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Диплом Translation of non-finite forms
Тип работы: Диплом.
Предмет: Ин. языки.
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1 Translation problems in global marketing ..7
1.1 Types and functions of advertising 19
1.2 Advertising agency and its importance in translation ... 18
1.3 Advertising as a challenging of mass media .24
1.4 Domestic advertising and its role in domestic business 27
1.5 Advertisement as a service of selling products 29
1.6 Advantages and disadvantages of advertising 32
1.7 Dialectics of national coloring in the translation of advertisements 42
1.8 Coloring and erasure of coloring of advertising 48
1.9 Analogisms and anachronisms in advertising vocabulary 50
2. The peculiarities of translating advertisements 55
2.1 The ways and methods of translating advertisements 58
2.2 Translating brand names as one part of advertising translation 63
2.3 Analyzing advertisements and their slogans 76
2.4 Challenges of translating parts of speech in advertisements 70
2.5 The results of questionnaire due to the translating advertisements 72
Actuality of the problem. The present research work is devoted by the fact that for rather short period of time the Republic of Kazakhstan has become one of the influential and recognized states in the world. "According to the President of the Republic Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev the most actual challenge - the knowledge of languages is the strict demand of the 21st century" - Here the English language is mentioned as the Language of International Relations and Cooperation. Starting with the 21st century the Republic of Kazakhstan has become a large outlet for many international companies bringing their new products into our society. Any new product manufactured by a widely known company needs a solid informational support which, as a rule, is provided by advertising. Once brought to a foreign country an advertisement must be adequately translated and it must also be adjusted to the target culture. The Law on Advertising approved by the Parliament of Kazakhstan clearly states that any piece of advertising must be translated into the official language of the state.
Frankly speaking it is impossible to imagine our television, newspapers, radio, Internet and even streets without advertisements. Nowadays advertising plays an important role in modern life and in the life of every person. We cant imagine our life without advertising because every day we hear or see advertising, we try to find information we need in hundreds of advertisements. Even when we go for a walk or just shopping we see a lot of different advertisements in the streets. I think that "Advertising" is a very interesting topic, because in our century every minute of our life is connected with advertising. It is hard to believe but the origins of advertising antedate the Christian era by many centuries. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. From these unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times advertising has turned into a worldwide industry.
In order to sell its products the company willing to do that must advertise them in the language which a potential customer can understand, otherwise the company might fail. The failure of a business in todays market is very painful for the world economy. Such problems could be solved by a translator with a good knowledge of both theory and practice of translating advertisements.
I decided to conduct my research in the field of advertisement translation, mainly from English into Kazakh language. I have chosen the advertisements from magazines since they represent a solid text of considerable length which has many challenging sentences for the consumer-oriented text translator. As it is practically impossible to examine all the advertising fields only the most common have been chosen. The advertisements were selected from fields such as audio, video devices, computers, cars, food, postal services, alcoholic drinks, communications and so on.
The basic underlying advertising idea is the idea of human needs. Need is the feeling of shortage of something experienced by the person. If the need is not satisfied, the person feels like destitute and unfortunate. Unsatisfied person will do one of the following things: either will be engaged in search of the object, capable to satisfy his or her need, or will try to muffle it.
Although the average citizen is usually annoyed by all the advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines and the commercials broadcast on TV, the impact of the whole advertising industry on a single person is immense and plays a very important role in our lives. Advertising absorbs vast sums of money but it is useful to the community.
The aim of a good advertisement is to create a consumer demand to buy, the advertised product or service. Children are good example as they usually want the particular kind of chocolate or toy or chewing-gum.
Being naive they cannot evaluate objectively what is truthful and what is exaggerated and select the really good products unless they buy the goods and check for themselves.
The most developed advertising country is the United States of America. Advertising has achieved the greatest blossoming in the United States of America. American advertising leads the world not only in volume of business but in the complexity of its organization and of its procedures. Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, reflecting contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Having proved its force in the movement of economic goods and services, advertising since the early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward matters of social concern. The continuing cancer and antidrug abuse campaigns are only two examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare. The inquiry is the requirement supported by purchasing capacity. So, for example, in Europe automobile " Volkswagen " personifies an elementary automobile, a low purchase price, and "Cadillac" - high comfort, luxury and prestige. Russian people choose "Zhiguli" as they have no opportunity to buy such expensive cars and "Zhiguli" gives them the greatest satisfaction for money available for them. [1, 187] It stands to reason that the necessity of studying the problem is caused by human needs and requirements and inquiries suggest about the existence of the goods for their satisfaction. The goods are everything, that can satisfy requirements or needs and they are offered to the market with the purpose of gaining the attention of the consumers, purchasing, using or consuming.
Generations of scholars contributed their researches in order to match the needs of the readers by headings and televiewers by a video series. It is necessary to find out whether advertising influences those categories of potential consumers for which it is designed. It is necessary to know what feelings are born in them under the influence of advertising, whether the advertising argument is successful and whether it is made correctly. We should admit whether the consumer will run to buy these goods after viewing advertising or will continue sitting in an armchair in spite of the fact that he or she likes advertising it and there is a necessity to purchase the advertising goods. We must be sure that the advertising is stated clearly, the utility of promoted thing is shown correctly and profoundly.
Translation has traditionally occupied a background position in international media despite its pivotal role in facilitating the flow of global news. In large part this is because translation is subsumed in news agencies within the journalistic tasks of writing and editing; many of those engaged in news translation do not even see themselves as translators, but rather as journalists. Integrated into other duties and overshadowed by more high-profile functions, translation is invisible in international media as it is elsewhere, but in a way that is arguably more pervasive. The aim of the research work - to reveal and work out sufficient ways to study the language of advertisements and to single out the translation difficulties of printed magazine advertisements, then to present an introduction to methods and techniques of translation, later focusing on establishing peculiar and problem samples^ of advertisements which are of great interest to a translator.
The object of the research - the theory of translation in Foreign Language teaching. The subject of the research - the peculiarities of translating advertisements. The hypothesis of the research. In case of effective developing interpreter/ translators creativity in the content of translating advertisements the result may guarantee both reliable and conscious acquisition of the English language and promise positive effect in writing, listening, speaking, reading and thinking. The tasks of the research work:
- to investigate the problems of translating advertisements;
- to define the most creative approaches to the translation of advertisements.
- to develop creative strategies for the problems of translating advertisements in Mass Media texts.
The sources of the research work. Scientific works, methodical instructions, Mass Media texts, Internet sources, articles, periodicals, textbooks, independent investigations, messages of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev. Scientific novelty:
- developments and achievements on the problem are systematized;
- the value of communicative competence in the content of Mass Media is defined;
- the impact of creativity on developing personality is presented;
Theoretical value of the research work: on the ground of implemented investigation the translation problems in global marketing, advertising as a challenge of Mass Media, advertisement as a service of selling products are presented. Practical value of the research work: concrete experimental results of peculiarities of translating advertisements, the ways and methods of translating advertisements that is its analyzing advertisements and their slogans through the results of questionnaire are given.
Introduction, main part (two chapters), conclusion, bibliography and appendix.
General description of diploma work, the actuality of the problem of the research, the problem, the aim, the object, the subject, the hypothesis, the tasks, the sources and, scientific novelty, theoretical value and practical value of the research, approbation and structure of diploma work are identified in introduction.
In theoretical part we described the types and functions of advertising, the translation problems of different texts of Mass Media advertising, challenges in translating, colouring of advertisements.
In practical part "The peculiarities of translating advertisements" we gave the investigation results on the given topic. Conclusion focuses on basic recommendations and instructions concerning the peculiarities of translating advertisements in different aspects of speech.
1 Translation problems in global marketing
The point of the translation of advertisement is a bridge between national and international coloring. That is why its main function is the turning of spiritual values of one nation into the property of other nations; translation is transmission assisting to mutual penetration and influence of national cultures. In our days we can be witnesses of the powerful aspiration to mutual knowing, intellectual and spiritual communication. Every nation culture goes out the limits of its own country. Its relations with cultures of other nations development on multilateral basis, they become more and more all embracing, acquiring bigger significance. Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text which has an identical communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the source language and target text. [2, 76]
So we had not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries, the same case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety of Kazakh or Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works and they had little information about national coloring of Kazakhstan. And now then USSR does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform its own literature and hence national coloring.
The author of this course paper considers that every literature work has its own national coloring. Every work is written in the conditions of the country where the author lives. Therefore the country with its language, mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere and many other factors influence on the work and it acquires the national coloring of the country even if the author does not think of creating of any work that would be nationally colored.
The author of this course paper considers the preservation of national coloring to be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. National coloring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation is proud of its history; traditions and it would consider an offence if the translator does not manage to convey the national coloring or if he conveys it wrong. That is why the translator must be very attentive and careful with any kind of literary work. [3, 59]
The role of translation within Global Voices can be difficult to distinguish due to the degree to which it is embedded within the project at an implicit level. The task of Language Editors, for instance, is to translate and contextualize blogs written in a particular language, the term "language" relating to the task only at a very general level. Similarly, Regional Editors perform translation when incorporating non-
English language blogs in their coverage, but the translation component of their role is not often mentioned. The Global Voices Manifesto frames the goals of the project in terms of the right to free speech and the right of all voices to be heard, with language and translation again implicit................
In conclusion I would like to say that this work examines the main features and peculiarities of advertisements and ways of their translation. In particular, the following aspects were presented: structure (composition) of advertisements of different types; main features present in different types of advertisements; syntactical features and their functional importance; lexical peculiarities - main vocabulary characteristics; advertisements, ways of translating advertisements focusing especially on difficulties and peculiarities of advertisement translation. Having investigated the research following conclusions were drawn: Structure (composition) of advertisements is determined by their purpose and tasks referred to. Thus, advertisements may represent a solid text of a considerable length or they may consist of a few sentences, phrases or even words.
The style of advertisements is dependent upon the purpose of the advertisement. The main stylistic features characteristic of all types of advertisements were presented and it was stated that the advertisements of a logical nature, i.e. in order to be translated properly they must be understood properly; they might be formal or abound in jargon and slang words; they are always showing various emotions which are traps for a consumer, and they may be precise or vague.
Very often the advertised product may not be named directly but through various ways and only a thorough reading of the ad text will help to translate the object advertised in a proper way. Often adjective + noun phrases have either the adjective or the noun used figuratively. This feature requires a thorough reading of the ad text and consulting monolingual dictionaries. In this case the context is of great importance.
Advertising claims are of great interest to a consumer-text translator since they are full of translation curiosities. Very often a claim starts with a noun-subject and that cannot be translated word-for-word. Many claims represent insufficient information and it is better for a translator to explain those insufficiencies. However, sometimes it may be impossible to understand those lacks and the translator should use the same message in the target text. Sometimes certain words may be modified while translating the source text to fit them with the Romanian language norms. Advertising is a sophisticated form of communication that must work with other marketing tools and business elements to be successful.
Advertising must be interruptive — that is, it must make you stop thumbing through the newspaper or thinking about your day long enough to read or hear the ad. Advertising must also be credible, unique, and memorable in order to work. Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those countries which are developing and becoming industrialized. In the past when a shopkeeper or stallholder had only to show and shout his goods to passers-by, advertising as we know it today hardly existed. Early forms of advertising were signs such as the inn sign, the red-and-white striped barbers pole, the apothecarys jar of coloured liquid and the wheelwrights wheel, some of which have survived until today.
A very common feature of any advertisement is the advertising claim which possesses certain peculiarities and is of great interest to a translator. The claim is the verbal or print part of an ad that makes some claim of superiority for the product advertised. Very many of them are misleading to an average consumer and, of course, to a translator. The translator must study both the claim and the text thoroughly and find the hidden meaning of it. Very often the equivalent may be completely different from its original but have the same purpose.
Another common feature of advertisements is the use of slogans which are short, laconic phrases that a company uses over and over in its ads. Good slogans are easy to remember and tend to stick in peoples minds. Therefore, the translation of slogans must have the same features, i.e. be easy to remember. In some cases the target slogan might differ completely from its source but have the same psychological purpose. The translator must possess a great talent to understand such slogans and convey them in the target text as close as possible.
Slogans present a great number of translation curiosities and cannot be classified according to different features. Very often translations can be made only through loan transfer. Others require a thorough logical thinking and a good knowledge of the company that produces them. Omission is also needed while translating slogans and the same goes for generalization and particularization techniques. Very often an equivalent is the best way to render the source text into the target text. As a mediator between languages and cultures, translation plays a key role in this process. Connections between the new and evolving realm of participatory media, and the age-old practice of translation, are however few and far between. In identifying and explaining the role of translation in one of the most influential citizen media projects in the world, it is hoped that the present article may act as a first step bridging these very different areas.
While translating advertisements from different fields of commercial activity (cars, computers, TVs etc.) certain terms have been encountered which do not exist in Romanian culture so far. Such Romanian equivalents may be forwarded by the translator himself/herself only after consulting special reference books of after consulting a specialist in the field.
Certain terms were not difficult but curious for translation requiring a thorough logical thinking. As it is seen from the above-mentioned issues the most important thing in translating advertisements is the context. The context explains the meaning of the title, helps to understand words and phrases. It eliminates any difficulty or curiosity that may appear.
To crown at all one can say that it is very difficult for advertisers to tell whether a particular advertisement or method of advertising has been effective, but there is no doubt that without advertising the customer would never hear of some products. Perhaps the most effective advertising of all is the recommendation of the product by a satisfied customer to a potential customer - advertising by word of mouth. After analyzing all above mentioned facts about advertisement I came to conclusion that advertising objectives depend on different techniques of advertisement. For example a) when media advertising a banned. The product may be banned by certain media, e.g. cigarettes cannot be advertised on British TV, although this may not apply in other countries. Cigarette manufactures have succeeded in gaining considerable TV program coverage by sponsoring cricket, golf and motor-racing, b) in association with sponsorship, arena advertising in the form of boards and bunting can be displayed at racecourses, sports stadiums, motor-racing circuits and other venues so that they are inevitably picked up by the TV cameras covering the event, apart from being seen by spectators on the spot.
Several pieces of advice could ensue from the above-mentioned points:
- A consumer-oriented text translator, or an ad translator, should always refer to monolingual dictionaries while translating. A bilingual dictionary, which should at least contain 70,000 entries, must be the last book of reference.
The ad translator must be acquainted very well with the characteristic field of the advertisement and must be familiar with all the features of the advertised product or service.
- The ad translator should refer to specialized reference books in order to translate well any possible difficulty.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that translation of all types of advertisements constitutes an interesting and challenging process. This process rises certain issues that may present a fruitful area for a follow-up research.
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