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Диплом Methods for expression of negation in English and German
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Chapter 1. Category denial……………………………………………………….....4
1.1 Denial in philosophy………………………………………………………...…….4
1.2 Negation in logic and linguistics……………………………………………...…..8
Conclusion to Chapter I…………………………………………………………...…13
Chapter 2. Means of expression of negation in English and German………..…14
2.1.1 Denial in the structure of the English sentence………………………………..14
2.1.2 The negative sentence as a complex semantic unit of the German language….21
2.2.1 Expressions of negation in language categories in
2.2.2 Classification of negative language means in German………………………...28
2.3.1 Lexical means of expressing negation in English………………………..……32
2.3.2 Selection of the negative language means in German……………………...….35
2.4.1 Negation in English………………………………………………………...….42
2.4.2 Features of the use of negation in German…………………………………….45
Conclusion to Chapter II……………………………………………………….....….49
List of References…………………………………………………………………...51
As is known, the language - is a historically established system of sound, vocabulary and grammatical means, objectifying the work of thinking and is a tool of communication, exchange of ideas and mutual understanding of people in society.
Every language, including English and German - is a dynamic system, which has its characteristic grammatical system, components of which are the two interconnected sections: morphology and syntax. This paper aims to explore one of the grammatical phenomena such as the syntax section, which considers the words in a sentence, the sentence itself, its structure, features and types. Just paid considerable attention to the morphological and lexical component.
The main content of the work - viewing and study of one of the most difficult grammatical phenomena of English and German - denial.
The relevance of this topic is that the negation in English and German - is multifaceted, requiring constant reflection phenomenon, changing with the development of language, the complexity of which is to study and understand the main disagreement is with the Russian language. Despite the many works and studies conducted by scientists linguists, denial of the problem remains poorly understood.
Thanks to the huge number of ways of negation in English and German proposals and their members, the following problem: in some cases, used by means of negation will be the most accurate and appropriate.
The object of study of this work is a negative proposal, which are defined as sentences that deny the connection between subject and predicate, or between the different elements of a sentence.
The subject of the study are linguistic methods and means of expression of negation.
In this context, it would be correct to identify the means of negation, which could compete with the popularity of the particles. The hypothesis can be formulated as follows: in English and German, along with the negative particles, there are no less popular for frequently used language means negation.
The purpose of this paper - a review of the most common ways of expression of negation in modern English and German.
Objectives of work:
1) To consider ways and means of negation in the supply structure;
2) to identify the main means of expression of negation in English and German;
3) to find the most preferred means of expression of negation in modern English and German.
Chapter 1. Category denial
1.1 Denial of philosophy
The first law of "negation of the negation" in the philosophy of Hegel formulated. He argued his examples from the history of thought. The development of any concepts occurs as a movement from the abstract to the concrete. This process allowed the internal contradiction of the concept. It moves to the stage of its otherness, transforming into something different than it was before. Then it was "back to itself", but in the form of a concrete concept, which contains and its former, abstract essence and the new acquired in the process of self-alienation. In the "Science of Logic" Hegel even described the denial law as the universal form of the unity of contradictions (their transition into each other), and the struggle between them (splitting a whole).
We can say that this is a special form of another dialectical concept. This is a kind of law of the unity and struggle of opposites. But the philosopher limited action dialectic only area of ??concepts and their formation. After all, for him being and thinking it was a single entity, in which the first is derived from the second. Accordingly, the triad negations is the stage of the global development of the mind. [Gubskiy 1999, 180].
Materialist dialectics as Hegel has extended this law is not only the development of the spirit and thought, but on nature and society. Its creators have even argued that turned the German classic philosophy upside down. Friedrich Engels very high opinion of denial law in philosophy. Briefly we can say that he described it as a combination of progression, recurrence and spiral. Engels called him the third law of dialectics. First, it is detected in human cognition. The development of the latter occurs in the process of replacing some other theories, the birth of new concepts that are better suited to the changing world and our perception of the universe. But any doctrine that denies the past, not only criticize it, but partially includes some amount of his knowledge.Engels argued that the dialectical theory of different arguments. In particular, he illustrated it with examples from the logic and mathematics. Any approval goes through the following stages:
Something is true.
This is not true.
The previous statement is false.
It turns out that in this logical chain returns to the first sentence. Yet Engels, proving the law of "negation of the negation", examples are given from the field of mathematics. He said that the opposite of a positive number is a number with a "minus". But what would happen if we subject and its negation? Multiply it by the same number with a "minus", we get the same value in a positive way, but in a square (ie, at a higher stage). [Gubskiy 1999, 183].
Figure 1. The law negation of the negation
The theory of negation of negation (Act three negatives) - is one of the foundations of materialist dialectics. Thus, in this school of thought is demonstrated and explained the development process. It is believed that the progressive change in the nature and society occur due to the fact that an object moves from one state to another, and from the fact - in the third. And each succeeding his previous status denies. But it is the third state of the object like the primary, only takes this step on a higher level. It turns out that Zanon negation of the negation ", and allows you to observe the continuity and innovation. But formulated German classical philosophy, and then the founders of dialectical materialism, the concept is already in the early twentieth century, it has undergone massive criticism.
Thus, any development - this movement. The fact that under this category refers to the state of the object acquired during development. As a rule, any object is changed to such an extent that eventually becomes like the opposite of himself. This quality, and has been called "denial". Dialectical philosophy considers this step inevitable. But if its denial ends in death (disappearance, destruction) of an object or phenomenon, such a process can hardly be called development. But when the object continues to evolve further, there is a dialectical negation of the negation. Materialist philosophy believes that the development is due to the destruction of certain properties of the object or phenomenon. According to the theory of progress, it is those qualities that have outlived their usefulness, or even slow down further change for the better. Law "negation of the negation" in philosophy tells us that the properties that determine the existence of the subject at a given time, or the forming of its new features are retained. What happens then? Double Negative, at first glance, the object returns back. Every third phase of this process formally like the first. But the development and progress leads to the fact that this return is actually a spiral movement at a higher stage. Therefore, it is often said that the negation of the negation - a modification of the spiral. [Gubskiy 1999, 187].
First of all, this law shows the relationship between the past and the future. In the development of different state object or phenomenon of fighting each other, and mutually into one another. Every quality is born, takes his role, "aging" and disappears, giving way to another. The law of negation of negation determines the trends in the development, describing the destruction of the past, have lost their utility properties and the acquisition of new, necessary for the continued existence, but opposite the first. Because of the simple appear complex. However, the formula itself is difficult to comprehend at once, since the development of a spiral - the process is very long. As a law it can be seen only in a more or less complete version, when there are certain outcomes. At various stages of the forward movement it can be recovered only as a trend.
In addition, the dialectical materialism in the formulation of this law defines categories such as old and new. Dies necessarily all that hinders the development process, it leads to a deadlock or stagnation. At the same time it destroyed the original state of the entire previous system. Born as something that gives the opportunity to live and function on, to adapt to new circumstances, change and enrich potential. Negation of the negation leads to the resolution of conflicts, which is called "lifting". In this process, the old replaced. [Gubskiy 1999, 190].
Dialectical philosophy assumes that the object itself, the phenomenon of the knowing subject or incorporated inside the opposite. In the normal course of business, it is revealed and begins to deny herself. Any form, and the result of the direction of development, we demonstrate this process, which is already higher compared with the image of a spiral. Moreover, it is believed that in such a movement denial law determines not only the type but also the time of the change. "Spiral" is directly linked with the development of acceleration, periods that occur faster with each new step. That is, in a dialectical concept of "denial" and have a positive meaning. It keeps a certain moment of connection between the different process steps.
Since the materialist dialectic is based on the fact that its principles apply both knowledge and thinking, and the existence (including the public), that provision applies to the law of "negation of the negation." Examples of life sharing its philosophy brought from different areas of science. For example, in biology. The withering away and the appearance of blood cells, which takes place every day in our body, is a denial and a revival of previous forms. Change of taste and style preferences in music, art and culture often takes place in a spiral, with the return to the old, but at a new level. Therefore, it is often fashionable retro style. Children are the negation of parents and at the same time its extension. In addition, the dialectical materialism implies formational approach to the development of society. He argues that the historical process is also a spiral, and progressive. Change formations - is both a negation of the previous one, and continuity. "Removing the" same contradictions can occur through evolution or violent change of regime. [Gubskiy 1999, 195].
The theory of negation of negation (Act three negatives) in the twentieth century became the object of criticism from various philosophers. The main opponent of this concept was Karl Popper. He was opposed to the dialectical method, even in the logic and thinking, not to mention the natural sciences or social trends. First of all, he says that the conceptual apparatus of dialectical materialism is constructed in such a way that eliminates any criticism and politicize it. Supporters of the law of negation of negation interpret its application is too arbitrary, and it is impossible to verify. impossible to develop these ideas, and it leads to stagnation and stagnation of any philosophical thought.
Popper says that Marxism as a method was good for the nineteenth century as one of the positivist theories. But when his supporters turned dialectical materialism in dogma, he ceased to be a science in the strict sense of the word. Other critics believed that this theory itself constructs its own evidence, and does not take them out of the experience, or the laws of thought. In addition, if the law of the three negatives to make sense of Hegel, because his concept of it is caused by the development of the spirit (roughly speaking, the evolution of God), and therefore in this process was the goal-setting, the materialists and atheists, the inevitability of progress is very strange. It turns out that the "end of history" with the arrival of "paradise on earth" due to the advance is inevitable. But the reasons for this is unclear. [Gubskiy 1999, 196].
Unlike metaphysically under interpretation "denial", emphasizing the gap, the opposite traits of the previous and subsequent stages of change, dialectical "denial" suggests a connection, the transition from one stage to another. Dialectical understanding of denial comes from the fact that the new does not completely destroy the old, but retains all the best that there was in it. And not only preserves, but also processes, raises to a new, higher stage [Gubskiy 1999, 199]. As can be seen from the above abstract negation does not destroy completely the old, and takes on a new level, that can be correlated with the logic and language. Then draw a parallel with the logic of this concept and the language itself.
1.2 Negation in logic and linguistics
Denial has always been the object of linguistics and formal logic. In terms of formal logic negation is "... a logical operation is opposed to the true judgment is untrue, false judgments unerring judgment indicating a mismatch of a predicate to a subject or forming addition to the class ..." [Kondakov 1971, 56]. It is noted that a failure to detect is not a simple negative judgment expected another specific object as a non-being is in being different. In other words, denial is not a direct reflection of reality and its relations, and our way of consideration, based on the contrast with the initial positive facts.
In linguistics, the nature of linguistic negation is defined differently. As a purely subjective manifestation of the human mind interpret the concept of psychological denial of supporters [Grinneken 1907 Jespersen 1958; Potebnya 1958, etc..]. Negation is interpreted as causing various mental (sense) the speakers reaction, as an expression of the feelings of resistance or prohibition [Grinneken 1907]; explication that there is a contradiction between the expected (or even possible) and the real, as a reflection of the feelings of frustration, contrast [Delbr?ck 1887], feelings of disgust [Jespersen 1918], etc. Thus, according to this concept, the denial does not appear as a reflection of reality, but as a manifestation of the human mind, its psychological and emotional feelings.
Denial has a communicative operation, deflecting or correcting the view destination, then there is a denial of the speech act, the purpose of which is not the message of the new information, and to refute the opinion of the recipient.
In theoretical terms the denial of a statement of non-existence. The denial of the negative judgment may be given or all of its contents, or the connection between subject and predicate; in the language of denial is expressed by the word "no." We can accept any judgment right or wrong, but it would be unwise to do this at the same time (the law of contradiction and the law of the negation of the third). No positive affirmation is not associated with denial. Saying "this is not fragrant flower" has the meaning even when the flower has no odor. Under any circumstances, by denying the right value of the predicate it is primarily a formal negative (kontradiktornoe) value, and any other, narrower, more specific value must still prove its legitimacy. As a universal language categories with a complex and multidimensional semantics and diverse arsenal of means of expression, denial of receiving a separate interpretation in the light of any new direction of linguistics.
Denial - one common to all languages ??of the world the original semantically irreducible semantic categories that can not be defined in terms of simpler semantic elements. Denial - an element of the value proposal, which indicates that the link is installed between the components of the proposals in the opinion of the speaker, do not really exist or that the corresponding affirmative sentence is rejected by the speaker to be false. Most often a negative utterance is done in such a situation, when the respective affirmative has been done before, or includes speaking in general presumption.
Denial - Eng. - Negation - expression using the vocabulary, phraseology, syntax and other language resources that link to be inserted between the elements of the statements, does not really exist. Denial can be absolute (absolute negation) or relating to the statement and then called syntactic (syntaxique) or connector (conjunctive). The connection denial can relate to the concept of (lexical negation) or offer (phrase negation). A simple denial (simple negation) regardless of its form is called, which is nothing but the idea of ??negation; challenging denial or negative word is called denial, which is associated with the concept of time (never), face (nobody) or item (nothing). Poluotritsaniem (demi-negation) is called a word that serves to weaken the statement, such as, hardly - hardly.
Linguistic phenomenon of denial admittedly belongs to the semantic universals, semantic source categories, common to all languages ??of the world. Therefore, cognitive sense denying its role in the process of lingvokre-ativnost, interpretive activities of the language person deserve, firstly, serious consideration, and secondly, it is clear that the universality of this phenomenon should reflect underlying patterns recheporozhdeniya.
Review of the functions and nature of the negation generally is traditionally viewed as an expression of their criterion of truth / falsity vyskazyvaniya [Alimov 2006, 127]. Speaker assesses the situation, to express to the positive statement as false, ie, has no place in realnosti [Apollova 1980, 94].
So, for the offer, "he did not come," the opposite of positive combination, "he came" is assigned the value falsity. Thus, "it did not come" means "that it came - in my opinion, is wrong."
However, the explanation of the phenomenon of denial only through the parameter "falsity / true statement" [Aristov 1959, 217]. Is not exhaustive. In this case, we obtain the following chain of mental operations in the construction of the negative remarks: the selection of propositions and elements of subjective modality in the situation - the construction of an affirmative statement - comparison of this version with the objective state of affairs - production in case of a mismatch, denial, meaning in this case, "what I originally intended to -. incorrect " From this chain of logic follows the conclusion must be that man, using negative suggestions, it demonstrates the fruit of his rechemyslitelnoj, but, however, the error corrected. This assumption is more than debatable, since it involves an unacceptable number of errors and miscalculations in the process recheporozhdeniya regarding the criterion of truth / falsity of the situation - as one possibility or the second possibility - conscious original construction of false positive statement only to then declare it false.
Within the logic of the phrase "he did not come" true meaning "that he came - a lie." However grammatical value, despite their inherent generic nature, are primarily semantiki [Barkhudarov 1975, 101].
Subjective speech item. As part of the natural language a necessary consequence of the first, negative, approval of the second, positive, seems doubtful. The need to build a positive initial statements considerably complicated, and hesitated to rechemyslitelnyh process.
In addition, the interpretation of negation as a "statement of a certain inconsistency" is not applicable to the assessment of the truth or falsity of the negative statements of the natural language. As noted by VV Gurevich, "any of our saying" stuffed "with references to the speaking subject." [Barkhudarov 1968, 132].
The saying "it did not come is true, because it reflects the real situation with the speakers point of view, includes a component" saying to be true that ... ". In our opinion, any utterance for the speaker - the truth, by definition, that is, it is the result of interpreting human cognitive activities aimed at knowledge of the world (even in the case of a deliberate lie saying it aims to present the audience as an absolute truth). Thus, both positive and negative statements describes the true, on the speakers opinion, the situation in the real world.
Load negative statements additional parameter - mandatory comparing them with corresponding positive statements to recognize the falsity of the latter would-Indicates recheporozhdeniya asymmetry in this aspect, because not approved in the linguistic literature, that the construction of the positive statements must always compare it with a corresponding negative to decide some of them correspond to reality.
In theoretical grammars denial is often seen as a semantic kategoriya [Baranov 1967, 154] based on the opposition of presence / absence from the perspecti........
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