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Реферат Labour turnover


Тип работы: Реферат. Добавлен: 07.11.2012. Страниц: 12. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):

The concept of labour turnover
Labour turnover – is the movement of a labour caused by a dissatisfaction of the worker by a workplace or a dissatisfaction of the organisation by the concrete worker.
Turnover can be:
Intraorganizational - connected with labour movings in the organisation;
External - between the organisations, branches and economy spheres.
We can distinguish natural and excessive labour turnover. How to understand, is there natural or excessive turnover in your company?
Labour turnover can be calculated by the formula:
Turnover for the planned period (F) and an average (F1):
F = number of dismissals during the planned period / an average of employees during the planned period.
F1 = mid-annual number dismissed * 100 / mid-annual number.
The factor of labour turnover is a relation of number of the dismissed workers of the company which have left for the given period for the reasons of fluidity (at own will, for work missings, for safety precautions infringement, autocratic leaving, etc., by the reasons which have been not caused by industrial or nation-wide requirement) to an average number for the same period.
Natural turnover (3-5 % a year) promotes timely updating of collective and does not demand special decisions from management and personnel service.
Excessive turnover causes considerable economic losses, and also creates organizational, personnel, technological, psychological difficulties.
Excessive turnover of the personnel, according to the western psychological researches, affects negatively on a morale of the remained workers, on their labour motivation and loyalty for the organization. With leaving of employees the developed communications in labour collective collapse, and turnover can get avalanche character. Last years we can see many cases of "leaving by departments" at the Russian companies, when the developed working collectives, owing to identical motivation and the developed contacts, prefer to pass in other organization entirely.
Labour turnover – is one of the indicators connected with dismissal both influencing viability and success of the organization. Even if quantitatively this factor corresponds to management plans, each concrete worker’s leaving the organization can be if not fatal, at least, dangerous. Leaving of the professional from a high post to the direct competitor is dangerous. Therefore the large companies offer especially valuable employees "a gold package" – monetary indemnification if they will not work for the competitor during the stipulated time. It is dangerous, if the leader (formal and informal in one person) leaves, and on his place the head with other style of work comes. In this case time and considerable efforts to work well together with the new chief are required from the collective.
However besides the direct threats for business labour turnover conceals the latent dangers. Basic of them are the demotivating influence of leaving of one of employees on the remaining workers. Dismissal can have dangerous consequences for the company, especially if the company management approaches the process incorrectly. In case of dismissal of the employee at the initiative of the employer they are sometimes expressed in non-observance of standards of business ethics. If the head breaks, shows intolerance, applies strict measures – it can affect perniciously the internal atmosphere in the company as its personnel is a direct conductor of the information on it. Leaving, both parties should reach mutual understanding and the mutual consent, first, for the sake of respect, and secondly, for the sake of preservation of relations. It is difficult to foresee, as there will be a further professional destiny of the employee leaving the company – perhaps, he will be your client or the partner.
Not less difficult for an internal climate can be causeless, according to employees, dismissal or dismissal at the long conflict. In the first case hearings will be born round not quite clear motives, and in the second – the groupings generated round conflicting parties polarise collective for some time. In that case it is necessary for management to show honesty and an openness, and also readiness to explain the reason of those or other decisions and sensitively to listen to arising fears. However it is necessary to mean that such openness is not always applicable. To explain the reasons of dismissal the for the rests – means, to divulge the personal motives hidden from extraneous eyes. Therefore in each similar case the head should weigh all pros and cons of the similar decision.
In that case when the employee is dismissed for the poor quality of work, an openness problem is effectively solved by the transparent system of certification. If all members of collective are involved in working out the principle of an estimation of results of activity of their colleagues, the system will be clear to them. Therefore dismissal of the worker even without the public announcement of the reasons hardly becomes unexpected or extraordinary event for other employees. Certainly, they will not be informed on results of certification of the colleague by the management, but they can learn about them by indirect signs. If the estimation of efficiency of work is entered in the form of definition of a zone of development, instead of occasions to dismissal employees will aspire to growth, instead of to being afraid of errors. In turn, the system of criteria of an estimation and constant monitoring of an overall performance of the employee "pushes out" from staff of those who does not wish to work with full return. In that case the desire to leave will not be new for dismissed – if he constantly receives a feedback on the activity he will be prepared to the offer to replace a work place. Not less serious the dismissal at own will can be for the collective. In case of voluntary leaving the demotivation of the personnel can become the answer not only to disputed parting, but also to the reasons of this act. If leaving is connected with the persuasive search of work caused, in turn, by deep problems in the organization it can have the extremely unpleasant consequences. After all those employees who remain, see an example of the decision of the collected problems by their colleagues. And it can be infectious – employees will convulsively search for a new place of work. Thus, we must remind that the collective demands should have constant attention of management. Arising problems must be solved immediately while they have not led to irreversible consequences.
• Labour turnover affects labour productivity not only of those workers who intend to leave, but also of those, who continue to work. This fact influences all the life of the organization;
• Labour turnover prevents to form effectively working team, negatively influences corporate culture of the organization. Despite the sharpness of this problem in many organizations, «programs of preservation of the personnel» are a rarity now.

The regulation of labour turnover.

Labour turnover can be reflected on the company work differently. Depending on a field of activity of the company and posts of constantly varying employees this influence can be salutary, almost imperceptible, and can lead to loss of competitiveness and slump in production...

The conclusion

This theme becomes the extremely actual today in the conditions of deficiency of professionals on a very dynamical labour market. As last interrogations show, in Russia approximately two thirds of working people reflect from time to time on transition in other companies though not everybody are ready to take such step. The enterprises sustain considerable financial losses because of leaving of experts and personnel instability. Therefore loyalty to the company becomes today the same key requirement to the employee, as well as professionalism.
In this situation, the necessity of working out of ways of deduction of professionals for the company by an estimation of level of satisfaction of the personnel is shown. It can be done by carrying out of the corresponding analysis, using it the company management receives the information for decision-making on elimination of a problem of labour turnover.
Reduction of labour turnover is important not only for the separate enterprise, but also for economy of Russia as a whole.
Labour turnover worsens many industrial indicators. First of all, it is the missed profit because of slow occurrence in a course of business of beginners, work decline of productivity. Highly skilled experts distract on training of new employees. There are complexities with motivation of the personnel. Turnover worsens moral atmosphere in collective that interferes with team building. Certainly, such situation is a serious signal to a management about necessity to understand processes occurring in the company.
However, except the negative moments, labour turnover has also the positive. At controllable turnover, possibilities for personnel shifts and the career growth for the remained best employees open. It is an additional stimulus for them. Having analyzed the reasons of leaving of employees and having brought respective alterations in firm activity it is possible not only to lower turnover, but also to increase efficiency of activity of each employee and firm as a whole.

The list of the used literature.

1. Management of the personnel: the Textbook for high schools / Under the editorship of T.J.Bazarova, B.L.Eremina М: Banks and stock exchanges, Unity, 2001.
2. Hosking A. Course of business: the Practical grant: 2005.
3. Tidor S.N. Psychology of management: from the person to a command. – Petrozavodsk: "Periodical press", 2008.
4. Dorosheva M.V. Do you need such employees? – М: Joint-Stock Company "Business school" Intel-synthesis, 1997.
5. Methodical approaches to labour turnover management/ of Skavitin A.V., 2000.
6. Individual strategy of the offer of work: the theory and practice / S.A.Barkalov, D.A.Novikov, С.С. Popov. М: The Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006.
7. Psychology on management service / Shevjakov A.J., 2002.
8. Mordovin S.L. Managing the personnel: modern Russian practice. Spb., 2005.

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