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Курсовик Fundamental values and characteristics of the US politics in modern world


Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 15.11.2013. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 33. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):


Chapter 1. Attaching of fundamental values of the US politics in official documents
1.1 The main methods of approaching to the term «value system»
1.2 Constitutional values and beliefs of the base of appealing to value system in pre-election discourses of the presidents of the USA G. Bush and A. Gore.
1.2 New sight on the fundamental values of the USA politics in «Strategy of national security» by the president of the USA Barack Obama.
Chapter 2. Main directions of presentation of the fundamental values in the US political discourse
2.1 Reference to Realia «Great generation» in speech of politicians as expressions of basic American values
2.2 Reference to Realia «Founding-Fathers»in speech of politicians as expressions of basic American values
Список использованной литературы

Understanding of the value guidelines of perception of the world and reality plays very important role in people’s modern life. This work deals with the problem of the concept of value as the central lingvophilosophical category and essential feature of language.
The theme of the work is very urgent and the currency of the work has practical usage. On the one hand, this understanding of the values promotes the development of tolerance and effective cooperation between society and government. On another hand, such concepts of political values as equality, equity, freedom, patriotism, internationalism are thought to be a part of political discourse and they are the object of research in linguistics and country-specific studies. The object of the «country-specific studies» course is advanced and comprehensive study of concrete facts form different parts of the US life, mastery of the language realias, that are connected with geographical ideas, social-political institutes, cultural-historical phenomena, that reflect special features of national culture, national traditions and customs of the nations of the country of studying language.
The main goal of the work is to reveal in American discourse historical and social-political realias that reflect the system of values.
The object of the research is verbal and written statements of the US politics in political discourse.
The subject of research is such realias as «Founding Fathers», «the Greatest Generation» as reflection of the value system of the US society.
To achieve the goal we should examine following objectives:
1. Reveal fundamental approaches to the detection of the term «value system».
2. Scrutinize the features of linguistic realias of the USA, that reflect extralinguistic, country-specific reality
As linguistic material we used publications of political press of the US, speeches of political figures and definitions of political concepts and associative spheres that are fixed in explanatory dictionaries of political vocabulary and associative dictionaries of English language.
In this paper we used such scientific method as content-analysis of the texts, qualitative and quantitative analysis of contents of texts, including revealing statistically valuable conformity to using linguistical means in political discourse.
The work contains several parts: introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion, list of literature. In introductory part we describe the purpose of the research, object, subject and problems of investigation. In 1 chapter we consider fundamental values of the US politics in official documents. We study the term «value system», characteristics of the Constitutional values on the base of appealing to value system in pre-election discourses of the presidents of the USA G. Bush and A. Gore and such state-of-the-art values that are considered in «Strategy of national security» by the president of the USA Barack Obama as education, science and public health, protection of democracy, economic rights and liberties of people, deliverance from poverty. The directions of the fundamental values in US political discourse are presented in Chapter 2. We considered linguistic realias «Founding-Fathers», «Great generation». In conclusion we’re talking about outcomes that we’ve made about fundamental values of the modern US politics on the base of verbal and written speech of the US politicians. In the end of the work there is a list of literature that we used in our research including the authors of our country and foreign ones, Internet and book sources. It consists of 28 socio-cultural resources.

Chapter 1: Attaching of fundamental values of the US politics in official documents
1.1 The main methods of approaching to the term «value system»
The Value System in philosophy, politology, culturology, psychology and other sciences. Styding the term Value system we should examine the words «value» and «system» first. Lets consider them in turn and we will address for this purpose to explanatory dictionary. "System" is "a certain order in an arrangement and connection of actions". Or: "form of the organization of something". Also, the system is "a social order, a form of a social system"[20].
We notice that definitions of the word lie in absolutely different theoretical aspects. And the choice of that definition which will give us on the one hand the full, and on other hand the most exact answer, will be on a basis of the correct understanding of the phrase "system of values" in all. For this purpose it is necessary to look for "value" etymology. The dictionary interprets this word as follows: value is "the price or cost", "something possessing the great opportunities, being important, necessary". Value is, also «importance» [20]. Value in general can be something physical or social (for example, a valuable subject or the valuable phenomenon), as well as absolutely spiritual (the value of life, belief, love). Approaching to the methodology that define our analysis, we choose from etymology of these two words explanations that most precisely display a concept of "Value system". It is obvious that in our context we’re talking first of all of a spiritual sphere therefore the following semantic synthesis that is represented here is most suitable for us: as the system is "a certain order in an arrangement and connection of actions", and value is "something possessing big opportunity and being important and necessary", final definition can sound as: the system of values is a certain subjective relation to something, being important and necessary, concluded in a certain order in an arrangement and connection of actions. If we suppose the fidelity of such definition, but, without approving its objectivity it is possible to begin the analysis referring to this treatment.
The concept of Value system is comparable to the concept of Political Culture Theory. Researchings of the system of values as scientific problem are mostly connected with it.
Sydnee Verba defines the Political Culture Theory, as "system of empirical orientations, expressional symbols and values, that define a situation of political action"[22].
Samyuel Hantington gives the following definition of Political Culture Theory: "Political culture roots in public culture including such orientations and values which most often have the religious nature and concern intrinsic questions of interaction of the person and society, relationships between members of society, and also the relation of individuals to transcendental (divine) essence. In societies with various cultural traditions there are considerable distinctions at perception of democracies" [22].
It is only few of the numerous definitions of Political Culture Theory that are introduced into scientific circulation. However they very precisely reflect the nature of reference points and theoretical approaches, that are strengthened in the modern world in relation to value system and Political Culture Theory as the object of research.
In focus of attention there are mainly following components of Value system and functional communications and processes that operate between them:
- democratic values,
- traditional (religious) values.
The system of values acts as the external (exogenous) factor that has an impact on system of individual political orientations, and on behavior of the person in the social and political world that surrounds him.
Specifics of the object of the research, mostly the type of studying values, is closely connected with developed in politics sphere basic directions of research.
The first direction focuses on studying of democratic values as component of political culture and general system of values in modern society.
The second direction focuses attention on studying the process of changing of system of traditional values and formation of new, modern value system. In this case the system of values is comprehended with taking into account the influence on its development processes of modernization that are connected with a rising of a social and economic levels of development of modern societies.

1.2 Constitutional values and beliefs of the base of appealing to value system in pre-election discourses of the presidents of the USA G. Bush and A. Gore.
Pre-election discourse is a multicultural phenomenon, as the text that is created in the period of carrying out election campaign for the purpose to impact the audience [8]. Therefore pre-election performance contains appealing to moral and ethical foundations and principles of nation and reveals in the arguments that reflect [4,5]:
1) universal values - responsibility, spirituality, freedom and democracy, free religion, etc.;
2) 2) national values - the American nation, the American government, a superiority of the USA, etc.;
3) group values - Americans of average generation, Americans of the senior generation, the American children as base of the nation, the American veterans, the American teachers, etc.
Core democratic values are the fundamental beliefs and constitutional principles of American society, which unite all Americans. These values are expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the United States constitution and other significant documents, speeches, and writing of the nation. Here are fundamental beliefs and values of American nation [1]:
Life: The individual’s right to life should be considered inviolable except in certain highly restricted and extreme circumstances, such as the use of deadly force to protect one’s own or others’ lives.
Liberty: The right to liberty includes personal freedom: the private realm in which the individual is free to act, to think and to believe, and which the government cannot legitimately invade; political freedom: the right to participate freely in the political process, choose and remove public officials, to be governed under a rule of law; the right to a free flow of information and ideas, open debate and right of assembly; and economic freedom: the right to acquire, use, transfer and dispose of private property without unreasonable governmental interference; the right to seek employment wherever one pleases; to change employment at will; and to en........

Список использованной литературы:
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2. Вайсбурд М.Л. Реалии как элемент страноведения // «Русский язык за рубежом», №3, 1972.
3. Гайкова О.В. Лингвостилистические средства манипулятивного воздействия на избирателя в американском политическом дискурсе // Актуальные проблемы лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации. Лингводидактические аспекты МК: Материалы научной сессии факультета лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации ВолГУ (22-28 апреля 2002 года). - Волгоград: Изд-во «Волгоград», 2003. - С.48-51.
4. Гайкова О.В. К вопросу о стратегиях воздействия дискурса предвыборной борьбы // Актуальные вопросы переводоведения и лингвистики: Материалы научной сессии ВолГУ. - Волгоград: Изд-во ВолГУ, 2001. - С.47- 49.
5. Гайкова О.В. Аргументация как одна из стратегий воздействия на избирателя в американском политическом дискурсе // Проблемы лингвокультурологии и семантики через призму междисциплинарной парадигмы: Межвузовский сб. научн.трудов. - Волгоград: «Станица-2», 2001. - С.20-23.
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