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Диплом Образный потенциал лексических стилистических приёмов в творчестве Оскара Уайльда
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Chapter 1. The studies in individual style
1.1. Individual style and it’s compounds
1.2. The characteristics of the creative prose
1.3. The lexical expressive means and stylistic devices
Conclusion to Chapter One
Chapter 2. Lexical devices as essential part of individual style of Oscar Wildes works
2.1. The characteristics of Oscar Wildes creativity
2.2. Stylistic peculiarities of Oscar Wilde works
2.3. Lexical stylistic devices in Oscar Wilde’s works
Conclusion to Chapter Two
The list of examples
Actuality of research. Our intention in this degree Paper is to provide some explanation for the stylistic potential of lexical devices. The emphasis will be on the definitions given by different scholars, on the origin, structure and stylistic functions of them.
In this Paper we will base ourselves upon the definitions given by different scholars, and as a conclusion we will give our own definition of lexical devices used by Oscar Wilde in his creativity.
Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was an Irish playwright, poet and author of numerous short stories and one novel. Known for his biting wit, he became one of the most successful playwrights of the late Victorian era in London, and one of the greatest celebrities of his day.
Oscar Wildes power to arouse fantasies in others - and to fulfill them - is seemingly inexhaustible. Everyone has an opinion about Oscar Wilde: his life, style and literature – and all these opinions are very different and contradictory. It is also true that opinions about no other author have been so ill-informed.
From the beginning, there appeared to be about Oscar Wilde something slightly slant. Earlier in the century the fantasies perhaps might have been dispelled. At the end of the XX century and now the same fantasies continued to circulate. So it really impossible to say exactly when Oscar Wilde became a very important public figure as he is still it: «his influence on modern art, literature, philosophy, stylistics and our life in the whole is still very important, essential and many-valued» .
It seems rather difficult to go into details with regards to lots of expressive means and stylistic devices in Oscar Wilde’s plays as they are too many, forming his inimitable individual style. As it is known stylistics treats with special means of the language that help us to have vivid and interesting speech and «Oscar Wilde’s plays considered to be a real treasure for stylistic research» .
These facts underline urgency and the importance of the topic of our scientific paper: «Stylistic potential of lexical devices in Oscar Wildes creativity».
The purpose of research is the stylistic analysis of the lexical devices used in Oscar Wilde’s works.
The work provides an overview of some expressive lexical means in Oscar Wilde’s works which help to underline the author’s individual style. In connection with this the Research Tusks of this scientific paper are:
1. To clarify the term «fictional style», its components and peculiarities;
2. To characterize the maintenance of the notion «stylistic potential»;
3. To determine the types of the lexical devices and give them characteristics;
4. To explore aestheticism and philosophy of Oscar Wilde as a basis for his individual literary style and to describe the capacity of his writings;
5. To find out individual stylistic features of Oscar Wilde’s with the help of lexical analysis of Oscar Wilde’s texts.
6. To describe the essentials of individual style of Oscar Wilde works on the base of his creativity;
7. To demonstrate the examples of applying of the stylistic potential of lexical devices in Oscar Wilde’s creativity.
The main subject of research is the stylistic potential of lexical devices in Oscar Wilde’s creativity.
Objects of research are Oscar Wilde’s works (See the list of References).
Theoretical base of research. Individual stylistic features of Oscar Wilde’s creativity has become one of the central variables in scientific research during the last years and also last centuries in many countries of the world and has been the subject of various articles and books that have shown a complex variety of opinions and aspects.
In this connection it is very important to mention the names of such Russian and foreign researchers as P.Akroyd, A.A.Anikst, B.Bashford, K.Beckson, J.Bristow, R.Elman, A.Gide, R.J.Green, M.J.Guy, F.Harris, V.Igoe, R.Jackson, S.V.Kazantsev, V.A.Lukov, S.King, L.Marcus, N.P.Mikhalskaya, R.Merle, R.K. Miller, H.Montgomery, P.Nicholls, A.Randsome, E.Richard, R.Ross, N.Sammells, G.B.Shaw, S.F.Siegel, I.Small, H.T.Smith, N.V.Solomatina, V.B.Sosnovskaya, F.Tufescu, J.Wood, W.Yates, etc.
Besides it the underpinnings of this scientific paper also rest on various theoretical research and scientific articles concerning stylistics and various stylistic aspects (I.V.Arnold, N.E.Enkvist, I.R.Galperin, R.R.Gelgart, I.V.Gubbenet, O.K.Denisova, K.A.Dolinin, L.I.Donetskih, E.G.Kovalevskaya,V.A.Kukharenko, L.Y.Maksimov, V.I.Prokhorova, T.A.Sebeok, E.G.Soshalskaya, V.V.Vinogradov, A.Warner, etc.).
The methodological base of research was composed with the works of foreign and domestic scientists on problems of the fictional style (Kalmykova 1979; Балли 1961; Brown 1955; Vinogradov 1972; Bahtin 1986). Studying this problem as genre definition of the fictional style, we used the general-theoretical philological researches: the theory of speech genres of M.M. Bakhtin; V.V. Vinogradovas basic ideas.
Methods of research. In the given degree work the stylistic analysis is applied with the help of structural-semantic and stylistic methods of the linguistic analysis.
The theoretical importance of the given work will consist in the further scientific development of stylistic problematics:
1. Typology of the lexical devices;
2. Target lexical structure of fictional discourse;
3. Phenomenon of stylistic potential of lexical devices.
The practical importance of work consists of: description and explanation of the lexical devices as essentials of individual style of creativity of Oscar Wilde.
Scientific originality of research composed with:
1. The typology of lexical devices in Oscar Wilde’s creativity.
2. The most preferable lexical devices and their stylistic potential in Oscar Wilde’s creativity.
Structure of the degree work. The given work consists of the introduction, two chapters, and also the conclusion. The volume of the given degree work makes 76 pages. The lists of the used literature sources and examples are applied.
CHAPTER 1. THE STUDIES IN INDIVIDUAL STYLE
1.1. Individual style and its compounds
Before to begin the topic research it is necessary to highlight and clarify the term “style” and its peculiarities. It is important to mention that the word “style” has a very broad meaning.
There are many versions of the notion of style according to the different purposes of stylistic analysis. «The style of any period is the result of a variety of complex and shifting pressures and influences. Books reflect our experience, but our experience is also shaped by the books» . That is why there is the constant interaction between life and literature, life and literary style of any writer as we could see from our analysis in the previous part of our paper.
Individual style study is determined as the style of the author. «It looks for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his work» . It’s also a subject of literary stylistics research, a branch of the theory of literature, which studies linguistic features of literary trends, genres and individual style.
So we could underline three main influences that pressure on the individual writer’s style:
1) Writer’s personality, his philosophy and own way of thinking and feeling that determines his mode of expression;
2) The occasion on which he is writing, the particular purpose;
3) The influence of the age in which he lives.
In other words, a writer’s style is «his individual and creative choice of the resources of the language» . So there are many definitions of style.
According to R.Chapman, «a good style of writing has three qualities, which may be described as accuracy, ease and grace» . According to G.L.Buffon, «in reality the style is the man himself» .
That is why the essence of style is multi-topic and its peculiarities and components are carefully explored by the separate scientific branch – stylistics. Stylistics, sometimes called linguostylistics, is a branch of general linguistics. It deals mainly with two interdependent tasks:
1) The investigation of the inventory of special language media which by their ontological features secure the desirable effect of the utterance;
2) Сertain types of texts (discourse) which due to the choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication .
The two objectives of stylistics are clearly discernible as two separate fields of investigation. The types of texts can be analyzed if their linguistic components are presented in their interaction, thus, revealing the unbreakable unity and transparency of constructions of a given type. The types of texts that are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication are called functional styles of language (FS). The special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices (SD) and expressive means (EM).
The first field of investigation – SDs and EMs, necessarily touches upon such general language problems as the aesthetic function of language, synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, emotional colouring in language, the interrelation between language and thought, the individual manner of an author in making use of language and a number of other issues.
The second field – functional styles, touches upon such most general linguistic issues as oral and written varieties of language, the notion of literary language, and the constituents of texts larger than the sentence, the generative aspect of literary texts and some others.
In linguistics there are different terms to denote particular means by which utterances are foregrounded. Most linguists distinguish «ordinary semantic and stylistic differences in meaning and three main levels of expressive means and stylistic devices: phonetic, lexical and syntactical» .
The brief outline of the most characteristic features of the individual style and its components shows that there are a great number of features which could be clearly stylistically explored on the base of fiction.
1.2. The characteristics of the creative prose
Creative prose or fiction (lat. fictum, "created") is a branch of literature which deals, in part or in whole, with temporally contra factual events (events that are not true at the time of writing). In contrast to this is non-fiction, which deals exclusively in factual events (e.g.: biographies, histories) . So as the most important feature of prose fiction is its style, it is necessary to highlight and clarify the term “style” and its peculiarities.
Style is depth, deviations, choice, context style restricted linguistic variation, and style is the man himself. According to Galperin the term ‘style’ refers to the following spheres:
1) The aesthetic function of language. It may be seen in works of art-poetry, imaginative prose, fiction, but works of science, technical instruction or business correspondence have no aesthetic value.
2) Synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea. The possibility of choice of using different words in similar situations is connected with the question of style as if the form changes, the contents changes too and the style may be different.
3) Expressive means in language. They are employed mainly in the following spheres – poetry, fiction, colloquial speech, speeches but not in scientific articles, business letters and others.
4) Emotional coloring in language. Very many types of texts are highly emotional – declaration of love, funeral oration, poems (verses), but a great number of texts is unemotional or non-emphatic (rules in textbooks).
5) A system of special devices called stylistic devices. The style is formed with the help of characteristic features peculiar to it.
Many texts demonstrate various stylistic features: She wears ‘fashion’ = what she wears is fashionable or is just the fashion methonimy.
6) The individual manner of an author in making use the individual style of speaking, writing must be investigated with the help of common rules and generalization .
Galperin distinguishes five styles in present-day English:
I. Belles Lettres.
2. Emotive prose.
3. The Drama.
II. Publicistic Style.
1. Oratory and Speeches.
2. The Essay.
1. brief News Items.
3. Advertisements and Announcements.
4. The Editorial.
IV. Scientific Prose.
V. Official Documents .
He didn’t single out a colloquial style so as it’s created by the work of the author –the result of creative activity.
Arnold classification consists of four styles:
1. Poetic style.
2. Scientific style.
3. Newspaper style.
4. Colloquial style .
Nowadays poetic style’s included in Belles – Lettres style.
The subdivision of the texts into official and non-official discourse is based on the pragmatic principles. The person has two different systems of thinking:
2. Figurative one.
All the scientific, documentary and other non-poetic style texts are based on system of logic scheme of thinking; meanwhile the fiction texts apply to figurative thinking, to the person’s ability to see the world figuratively.
The majority of modern linguists allocate the texts into the following groups according to their applicability and purpose of functioning:
1) Fatic (contact-establishing);
3) Emotive (expressive);
4) Aesthetic (poetic, prosy);
5) Regulative (rendering of influence) .
«It is an important cognitive task for a speaker or writer to represent relations and to express them again in the linear ordering of words, phrases, and sentences, whereas the hearer or reader has the task of establishing these relations» .
Creative prose texts differ from logic ones not only on the base of the purpose of creation, but also on the way of transference of information, so as the fictional discourse maintains the different types of information. These are:
It is quite natural, that the special ways of transfer of the figurative information is required. All these kinds of the information are transferred through non-rational, emotional and aesthetic influence.
Such influence achieved with the help of the following linguistic means:
1. The rhythmic organization of the text,
3. Lexical semantics,
4. Grammatic semantics and many other means .
The information of the fiction discourse contradicts to the text logic. The emotional impact can be exercised implicationally with the use of lexical stylistic devices - metaphors, allegories, symbols, allusions, etc.
We can conclude that creative prose style is characterized with the features of lexico-semantic typical designs which are entered into a work of writer and cooperate with special stylistic effect. Therefore, lexical expressive means (LEM) and stylistic devices (SD) are the distinctive feature of fiction.
1.3. The lexical expressive means and lexical stylistic devices
Considering the issue of the lexical expressive means (LEM) it’s necessary to enlighten the characteristics of explication stylistic potential of the creative prose lexicon.
The word-stock of any given language can be roughly divided into three uneven groups, differing from each other by the sphere of its possible use. «The biggest division is made up of neutral words, possessing no stylistic connotation and suitable for any communicative, situation, two smaller ones are literary and colloquial strata respectively» .
Literacy words serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages, while the colloquial ones are employed in non-official everyday communication. «Though there is no immediate correlation between the written and the oral forms of speech on the one hand, and the literary and colloquial words, on the other, yet, for the most part, the first ones are mainly observed in the written form, as most literary messages appear in writing. And vice versa: though there are many examples of colloquialisms in writing (informal letters, diaries, certain passages of memoirs, etc.), their usage is associated with the oral form of communication» .
Consequently, taking for analysis printed materials we shall find literary words in authorial speech, descriptions, considerations, while colloquialisms will be observed in the types of discourse, simulating (copying) everyday oral communication-i.e., in the dialogue (or interior monologue) of a prose work.
When we classify some speech (text) fragment as literary or colloquial it does not mean that all the words constituting it have a corresponding stylistic meaning. More than that: words with a pronounced stylistic connotation are few in any type of discourse, the overwhelming majority of its lexis being neutral.
As our famous philologist L.V. Shcherba once said: «A stylistically coloured word is like a drop of paint added to a glass of pure water and colouring the whole of it» . Each of the two named groups of words, possessing a stylistic meaning, is not homogeneous as to the quality of the meaning, frequency of use, sphere of application, or the number and character of potential users.
This is why each one is further divided into the general, i. e. known to and used by most native speakers in generalized literary (formal) or colloquial (informal) communication, and special bulks.
The latter ones, in their turn, are subdivided into subgroups, each one serving a rather narrow, specified communicative purpose. So, there are at least two major subgroups essential for creative prose among special literary words.
1. Archaisms, i. e. words,
- a) denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use (such as "yeoman", "vassal", falconet"). These are historical words.
- b) used in poetry in the XVII-XIX cc. (such as "steed" for "horse"; "quoth" for "said"; "woe" for "sorrow"). These are poetic words.
- c) in the course of language history ousted by newer syn onymic words (such as "whereof = of which; "to deem" = to think; "repast" - meal; "nay" = no) or forms ("maketh" = makes; "thou wilt" = you will; "brethren" = brothers). These are called archaic words (archaic forms) proper .
Literary words are used in official papers and documents, in scientific communication, in high poetry, in authorial speech of creative prose.
2. Colloquial words, on the contrary, mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational. Apart from general colloquial words such special subgroups may be mentioned:
- a) Slang forms the biggest one. «Slang words are highly emotive and expressive -and as such, lose their originality rather fast and are replaced by newer formations. This tendency to synonymic expansion results in long chains of synonyms of various degrees of expressiveness, denoting one and the same concept» . So, the idea of a "pretty girl" is worded by more than one hundred ways in slang.
- B) Jargonisms stand close to slang, «also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (in this case we deal with professional jargonisrns, or professionalisms, or socially (here we deal with jargonisms proper)» . Their major function thus was to be cryptic, secretive. So it seems appropriate to use the indicated terms as synonyms. These lexical groups give the text strong expressiveness.
- С) Vulgarisms are coarse words with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation. «One of the best-known American editors and critics Maxwell Perkins, working witn tne serialized 1929 magazine edition of Hemingways novel A. Farewell to Arms found that the publishers deleted close to a dozen words which they considered vulgar for their publication. Preparing the hardcover edition Perkins allowed half of them back ("son of a bitch", "whore", "whorehound," etc.)» . Consequently, in contemporary West European and American prose all words, formerly considered vulgar for public use (including the four-letter words), and are even approved by the existing moral and ethical standards of society and censorship.
Thus, the denotation meaning is the major semantic and stylistic characteristic of the word. The words in context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in dictionaries. «What is known in linguistics as “transferred meaning” is particularly the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual» .
The mechanism is simple: «When the deviation from the acknowledged meaning is carried to a degree that it causes an unexpected turn in the recognised logical meanings, we register a stylistic device» .
The following lexical stylistic devices (LSD) can be pointed out:
1. Epigram and paradox. Epigrams and paradoxes as stylistic devices are used for creating generalised images. «Paradox is based on contrast, being a statement contradictory to what is accepted as a self-evident or proverbial truth. Paradox can be considered a figure of speech with certain reservations, since the aesthetic principle, that underlies it, i.e. contrast has divers linguistic manifestations» .
Epigram is «a stylistic device akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people. In other words, we are always aware of the parentage of an epigram and therefore, when using one, we usually make a reference to its author» .
Epigrams and paradoxes as stylistic devices are usually used in the Present Indefinite Tense which makes them abstract.
One of the most characteristic and essential features of epigrams and paradoxes is their shortness and conciseness. They are achieved by the syntactical pattern of an epigram or paradox. The syntax of these stylistic devices is laconic and clear – cut.
2-3. Irony and pun. «Irony is a stylistic device in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its dictionary meaning» . Like many other stylistic devices, irony does not exist outside the context.
«Pun (paronomasia, a play on words) is a figure of speech emerging as an effect created by words similar or identical in their sound form and contrastive or incompatible in meaning» .
Pun is based on th...
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