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Курсовик The Indian Question in the Modern US Society
Тип работы: Курсовик.
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CHAPTER 1. CULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION 5
1.1. The subject matter of globalization 5
1.2. Americanization and westernization, and culture 8
1.3. Culture within culture. Acculturation. 14
1.4. Categories of acculturation 20
CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1 24
CHAPTER 2. THE PRESENT DAY OF INDIAN CULTURE 25
2.1. Indian culture and its history 25
2.2. Indian culture today 29
2.2.1 American Indian Clothing and Religion 29
2.2.2. American Indian Hairstyle 33
2.2.3. American Indian food, food customs, other customs and traditions 35
2.2.4. Native American Way of Life nowadays 44
CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2 46
Americanization is the influence of the United States on the popular culture, cuisine, technology, business practices, or political techniques of other countries. The term has been used since at least 1907 Inside the U.S. the term most often refers to the process of acculturation by immigrants to American customs.
Critics sometimes give "Americanization" a negative connotation because they perceive as negative the far-reaching American influence in many countries, and may fear the loss of local customs and traditions.
Americanization can refer to the policies of the United States government and public opinion that there is a standard set of cultural values that should be held in common by all citizens. Education was and is viewed as the primary method in the acculturation process. These opinions were harshly applied when it came to Americanization of Native Americans compared to immigrant populations who arrived with their “non-American traditions”. The Americanization policies said that when indigenous people learned American customs and values they would soon merge tribal traditions with European-American culture and peacefully melt into the greater society.
Actuality of this work is that the following Indian problem is one of the central questions in the USA. This country is full of people of different nationalities, and most of them assimilated there, but the Indians stand apart of this
mass. Even after three centuries they did not assimilate and keep their culture and traditions.
Aim of our work is to research the problem of assimilation of Native Americans on the territory of the United States of America.
From our aim we disclose the following scientiﬁc tasks:
1) deﬁne the notions “Arnericanization” and “acculturation”;
2) stand out types of acculturation;
3) describe the position of the Indians in diachronic aspect;
4) get to know the main laws about Indians;
5) analyze videos, interviews and websites about Native Americans.
The subject is Native American’s way of life, culture, food, traditions, languages, etc.
The object is different documentary ﬁlms about Native Americans, interviews of famous researches of this sphere, videos with them, and websites about Native Americans.
The aim and goals determinate the structure of our work, it consists from introduction, two chapters, conclusion and list of literature.
In introduction we formulate actuality, aim, scientiﬁc tasks and deﬁne subject and object matters.
In the ﬁrst chapter “CULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION” we disclose such notions as globalization, Americanization and westemization as its main types, acculturation, accentuate four types of acculturation.
In the second chapter on the practical material we show how Indians live on the territory of the USA today. In conclusion we point out what has changed in the life of Native Americans after European invasion, and how they live today
CHAPTER 1. CULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION
1.1. The subject matter of globalization
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the- world [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization].
Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people—and, later,
corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. In fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. But policy and technological- developments of the past few decades have spurred increases in cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its economic development. Since 1950, for example, the volume of world trade has increased by 20 times, and from just 1997 to 1999 flows of foreign investment nearly doubled, from $468 billion to $827 billion. Distinguishing this current wave of globalization from earlier ones, author Thomas Friedman has said that today globalization is “farther, faster, cheaper, and deeper.” But policy and technological developments of the past few decades have spurred increases in cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its economic development. Since 1950, for example, the volume of world trade has increased by 20 times, and from just 1997 to 1999 ﬂows of foreign investment nearly doubled, from $468 billion to $827 billion. Distinguishing this current wave- of globalization from earlier ones, author Thomas Friedman has said that today globalization is “farther, faster, cheaper, and deeper.” This current wave of globalization has been driven by policies that have opened economies domestically and internationally. In the years since the Second World War, and especially during the past two decades, many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential and creating myriad new opportunities for intemational trade and investment. Govemments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to commerce and have established international agreements to promote trade in goods, services, and investment. Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign markets, corporations have built foreign factories and established production and marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an international industrial and ﬁnancial business structure
Technology has been the other principal driver of globalization. Advances in information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Information technologies have given all sorts of individual economic actors, consumers, investors, businesses—valuable new tools for identifying and pursuing economic opportunities, including faster and more infonned analyses of economic trends around the world, easy transfers of assets, and collaboration with far-flung partners.
Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has beneﬁted multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people. Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the ﬂow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of globalization
At its most basic, there is nothing mysterious about globalization. But not so fast, some people are now arguing that globalization has mainly benefited the already strong economies of the world and it has given them leverage to not only trade with the rest of the world but to also influence their general lifestyles and politics. Proponents of the school of thought contend that countries like U.S.A are using the globalization as an engine of "corporate imperialism"; one which tramples over the human rights of developing societies, claims to bring prosperity, yet often simply amounts to plundering and profiteering.
Another negative effect of globalization has been cultural assimilation via cultural imperialism. This can be further explained as a situation of exporting of artificial wants, and the destruction or inhibition of authentic local cultures. This brings me to the gist of my submission. At a closer look, globalization is slowly shifting towards Americanization. Have you heard the word "Americanization"? Well in the early 1900s Americanization meant taking new immigrants and turning them into Americans...whether they wanted to give up their traditional ways or not. This process often involved learning English and adjusting to American culture, customs, and dress.
Critics now say globalization is nothing more than the imposition of American culture on the entire world. In fact, the most visible sign of globalization seems to be the spread of American hamburgers and cola (Pepsi and Coca Cola products) to nearly every country on earth. The song Amerika by the German rock band Rammstein is often seen as a satire of Americanization. It has received mixed reviews: some perceive it as anti-American, others as being opposed to globalization. The band views it as a satirical commentary on "cocacolonization".
According to information from Globalisation.about.com even globalization champions like Thomas Friedman see it. In a recent column describing why terrorists hate the United States, Friedman wrote: "...globalization is in so many ways Americanization: globalization wears Mickey Mouse ears, it drinks Pepsi and Coke, eats Big Macs, does its computing on an IBM laptop with Windows 98. Many societies around the world cant get enough of it, but others see it as a fundamental threat."
The rest of the world seems to be following Uncle Sam (U.S.A) and leaving behind its authentic ways of life. This has not spared even the ‘air tight Chinese society. Americanization is the contemporary term used for the influence the United States of America has on the culture of other countries, substituting their culture with American culture. When encountered unwillingly, it has a negative connotation; when sought voluntarily, it has a positive connotation.
1.2. Americanization and westernization, and culture
The Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter famously characterized capitalism as a process of "creative destruction." While this phenomenon may help propel economic development, many people around the world are coming to question the impact that the worldwide expansion of the capitalist model is having on the most precious aspects of their identity.
For many people, their own cultural values are too important to put a price
tag on, and no destruction can be considered "creative."
On the other hand, globalization can also be a profoundly enriching process, opening minds to new ideas and experiences, and strengthening the ﬁnest universal if values of humanity.
The question of how the protection of local or indigenous cultural values come into conflict with the forces of globalization is unchartered territory for many policymakers. Many of the questions raised pertaining to cultural issues are new and, as you will see, some of the ways that cultural issues are raised may be of questionable merit.
Most studies of globalization tend to focus on changes occurring in the economic and political spheres. The details of those issues, such as tariff rates and international agreements, have fallen within the traditional province of govemment bureaucrats and political leaders.
However, the dramatic changes wrought by globalization have forced policymakers to respond to public pressures in many new areas. Observers of globalization are increasingly recognizing that globalization is having a signiﬁcant impact on matters such as local cultures, matters which are less tangible and hard to quantify, but often fraught with intense emotion and controversy.
A Jeremy Rifkin, a prominent critic of globalization, writes that:
The powers that be have long believed that the world is divided into two spheres of inﬂuence: commerce and government. Now organizations representing the cultural sphere - the environment, species preservation, rural life, health, food andcuisine, religion, human rights, the family, womens issues, ethnic heritage, the arts and other quality-of-life issues -— are pounding on the doors at world economic and political forums and demanding a place at the table. They represent the birth of a new "civil-society politics" and an antidote to the forces pushing for globalization.
Generally speaking, issues surrounding culture and globalization have received less attention than the debates which have arisen over globalization and the environment or labor standards. In part this is because cultural issues are more l subtle and sensitive, and often more confusing. “The homogenizing inﬂuences of globalization that are most often condemned by the new nationalists and by cultural romanticists are actually positive; globalization promotes integration and the removal not only of cultural barriers but of many of the negative dimensions of culture. Globalization is a vital step toward both a more stable world and better lives for the people in it” - David Rothkopf,
“In Praise of Cultural Imperialism,” Foreign Policy June 22, 1997 – “Many societies, particularly indigenous peoples, view culture as their richest heritage, without which they have no roots, history or soul. Its value is other than monetary. To commodify it is to destroy it” - Maude Barlow, “The Global Monoculture,” Earth Island Joumal. Autumn 2001
The globalization of the production and distribution of goods and services is welcome development for many people ........
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