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Диплом Концепция красоты в казахском и русском языках
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1. CONCEPT AS A KEY TERM IN MODERN LINGUISTICS 4
1.1. The notion of concept 4
1.2. The structure of concept 9
1.3. The typology of concept 12
1.4. Linguacultural concepts 16
2. BEAUTY AS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF HUMAN LIFE. 21
2.1. The notion of beauty 21
2.2. The metaphorical field of the concept of beauty 23
2.3. The philosophical understanding of the notion of beauty 33
3. ASSOCIATIVE EXPERIMENT AS A WAY TO EVALUATE THE PERCEPTION OF THE CONCEPT OF BEAUTY IN MODERN SOCIETY 40
3.1. Associative experiment as one of the modern linguistic methods 40
3.2. The analysis of the data received from the associative experiment 43
LIST OF REFERENCES 50
SUPPLEMENT APPENDIX 53
The diploma work deals with the current understanding of the concept of beauty in Russian and English linguistic spheres. This concept belongs to the one of the most important and influential notions in human’s life, as well as the concept of kindness, love, sincerity and etc. Meanwhile the study of concepts is one of the leading trends in modern linguistic science. This is the reason, why we have chosen this theme for our research work.
The actuality of this research: As we mentioned before, beauty is one of the most fundamental and meaningful terms in any culture. The study of such concepts is very important in view of unstoppable process of globalization and integration of different cultures. The common understanding of the same concepts by representatives of different cultures is required to erase possible misunderstandings and false conclusions.
The aim of this research is to study the language reality of the conceptual usage of the word beauty in different meanings by Russian and English speakers.
In order to reach this aim several objectives were set:
1. To study the notion of beauty as the core concept of ancient and modern philosophy and hence the usage in the human’s speech.
2. To analyze the perception and understanding of the notion of beauty by people from Kazakhstan and the USA; to make a parallel in the meanings, implied by this concept.
The scientific originality of our research is that it is based on the data received from the recipients - native citizens of Kazakhstan with the good knowledge of Russian language and the native citizens of the USA. Also in this particular research we used the understanding of beauty from philosophical and metaphological side. Similar researches were carried out by Russian scholars, e.g. Meshcheryakova Y. V. in her research of the concept of beauty in Russian and English linguistic cultural spheres gives an overall analysis of the concept of beauty from lexical and phraseological side, though the experiment was carried on the recipients from Russia and Australia. Another work about the concept of beauty in Russian, English and Tatar linguocultures with the emphasis on the expressions used to denoting human beauty and beauty of clothes was carried by Sadriyeva G. A.
Among Kazakh scholars there isn’t any particular research work carried in this direction, though there are several monographs, articles and publications about the beauty as an aesthetic category, e.g.
The object of this research is the concept of beauty in its linguacultural meaning. As the subject of this research we took the characteristics and the perception of the word beauty/красота in Russian and English linguacultures.
The relevance for the research is determined by the following points: 1) cultural linguistics is rapidly developing science and opens the wide horizons for further researches and studies; 2) the concept of beauty is one of the most important terms in the human conscience and therefore has a wide range of various meanings and ways of use; 3) the majority of the researches about the concept of beauty have the aesthetic or philosophical direction, but the linguistic research enables us to study the beauty in complex, within its linguacultural meaning.
Across the globe, few people have difficulty recognizing someone who is considered beautiful. Beauty is often sought after, revered, and sometimes interpreted as a personal virtue. Standards of beauty are usually social markers determining cultural status, social acceptance and suitability as a mate. However, beauty remains an elusive notion. Scientists continue to study the biological and anthropological factors behind physical attractiveness, while advertisers continue to employ ideals of beauty to sell products. Countless people continue their quests to become or remain beautiful to receive the benefits society offers for beauty. A physical aesthetic has remained constant over time throughout the diverse cultures of the world. In this sense, beauty has been regarded as a reflection of health, vitality, sexual allure and social appeal. Although the specifics of what makes someone beautiful can differ across countries, cultures and communities, the concept of beauty has existed for as long as there have been people.
Although differing across the globe, beauty standards are an important part of the cultural landscape. Demonstrating status, social acceptance and suitability as a mate, physical aesthetics affect how people view themselves and those around them. Health, fitness and social expectations are consistent in standards of beauty across cultures, although different cultures all have their own ideas about what makes one beautiful. While time and social conditions can alter these standards, what remains is that the notion of beauty is unchanging and powerful.
A lot of linguistic research is devoted to various aspects of the concept of beauty. It’s quite natural, because this concept is one of the most important, life meaning concepts. Generally the beauty is an aesthetic term, a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction. The experience of "beauty" often involves the interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being.
In the context of cultural linguistics the concept of beauty could be seen as one of the fundamental values in the system of global values inherent in every nation and every culture. The term of beauty is controversial itself, there isn’t any particular example of absolute beauty, yet each nation and even each person has his own criteria of beauty and beautiful. If someone or something is called beautiful, it could be not only an aesthetical judgment, or even not a direct meaning, but sarcasm or irony. Currently the word beauty and its derivates and synonyms are so widely used that it’s sometimes difficult to guess the meaning and the message correctly.
1. Concept as a key term in modern linguistics
1.1 The Notion of Concept
At present, cognitive linguistics intensively developed an area, which aims not only to study the language, but to study cognition, i.e., the cognitive process, which is a combination of mental and intellectual abilities.
Cognitive linguistics is the most fruitful trend in the study of the lexical level of language, as it allows researchers-linguists to systematize the vocabulary of the language in a new way, using the concepts.
Systemic conceptual analysis of language can lead to a new interpretation of lexical meanings, ??to determining general and universal conceptual categories that can be formed into the concepts.
Since his birth a man perceives the world around him, learning to recognize objects, relate them to each other, make generalizations, learning to handle and store large amounts of information, to express the results of their cognitive functions by means of language. As a result, the shared human concepts are formed, which are then combined into a system of knowledge about the world.
This system consists of concepts of different levels of complexity and abstraction, formed in different ways. In cognitive science the notion of "conceptual picture of the world" is used, as for its separate parts it is the notion of "conceptual area or sphere" (the so called concept sphere of the language, concept of man, etc.). Concept sphere or set of concepts gives an indication of the mental models of reality, which is reflected in the language, in general, and in the minds of the specific language of native speakers, in particular..............
.......... Since in this survey more recipients were involved comparing to the previous two surveys, thus, the variability of associations in this survey is wider. However, the basic trends remain the same: "beauty" in peoples minds is associated primarily with the nature and human. However, in this survey there is a mixture of trends of both English and Russian language, a kind of blend, probably caused by the fact that currently all the world is under the unstoppable process of globalization, the interactive relationship between the cultures of different countries grow wider and wider. These trends can be traced, such as a large number of associations connected with the spiritual, mental sphere, and at the same time, the presence of associations such as the beauty and the beast, cosmetics, American beauty, Selena Gomez. In addition, this survey contains a cultural flavor and a manifestation of the mentality of Kazakhstan, as well as signs of belonging to a place which were not shown in the Russian survey. We could see it on the example of associations such as Almaty, Lyazzat, Assel Ospanova, Beautymania. Another specific characteristic of this survey: the emergence of the religious associations to the word-stimulus "beauty." It is such associations as Allah, religion. This phenomenon was not observed either in first or second survey. It is not clear what triggered appearance of such associations in this poll, but the presence of such an association suggests a more sublime, spiritual, enlightening features of beauty, which in our time is often overlooked, preferring a more attractive external surface of beauty. In addition, this survey has the highest, among the three surveys conducted, diversification of human beauty. If in previous polls just a woman featured as the embodiment of beauty, in this particular survey there are feminine behavior, womens hair, feminine beauty, feminine face.
Paradigmatic relations are widely given in the survey, because most associations are in the same grammatical form with the word-stimulus. Among the paradigmatic thematic associations prevail, but there are also examples of coordinated associations (beauty - charm, beauty - elegance etc.), And there are no examples of coordinated antonymous relations. Striking examples of subordination and superordinatsii above associations were not found. Regarding the syntagmatic relations between words-responses and word-stimulus, such relationships are also represented, but not so extensive. As examples of such relations: something unusual, I dont care etc.
Finally, summing over all surveys conducted by the obtained results the following conclusions:
1. Associative perception of Russian recipients of Kazakhstan and the English-speaking recipients in the U.S. in general seems, however, there are important differences, such as the previously mentioned association of the mental and spiritual nature of the dominant Russian-language survey is almost not observed in the English language.
2. Association experiment, conducted in the English language among the Russian-speaking citizens of Kazakhstan, has shown that such a survey is a mixture of trends in perceptions of Russian and English consciousness. This fact can be explained by the fact that due to different levels of language proficiency associative thinking is either in Russian or in English, which causes the first association to the word-stimulus.
The concept of beauty is inevitably connected with human’s life. Though different people could mean different things by this term, the outcome is the same: we perceive beauty as some universal power, desirable, attractive, seductive, but dangerous as well. We could not control beauty but sometimes the beauty controls us.
Analyzing the carried research work, we could say that we successfully completed the task and realized the aim and objectives, which we stated in the beginning of this work. We explored the notion of concept, its significance in modern linguistics, analyzed the works of different authors, both foreign and native, who devoted their research to this sphere of science. It is interesting that still different scholars have different understanding of the term concept, and all existing definitions are quite vague. This could be explained by the fact that the conceptual trend in modern linguistics is still very young, but it is developing very fast.
The concept of beauty as the essential notion of different spheres of our life was studied both in Russian and English cultural linguospheres. After the thorough research of this term we made parallels in the meaning, perception and functioning of this word in two different languages. though the results were not so unexpected. We compared the perception of beauty in ancient time and nowadays by working with the philosophical understanding of this term and the development of the aesthetics as the general science about beauty. The metaphorical representation of beauty in Russian and English literature enabled us to understand how often, with what purpose and why we use beauty in different expressions. Finally to fully understand the meaning and functioning of this term in requested languages we made an associative experiment. There were 175 participants in this survey in total. They provided more than 200 various reactions. The analysis of this data showed that even though we all understand what the beauty is, we could have absolutely different image of it. There is no universal beauty, but there are some common trends, for example most of the people associate beauty with the nature or human. Other association have a close resemblance to the trends once popular in the philosophical theory of beauty. The association of beauty with divine, magic, power, art, material things, domination of inner beauty over outer one - all of these words once denoted the beauty. So we can say that even though the concept of beauty nowadays has a lot of unexpected meanings, it hadn’t lost its previous significance.
Kazakh and American people have some common tendencies in the understanding and the perception of beauty, though for Kazakh people beauty is mostly natural, while Americans prefer to create something beautiful. List of references.
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