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Реферат Классификация ценных бумаг

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Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 27.10.2016. Сдан: 2015. Страниц: 15. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

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The content

Introduction……………………………………………………………….………..3
Security………………………………………………………………...…….……..4
Classification………………………………………………..………………….…..5
Debt and equity……………………………………………………………..………8
Markets………………………………………………………………………..…..11
Regulation…………………………………………………………………………13
Conclusion……………………………………………………..…………….……14
The list of sources………………………………………………………….….…..15

Introduction

The stock market is an integral part of many advanced economies. The formation of the securities market plays a significant role in formation of market economy.
Securities are a necessary attribute of normal turnover. Being the commodity securities are capable to serve as means of credit and means of payment replacing the cash. The transition to a market economy and the process of formation of the market of securities demanded for the revival and use of all variety of securities. There was a need for a clear legal registration of securities and their circulation, in the absence of which cannot be used.

Security

A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g. equity warrants. In some countries and/or languages the term "security" is commonly used in day-to-day parlance to mean any form of financial instrument, even though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition.
In the United Kingdom, the national competent authority for financial markets regulation is the Financial Conduct Authority: the definition in its Handbook of the term "security" applies only to equities, debentures, alternative debentures, government and public securities, warrants, certificates representing certain securities, units, stakeholder pension schemes, personal pension schemes, rights to or interests in investments, and anything that may be admitted to the Official List.
In the USA, a security is a tradable financial asset of any kind.
Securities are broadly categorized into:
· debt securities, (e.g., banknotes, bonds and debentures)
· equity securities, (e.g., common stocks)
· derivatives, (e.g., forwards, futures, options and swaps).
The company or other entity issuing the security is called the issuer. A countrys regulatory structure determines what qualifies as a security. For example, private investment pools may have some features of securities, but they may not be registered or regulated as such if they meet various restrictions.
Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, "non-certificated", that is in electronic (dematerialized) or "book entry" only form. Certificates may be bearer, meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security merely by holding the security, or registered, meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if he or she appears on a security register maintained by the issuer or an intermediary. They include shares of corporate stock or mutual funds, bonds issued by corporations or governmental agencies, stock options or other options, limited partnership units, and various other formal investment instruments that are negotiable and fungible.


Classification

Securities may be classified according to many categories or classification systems:
· Currency of denomination
· Ownership rights
· Terms to maturity
· Degree of liquidity
· Income payments
· Tax treatment
· Credit rating
· Industrial sector or "industry".
· Region or country (such as country of incorporation, country of principal sales/market of its products or services, or country in which the principal securities exchange where it trades is located)
· Market capitalization
· State (typically for municipal or "tax-free" bonds in the US)

New capital
Securities are the traditional way that commercial enterprises raise new capital. These may be an attractive alternative to bank loans depending on their pricing and market demand for particular characteristics. Another disadvantage of bank loans as a source of financing is that the bank may seek a measure of protection against ........

The List of Sources

1. "The United States Securities Exchange Act". 1934
2. Parlin, Charles C. (1940) "Definition and Classification of Securities Under the Revenue Act"
3. securitieslendingnews/industryarticle.php?article_id=218278#.VnKTfntapFR
4. >5.
6.
7. uniform/ucc.html#a8
8. securitieslendingnews/industryarticle.php?article_id=220267#.VnKTF3tapFQ
9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEC_v._W._J._Howey_Co



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