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Реферат The account of all the system of modern evolutionary biology is a compositive evolution theory, the principal case of which have been established by the works of Chetverikov, Fisher, Holdane, Dubinin and etc.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Биология. Добавлен: 25.12.2004. Сдан: 2004. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

The evolution theories.
By the term of evolution is meant the development of natural and social occurrence. Some negligible and invisible changes occur evolutionary. The evolution theory gives us the explanation of historical development of living things.
In this assay I try to describe the development of the main evolution conceptions from the ancient times to now days. The beginning and development of life have always been a matter of people's concern and interest. Rather than the theory of evolution, we should speak of several theories of evolution. On the one hand, this plurality has to do with the different explanations advanced for the mechanism of evolution, and on the other, with the various philosophies on which it is based.
Before a theory can be included in the system of science, it must meet all of the following criteria:
1. its ability to explain what has been observed;
2. its ability to predict what has not yet been observed; and
3. its ability to be tested by further experimentation and to be modified as required by the acquisition of new data.
These definitions mean that a scientific theory is not used, as people often use the word theory, to mean a hunch or a guess. A scientific theory is held with a high degree of confidence and is supported by enough evidence to make its abandonment unlikely. As new evidence is found, a theory may be modified but only with compelling evidence, verification and peer review.  The business of science is to build theories that explain how the natural world works and can predict how it might work in the future.
Let's take a look at the most prevailing theories.
After more than two thousand year old history of science development in ancient Greece, Rome, China and India the European countries fall into dark middle ages, a pitch darkness for natural science. People were burnt on fire not only for telling the ideas of life development, but also for reading books of ancient natural scientists and philosophers. Violent implementation of religion makes science a church appendage. The Renaissance appeared a real breakthrough in the sphere of natural science.
The ideas of evolution begin to appear in the works of some philosophers and natural scientists. In 1646-1716 the gradation principle was declared by Leibnitz who divined the existence of intermediary forms between plants and animals. Hereafter, the principle of gradation has been amplified in conception of “the ladder of beings”, which became a picture of ideal continuity of formation for some and confirmation of evolution of living things for others.
Fairly, this theory had the right to exist. But, in my opinion, it is not reliable in now days because of its primitive.
By the 18th century, scientists have gone through a great deal of work collecting and describing plants and animals throughout the world. But it started to become more and more difficult to orient oneself in the ocean of information that they'd cumulated. A Swedish naturalist Karl Linney has colligated and systemized the data. He laid a foundation of modern systematic.
In order to classify the great amount of plant and animal descriptions a specific systematic unit was needed. Linney thought the genus is the unit. Genus was called a group of persons that shared the same qualities. The genus consists of the variety of kin persons that gives plentiful offspring. For example, a wild raspberry is a specific genus, strawberry is another genus and cranberry is a third genus. All the domestic cats make up an independent genus, tigers do, too and so on. Therefore, all the organic world consists of different genera of plants and animals. All the living nature consists of somewhat like the separate elements, the genera.
It is hard to agree with this theory as well because the modern stage of biology evolution makes it clear that the genus cannot be the only unit of systematic. Because of the religious influence on science at that time can be concluded t и т.д.................

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