow to Picasso.
He went through a difficult period after Gilot's departure, coming to terms with his advancing age and his perception that, now in his 70s, he was no longer attractive, but rather grotesque to young women. A number of ink drawings from this period explore this theme of the hideous old dwarf as buffoonish counterpoint to the beautiful young girl, including several from a six-week affair with Geneviиve Laporte, who in June 2005 auctioned off the drawings Picasso made of her.
Picasso was not long in finding another lover, Jacqueline Roque. Roque worked at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. The two remained together for the rest of Picasso's life, marrying in 1961. Their marriage was also the means of one last act of revenge against Gilot. Gilot had been seeking a legal means to legitimize her children with Picasso, Claude and Paloma. With Picasso's encouragement, she had arranged to divorce her then husband, Luc Simon, and marry Picasso to secure her children's rights. Picasso then secretly married Roque after Gilot had filed for divorce in order to exact his revenge for her leaving him.
Picasso had constructed a huge gothic structure and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, in the Provence-Alpes-Cфte d'Azur. Although he was a celebrity, there was often as much interest in his personal life as his art.
In addition to his manifold artistic accomplishments, Picasso had a film career, including a cameo appearance in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus. Picasso always played himself in his film appearances. In 1955 he helped make the film Le Mystиre Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.
Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973 in Mougins, France, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner. His final words were "Drink to me, drink to my health, you know I can't drink any more."[6] He was interred at Castle Vauvenargues' park, in Vauvenargues, Bouches-du-Rhфne. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral.[7]


Picasso remained neutral during World War I, the Spanish Civil War and World War II, refusing to fight for any side or country. Picasso never commented on this but encouraged the idea that it was because he was a pacifist.[citation needed] Some of his contemporaries, including Braque, felt that this neutrality had more to do with cowardice than principle.[citation needed] As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either World War. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Francisco Franco and fascists through his art, he did not take up arms against them. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. No political movement seemed to compel his support to any great degree, though he did become a member of the Communist Party.
In 1944 Picasso joined the French Communist Party, attended an international peace conference in Poland, and in 1950 received the Stalin Peace Prize from the Soviet government.[8] But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in communist politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His beliefs tended towards anarcho-communism.[citation needed]
In a 1945 interview with Jerome Seckler, Picasso declared: "I am a communist and my painting is a communist painting. But if I were a shoemaker, royalist or communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in any special way to show my politics." [citation needed]


Picasso's wo и т.д.................

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