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Реферат Etymology as a branch of linguistics


Тип работы: Реферат. Добавлен: 24.5.2013. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 20. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):


1. Etymology as a branch of linguistics
2. Folk etymology as a productive force
3. Instances of word change by folk etymology
4. Other languages
5. Acceptability of resulting forms

Folk etymology is a linguistic phenomenon whereby borrowed or archaic phrases are reinterpreted according to analogy with other comon words or phrases in the language. Etymology refers to the origin of words. For example, the etymology of etymology can be traced through Old English and Latin to the Greek roots etymo, meaning true, and logos, meaning word. In folk etymology, speakers af a language assume the etymology of a word or phrase by comparing it to similar-sounding words or phrases that already exist in the language.
A word or phrase is typically considered a folk etymology only if it has changed from its original borrowed form as a result of the reinterpreted etymology. If speakers assume an "incorrect" origin of a word or phrase, but its pronunciation and/or spelling are unchanged, then the term is not referred to as a folk etymology. For instance, some people assume that the English word history is a combination of the words his and story, but the word actually can be traced through Old French and Latin to the Greek root historia, meaning knowledge through inquiry, record, or narrative. While the interpretation "his story" is a folk etymology, the word history is not properly referred to as such, as the reinterpretation does not affect its form.
Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways:
A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology.
"The popular perversion of the form of words in order to render it apparently significant"[1]; "the process by which a word or phrase, usually one of seemingly opaque formation, is arbitrarily reshaped so as to yield a form which is considered to be more transparent."[2]
The term "folk etymology", as referring both to erroneous beliefs about derivation and the consequent changes to words, is derived from the German Volksetymologie. Similar terms are found in other languages, e.g. Volksetymologie itself in Danish and Dutch, Afrikaans Volksetimologie, Swedish Folketymologi, and full parallels in non-Germanic languages, e.g. French Йtymologie populaire, Hungarian Nйpetimolуgia; an example of an alternative name is Italian Pseudoetimologia.
Etymology as a branch of linguistics
Etymology is the study of the history of words , their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By an extension, the term "etymology (of a word)" means the origin of a particular word.
For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available.
By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method , linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family .
Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, currently much etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian .
Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are:
· Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available.
· Making use of dialectological data. The form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history.
· The comparative method . By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may often be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead later borrowed from another language.
· The study of semantic change . Etymologists must often make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words. Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well.
· Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are borrowing (i.e., the adoption of "loanwords " from other languages); word formation such as derivation and compounding ; and onomatopoeia and sound symbolism , (i.e., the creation of imitative words such as "click").
· While the origin of n........

1. Антрушина Г. Б. Лексикология английского языка - М.: Дрофа, 2000
2. Квеселевич Д. І. Практикум з лексикології сучасної англійської мови - Вінниця: Вид. «Нова книга», 2001
3. encyclopedia.com/topic/etymology.aspx
4. encyclopedia.com/doc/1O29-FOLKETYMOLOGY.html
5. grammar.about.com/od/words/a/Etymologywords.htm
6. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology

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