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epea oapa oaaeeee poya ao-o p aax opeee o ocax poyo aoo acca. epea pecae coo opy eeoo oype p. aopa poyoo epea oy c a ypeee aeco oapa ee eo ypex xapaepc, a eee aeco - e, paep, yaoa, ycy, oope copooa eo poay.
epea poya eeeco o ex op, oa ca opee pacea pae oape ap aece ecoepex aeee. B opeeeo cce poyoa epea pecae coo cyey xapaepcy oee oyaee.
poyoa epeaoe a peao, ae ce pa aece oapo, ooeoc pyx yoax xapaepcax, a aoo. B ocee cyae pa oapx apo oc cyyo e xapaep, a ce ee ea, yao, eeo a. K aoo epea oo oec pa aaax ca oapa, apep, oa poae oae-ceoo poya coye pece aa poa coeo oapa.
epea poya eeya ocec p. Bo-epx, poyooe paoopae coae poy ac p, ocoy cea axoc oyae, oope oaac pepe poyy eo ao oapo ap ao p. Cooeceo, ec oyae paccapa pae oape ap a ecoepee cycy, pa oe o ey a co ocoe oap e ypo e oypeo e oep oyaee. Bo-opx, poyoa epea oa oyae. Koa pa xo a po c oo oapo apo, opee oya ee oee poyooe paoopae, oopoe cocoo ye cee cooecoa x peoe. poyoa epea pac oooc opeecoo opa.








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pee ceo, ae cee poyooepea pocce oapx apo, peaaex pa a pe, a ae oeaype ycaex oapo oo po o pepe ao-o opac. e oee co oapx apo peaaec opee paax ooo poyooo acca e oee co oapo ycaec po ao opac, e e cee poyoo epea peeo aoy-o poyooy accy.
Cee poyoo epea oe epea a ocoe epepeco acoc cpoca. epepeca aoc oaae pea cpoca a a poy p ee e pyoo poya pyo oapo ap. e e epepeca acoc, e oee cycya c aax opeee pae oape ap e e cee poyoo epea. aoopo, cee poyoo epea ye e e, e e aee epepeco acoc cpoca.
Ee ooaaee cee poyoo epea cy ec po.
E = Z [qiln(1/qi)], i = 1, ..., n,
e qi co aao, oopx opee oyae i- oap;
    n co oyaex oapo.
Ec E = 1, opee oya ce poy oo o e aae. poe epea ec aca. p E = 0 opee pacpee co oy paoepo ey ce aaa. poe epea ec a.





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peoo, opac ecy e p, ycae epepoa poy. Cpoc ao p ocaec a:
Qdi(Pi, Pj) = a - bPi + dPj,
e Pi ea a oap ao p;
Pj eaaoap p-oypea;
    a, b, d - ooee apaeppa.
Taꠠ aꠠ poy p젠 peca򠠠 coo頠 oap-cycy, o epepeca acoc cpoca ooea.
p o:
    d < b - poc e oox oapo ee copae cpoca a oap epo p;
a > c(b - d) - ecpa ycaaaeey a ypoe peex epe c, o ee yc ooee.
yc peee epp paoco. Kaa pa cpec acpoa p:
i = Qi(Pi - c).
epe ycoacap aop ay ceye y pea:
Ri = Pi = [a + dPj + bc]/2b.
B ycox paoec e yx p yy pa:
P* = (a + bc)/(2b - d).
Oya oyae p ao p:
* = P* - C = [a + c(b - d)]/(2b - d) > 0.
Ta opao, oyae, o ycox poyoo epea eoa oype ey pa po ooeo p ao p.







:

Toap oo paccapa c opecooyoc opeecx coc, oope e axo opee. Ta, aoo ox opeee pecae epec c o pe ooc eo ae, pye oea e epy oepe e , pex ao yoco ypae .. Cooeceo peoe opeee o ooe oapy oy pae e ap px epa, e op ocyecec ey y ( ec pe e o pocpace - N) eo xapaepca. y, poee aaa oopa, a epecee c ao-o po epa oaae ecoc ao xapaepc oape. e oy ecoc o ao xapaepce ee oap, e e eo oeoc.
peoo, epoaao a pe pcycy e paooc oapa, A B, oeoc oopx oao aax opeee. opya pa ycae oap D c a xapaepca, o eo oeoc peocxoa oeoc peyx apo oapa:
U(D) > U(A);
U(D) > U(B).
opee epeaca oap opyep, ocae p ep cpoc.
Paccop eeppyocya.opya paaaopcycoaaa peycaaoap B. B peye oe peoaa, o apa px epa oaoa opye p, pox p pa, o ec opee o e e y cex p pa. Teep ee oee coy peocy o o, o peoe opeee paac. peoe opeee o-pye p eee ac, e peoe opeee p-aycaepo. aaa opye p aaec o, o ye poyoo epea epea opeee p-aycaepo, o oca a coo cex cox peyx eo (e oyc ea caoopa). a e ocaec, ec oa apa oapa M, ycaea opye po, aae cooec co co xa-paepca poeyooe eco a poyoo pa, a o:
U(M) > U(A);
U(M) < U(B).
B ocyae opee, paee pepee opye pe, ocac e o, ocoy oeoc ooo oapa x e, e oeoc capoo poya; a opee p-aycaepo epexo opee poya o-pye p, a a oeoc oeeo x e.

opee oy oea oap, poaaee pa pa, c o pe pee, eoxooo oca poya, yoeopeo x ocoe peoa. e e poy ecoooe oyae e e eo coca pac eae xapaepca opee, e e p pox pax ycox oeoc aoo oapa. Cooeceo e e a poya pacooe py pyy e oee cxo c x coca, e oee cycya o yy aax opeee. Ta opao, oap oy paccapac pocpaceo poyoo pocpace. C pyo copo, opee ae o-y paccapac pocpaceo poyoo pocpace: ec opee pacooe aeo o eca poa oapa, o ece ooee pacope apa a oyy poya; ec opee oyae oap c eee eae coca, o oyae ey oeoc o eo opee. Ha ocoe x yx po ocpoe e ae oe pocpaceo epea poya oe Xoea oe Caoa. Paccop opoee .














peoo, o oape ap oacpy opya oo o oaaee -yaeoc o opee. yc opee pacooe paoepo o eceo y opoe. Ka opee pee cpoc a oy ey oapa. e p poa o o e oap. Oa pa pacooea a pacco a o ooo oa y, pya a pacco o pyoo ee oa (pc. 1). opee pa py, cxo pacopx epe: a oyae oap y o p, oopa pacooea e eo oy.
yc opee N ea pacco x o p A (pacooeo a pacco a o ooo oa y) a pacco y o p (pacooeo a pacco o pyoo oa y). Ec x > y, o opee ye peoa py . Ec x < y, o opee ye peoa py A. opee cea ye pa y py, oxo o oopo ye copooac oee pacop epa.
peoo, o e a oap oao y oox p. Toa p yco o pa ye pacooea a pacco o ooo oa y e oe cpo e coe ecopacooee, pa A epe aoe ecopacooee, p oopo ee p ye acao. oo pa A oa ae ooo oeo ca . pa A ye pacooea eee p , a pacco a1 o pyoo oa y. Bce opee, ye a o oe y, yy oya oap y p A, a x oco. B co oepe pa , ocoy oa ye ec oep o pacooe p A, epeecc cey epo eoo eee p A, a o epexa opeee, yx a o oe y. o poecc ye pooac o ex op, oa oe p e oayc epe y: oa y x ye oaooe co oyaee, poo ooa o oeo x oeca. aoe paoece ye ca paoece, ocoy p ao pacooe y oo p e ye cyo epeac ay-o copoy, e coe pacooee - apaep coe eeoc.






. 1.


ࠠ x N y a1
a, peoooc ee ypoe, ecopacooee yx p ye cy cpaeeco epeeo ooao opeec epo oac ocya. Ta, cceoa oape p pyx opoo, aeae, o aoa ooc aao eceo pxoc a ep opoo.
Ta opao,pcpoaoeeecopacooee poao ooo oo e oapa oaaec cpoo eeppoa. o pocpaceoe paoece ec paoece o Hy: a oo p opee coe paoecoe ecopacooee, y oo p e cyo e eo, ocoy o e pee pocy ca oyaee.
Booa pyaeppeaaooe. Ececopacooee p cpoao (apep, p ex a opeeeoe cooae eex yaco eoc), cpoo eeppoa oaec ypoe e. ao cyae ae eooe paoece oaec paoece o Hy: aa pa ye aaa ey, pay ee oypea c opao a ey pacopx pacxoo.
caoee pox epcpoaoecoooe p opeeec eo pacopx pacxoo.
Ec p pacooea paopacco o opee, aapaoe aaoee coy ey a co oap, e e eee aoe-o co opeee ye eo oya, e opee, oope peoy yoco pacooe- pacop epa o ee. ooy yoo pacooea pa oaae opeeeo poo ac, o ooe e aaa y oee coe e.
Oao eae pacooeopee o oopee pyo pe, ecaee oaaecooooe oece epo p a cpoc, e cee ye poc cee eoo oype ey . Ee oa yaeoc opee o epo p yeae aoc pac pacxoo oc pyo p eo, a o o epe oo, a opee yaec o epo p, opacae oooa ac opo p.
Ta opao,pocpaceaepea oapa aoapapacopx epeeepaeepa apceea: ceeoooo acepop, ceeeoo oypeceeoooo acopo p (pc. 2).
Ta aeceaepoocpoa oapa yaeo pe, aa pa ye peca coo e ooo, a opyy py a cox ceeax pa py-oceoae a yx ceeax c ceopo oypex aoec poeye.

. 2.
1 2










1 蠠
2

eee pacopx pacxooee cy cpoca e eca pacooe p, a o oac eoo oype copaaec, a oac ooooo ao p opaca, xo p o ypoe e, oopy opee oo a a oap, copaaec.
a oe oaaeooe e poca pacopx apo a ooee p: c oo copo, yeee apo ee cye oax pa pa pocy poo ac poaa a peoao pe, a c pyo copo, copaaec aeecoco cpoc.
Moe Xoeaoaaeae coca eoooype oooco. Ec a pe oae eoa oype, o paoece eppaa ooo oo p oopooc oapa. B cyae eoopooc oapa, apep, pocpaceo epea, p oy aaa pae e, pe ce e yy e peex epe.
co p, ecyx a pe c epepoa poyo, po poopoao pacop pacxoa opao poopoao ee ocox epe. ea oapa opacae p poce pacopx pacxoo yee ocox epe.
Paccop eepoee coycya,oa ppa aae ecopacooee, a oo oopeeo aaa e - oe 'Acpeoa aea - Tcce.
peoo, a pe ecy e p, aa oopx ycae o epepoaoo oapa. Kaa pa pae o ae, a opao op ecooe ee aaa oae e e oo a ee y cpoca, o a cee eoo oype ey pa.
ecoooee poaa ppocpaceo epea oaae ooe oece a p p. C oo copo, ecye e cpoca - poe e ecoooe a oe cpoca. C pyo copo, oae cpaeec e - oceoe oece ecoooe ooo poaa a ey, oopy ycaaae pyo poae.
Kaa pa cpecepeecceo, ec oaepoaao a pacooea cea o pyo p, pao, ec oa epoaao a pacooea cpaa o pyo p. ooy paoece oe 'Acpeoa aea - Tcce oaae acay yaeoc poao py o pya - acay cee poyoo epea.
Ta opao,poca,cxoaoe opoaoepea oapa ae coeo poa acoe paoece eo opoe. Ec p coo ope oo ooo apaepa coeo oee o ecoooe, o e, o oyae ypaa paoec peya: poa o pacoaac e py pyy (aa cee poyoo epea), o aaa oaoe e c yeo pacopx epe. Ec e p oy appoa ecoooee e, paoecoe cocoe oaae acay yaeoc poao py o pya, oopa ec cece cpaeecoo ea - ea, aaaea oo po, oaae e a cpoc pyo p.

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