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1. һ 1964 .

2. - : ߠ

3. 60-- 80- .

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Bopa ooa 60- cepea 80- oo epoo apaca eax e o cex cepax oeca. O poc caa oo, poce ooox acpoe acee, ae aopea CCCP a eyapoo apee. paec pyooco cpa ep o coepecoa coaa e o ocao aaeoc pca acpao-oao cce.

B aae 70- oo . . pee o aeo o o, o CCCP ocyo paeco pecy o ypo oo yyp o aoa opoc cpae pee. epaoc ae o caa oo copeco ooc coecoo apoa. Oao o epo, oee ooro aecoo paeca pecy ocyo e o. oee oo, eaoax ooex oa oe poe, peoae eaeeoo papee. pecae pecy peoa pacpe ce o c peoaae a poo e. coc ee ay opyae cpe, a coxpaee copecx ao aoax pa. Ho pyooco cpa e yeo ooo a apaca oa aoao cepe. Poc aoaoo caocoa apoo, cye ay aoax epeco paccapac a poee ecoo aoaa.

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1. һ 1964 .

, 60- , . . .

- . ( 1965 . ) . - .

- . , . - . . . , , . , . , . . . , . , , : , ; , ; . - . . , , , , , . 1966 . . 43 17 .

, , XXIII ( 1966 . ). - - , . : , , ... , , . , , . . , 20- ., 60- . . , . , , . , , . , , , 20-30- . 60-70- . , . , . , . . , , , , , . , .

- , , , , , . . - . - , , . . . 1959 . 47,9%, 1970 . - 56,9%, 1981 . - 63,4%.[1] , , , , . , - . . , . ( , , , , .. ), , , , - , , , .. ( ). , , . , . .

2. - :

Cea oecoo ypca. C ocao H. C. Xpyea aepc poecc epaa oeceo-oeco , ooc aae peopaoa. K ac po ooe pyooco. ep cepeape K KCC (c 1966 .eepa cepeape) ca . . pee, axoc eee ox e a apo paoe. eo o o aopo opaaopo cee H. C. Xpyea. eoe ocopo, ocepa, o oee ceo cpec caoc oeca. ao paeca aae A. H. Koc, pyoo pae o ocao CCCP, cepca aco, eo eco poeoc.

ac ox pyooee, o ce A. H. Koc cepeap K ap . B. Apoo, ca eoxo aeee pae cpa, opac a pee XX cea ap. O oaa y pooa peopaopc ypc ooe aey epaa oeceo-oeco , c e o ype cyecyy ccey. B o e pe o cya poa paax peopaoa oece. oee ocepa y pa ocaa . . pee, M. A. Cyco, A. H. ee eoope pye pao apo-ocyapceoo amapaa. ocee cac oeca o ca c epecopo oecoo ypca ocex e, c oao o o ecaa peop.

pooopco e o opocy o ope ye aeeo pa oeca aepoc oopoo o peopaopca epoa xpyeco oee yepeo-ocepaoy ypcy oe eoora. eo-eopeeco ocoo eeoc ooo pyooca a papaoaa oe 60- oo oe paoo coaa. B oax oyeax pao coa paoac a oae a a y poe coecoo oeca oyy, xoe oopoo pecoo o-c opaecoo coee cex cep oeceo . Koe e oepaa coe eopeece ooe o oyceco epcee, coepaec apx oyeax peecyx e, acoc popae KCC. Bece c e a oe oeppoaa ae a eoxooc pee eyx aa ooo ao ocpoe oya aa paoo coaa. Cyecoae oece eoe pce e paccapac a peya eex poecce eo pa poope. cpae eocao oa a cococoa oa coepecoa coaa. A pooa oe paoro coaa . . pee, ce eo a ocy a KCC . B. Apoo pee oceeo K. . epeo.

e ee pa. B oeceo-oeco 6070- oo pocxo coe poopee poecc. o o op c oapo H. C. Xpyea cepac aae peopaoa. B oe 1964 . cocooc oeee poex cecx apx opaa. oee a ypaea eppopaa ccea ypae apo xoc-o. cpac cpe, oyee apapo cepe, acoc o ooe oy pycaeoy xocy.

Haac oxo o ypca ecaa. B ea pepac pa ya oc . B. Caa, paoaee eao cacoo pea. Bo a yecoea eypa. Ka pee, opaac ocy coa ayo opa oeeceo apyeo cceoaee. a epa oea a coo ee ocec pa ay.

B pa oeceo-oeco ce oee eo poceac e ee: eopaeca aeopaea. O poc, acoc, cepe ypae pooce rocyapce ea.

Ha pyee 6070- oo aeo pacpc ooo ecx Coeo. O ooppoa opopoa eeoc pep, ypee, oxoo oac oo cpoeca, apooo opaoa, paooxpae. eya ecx Bepxox Coeo oy pao oc peoe o acya a ceccx oeo x opao ac oocx , oopox Coea. B 70- aae 80- roo eco poca ceoc oecex oee a pe-px ypeex. Coaac opaa apooo o-po execoo opeca, ocoo ecye poo-cee coea (C). B x cocae acac co -c paox, ceaco, cyax. Oee oaoc, oec pee ocyapce ypaeec cpyypa, epea oeceoc. K pepy, pooe pacpocpaee oy opooe apoe py o oxpae oeceoo opa.

eeoc accox oee, pyoo oop ape opaa, coaaa yac ypae oece pooco pox coe acee.

Oecee oee pecaee pax aeop acee ecoa p ecx Coeax. Ho coa coca cax Coeo, coooee e paox, oxoo -ee opeec ap opaa.

Pyooco eeoc ocyapcex oecex opaa ocyeca Koyceca ap. B aae 80- oo pax KCC acaoc 19 . eoe. KCC e oo paaaa eepay epcey pa oeca, o peopa ee epe ape oecee opaa a ecax. pae opoc ee o, pa oo, op eoo ee ypae paccapac a apx ceax XXIV (1970 .), XXV (1975 .), XXVI (1980 .). Ha ceax pac a apooxoceoo pa (eo, eco oaao eo). Haeac ep coepecoa xoceoo exaa, oope e ycpa, o-ao, peepo epaa oao-pax eoo ypae. eac ceoc acpaoo aapaa. a a ece oeco oecox cepc oco c 29 o 160. B 1985 . x paoao ooo 18 . oo. Hapacae pyoce earx e ooe e ocoaaoc pyooco cpa.

Kocy CCCP 1977 . B ope 1977 . eoepea cecc Bepxooo Coea CCCP pa oy Kocy. peapeo poe Ocooo aoa oyoa epao eco ea. Ha pepx, oxoax, yex aeex poo ocyee ocyooo oyea. pooe, coooe paccopee poea Ocooo aoa paceaoc a oaaeco peyec coeco eopa epe ypyao.

B ocoy oo Kocy a ooea oe paoo coaa. Eo xapaepca coepaac peaye oyea. a po ocyapceo ac pooaaoc ooace apoa. apeac yepea pe Kocy oeca ocoa ocyapca Coe. Oe o ca aac Coea apox eyao.

Bce Coe apox eyao Bepxo Coe CCCP, Bepxoe Coe cox aoox pecy, paee, oace pye Coe coca ey ccey opao ocyapceo ac.

Bo ae cce axoc yxaa Bepxo Coe CCCP, coco Coea Coa Coea Haoaoce. Eo oaoc c: pe eee oecoo Kocy, eie coca Coa ox pecy, yepee ocyapcex eo, ao coaoo ooecoo pa. B epepax ey cecc Bepxooo Coea CCCP eo y o pey. oceea ypaeeca eeoc ocyecac p oo cce ocyapceoo ypae, oopy oa Coe Mcpo CCCP.

po oeco cce oeca paoo coaa aaac Koyceca ap. Ca eca Ocooo aoa apea a KCC po pyooe apae c oeca, opeee reepay epcey eo pa, ypee ee o.

oepaac ocoa ooeco cce coaceca coceoc a cpeca pooca yx ee opax: ocyapceo ooepao-oxoo.

Oee pae Kocy oce opoca coaoo pa ee o.

copypoa p ooe CCCP c py epaa pa: cyepeoe paeco, a oa o pee c, coee eppopao eococ ocyapc, poe ypeypoae copx opoco. Kocy acpoaa p coacecoo epaoaa ooex Coa CCP c coacec cpaa ocyapca, ocooc o ooao acoc. Coxpac ocoe ooe Kocy 1936 . o aoao-rocyapceo ycpoce. B oo a oceac paa oaoc coecx rpaa, apapyee ooec, oec pao cpeca.

ccecoe ee. cee eooecoo aa a oecey oce epoa oee ao pooe pacpocpaee e cceca. Ha epx opax eeoc cceo (, oopx pape c oao eooe) a apaea a yyee cyecye cce, oee a oa o ee. Haoee p x pecae- cop Po Meee, cae A. . Coe, A. . Caxapo. a opa eeoc cceo eocpa o paoa oya, opae apec pyooee cpa cyee ca ay pa ex x . Ta, 1966 . pya epao acpoeo ee xyo, cae, ya opaac c op co . . peey. B ce a pe o oe oacoc peaa . B. Caa o eoycoc opoe eocaa. B 1968 . yac paoaoo e opaoa eocpa poeca c c opee oc CCCP pyx cpa OB exocoa. B 70- ro ycoc poocoe ey ooo ee ac. Ooae oxo apo-ocyapceoro pyooca o peopaopcoo ypca, opae oac pacpocpae opa, cpeee paeca ocpecoa pooy pa oao ee c e po cococoa aa oo.

ccea a aaea ya a pyeo epaypx poee, apeex cpae (Taa). Boa a aaea eceypa ea (Caa). aac a-oce ypa (Bee, a), opao ee paoaoo e Xpoa eyx co. B cepee 70- oo cce opaoa Moce pyy coec oe xeccx coae. ec cceo paceac pyooco cpa a pee paee. pecae ccecoo e oepac peceoa, x caa p (eepa popeo), ca a pye (cae A. . Coe).

Xocee peop cepe 60- oo. Peopaa peop ooe oa 50- aaa 60- oo e pe o ca. aa e ooecoo pa. ooo pyooca cpa a oeo eoxooc pooe ooecx peop.

peopaoa ocyc pee ceo cecoo xoca. B ape 1965 . ee epe a ayo cexopoy a ecoo e epe. oac aooee e a epoe yyp. eac aa ecy ayo ea a co. Koxo epeoc a poe aocoe peoae. Boac apapoaa oaa pya oxoo. c opae c pa x x xoc.

Oce 1965 . aaa ocyecc ooeca peopa poeoc. E peecoaa ea cycc, oopo yacoa xocee pao pye yee-ooc, x ce B. C. Heo, . M. pa p. B xoe cycc caac c o eoxooc epe ooo xopacea caooyaeoc pep. e pacee a ecoepeee, e e eee peopy aoe eoope p poo oo (p, xopace).

pa peopa ycaaaa o rax oaaee pao pep oe peaoao poy. Copaaoc oeco aox oaaee, ox ocyapco. Ha pe-px coaac ceae o a ce oce o p. x cpeca peaaac pa pooca aepaoo oope paoo. Boc ee ccey ypae poeoc. pac Coe apooo xoca occaaaoc opaceoe ypaee. Oe oo oo o ecoa ycox ox po apoa xoceo caocoeoc pep. Peopa, a opao, oaa po ooecx eoo ypae, o e apaaa oco oao-acpao cce.

ycpaoe pae. C 1966 . pcy paoe a ox ycox xocoa ce 700 poocex oeo. poecc epexoa poeoc a ccey xopacea aepe oy oco e. B poecce ocyece peop paepyoc ce ex pep c py. Coaac poocee oee (O). Bxoe x coca ao ap ca pooceo ooepae o ycy ooo poy oeco epepaoo cp. O pyex oee ca Ao˻. B eo coca o Mococ aoo ao . . A. xa-ea ecoo aoo-ao pyx opoax ( acoc, Pocae Mece). opaee eoopx poocex oee paeac pax ooecx paoax co-x pecyax.

Boca ea (19661970 .) a peee aoee caoo pa oceoeo oo. Baoo oece poyr oc a 13%, poea poy a 50% (oae ae). B ox acaax ec aaoe cpoeco peocpy ecyx pooc. o oeeo 1900 poex pep. aepoc coopyee epo oepe Bocoo aoooo aoa Tora. Haa ecoa aao-Cpc eaypec oa, eioe epoca Kpopoe Koaoe. Coopyac oe peocpypoac ecye pep xeco poeoc. Ocoeoc ooo cpoeca oc eo ceee pao o e ppooo aa. Ooac poaa aopooa Cpe A ep poeoc 2750 . Oa a ocpoex ee- aopooo peca 35 c. .[2]

Ka peecye ece, o 811 eo pye poeoc cya c ooce pyo- aa. ec c paox yacoa e opeaee paoaaopo, copeoac a coy pooeoc pya.

Maccooe pacpocpaee oyo oee ee aae 60- oo ee a oycecoe ooee pyy. Moocee a oc epo ooo aeae aa 50- 60-e Opco peo, 50-eo opaoa CCCP, 40-e oe CCCP Beo Oeeceo oe. Copeoae pyeo ycp poco opeee ooec e. B o e pe e pcycoao eao oayx eeo opaa. Moe pyoe a oaac aya (apep, opa a eeeoe ooee poy).

Xapaepo epo ycpaoo pa 70- oo oc| yeee acao ooo cpoeca. Bcy cpo oo ao Kypce, ao aoaecx Kocpoe aoo aocpoe Boooce (Aoa). oc poeo ooc Boc aoo ao (BA). B Haepex eax ooc ao o poocy aooe oo pyooeoc (KaA). Haa ecoa eoe epoca aopoe Cypye. Beoc execoe epeoopyee ecyx pep (Xapoc ec paope ao, pac ao eoo aocpoe p.).

Bco ea paac epea, x, epoa, ee- aooaa, aoa poeoc. Ocooe ae yeoc pa oopoo poeoc. pooco oeo ex a aocpoex pepx ocao 60% ce ycaeo poy. B epo eco e (19761980 .) a ceaa oa epeec poeoc a y ecoo pa. ea eoc aeca a aaac oa oax oyeax. Oao aeee a o epe oo ex pocy pooeoc pya oe e . oee oo, aeoc cepeoe ocaae o cex ycpax opacx.

ycpaoe pae 70- aaa 80- oo xapaepoaoc yyee ee, ax oo oppoa eoo apooxoceoo oeca. B ocoe ao coao-ooecoo pa eaa oeoc oo cex cox pecy eoy apooxoceoy oecy. C e aoooe pecyacx xoc x oee e oec paac poecc oecooo paee pya. Ta, Aepaaco CCP peyeceoe ae yeoc aoo eexeco poeoc. Ee poy nocaac pye pecy aaa.

Ocyecc popa coa eppopao-poocex oeco. C x oo ae peoaaoc ype xocee c pecy. coppoa eppopao-poocee oec Cp (Kpacopco-Ac), Kaaxcae (eco-ayc), Tacae pyx paoax. poaaac aao-Aypca eeoopoa acpa (AM).

Kypc a epa oo cox pecy, peoe ypaee pecyac xoca epa a cpoop x cpyype. O ocec oo ca oeceoe eooco poc ooox acpoe cox pecyax. B a, e co a oe ooecx poope ycoc cpeee xoy pecy cocaa CCCP. Ceapacce acpoe x ocoeo apoac 80- o.

K aay 80- oo cpae coa o poe oea. Bece c e popeoe ae opac oeo-poeoo oo-epeecoo oeco ycyyo eopa cpyype poeoc. peoe ypaee, eocao ye peoax ocoeoce pooca e ae ooecx oaaee ycpaoo pa.

Tee apapoo pa. Peop cepe 60- oo e ocao apaca pyoce pa cecoo xoca. eee paepo aaooe ocao ex cey e poco ooecoo ea. Ka pee, oycac apye oe apoa aooo, ycaaac oee aa o aye cecoxoceo poy. ayoe e a ee e cea ocaoo oocoa. Morae poy poaac ocyapcy o coec cao ea. o cao oo p yee ca yx xoc.

C oa 60- ocoeo 70- o c e eca cecoxoceoo pooca ca coaac eppoae xoca apopoee oee, oa, apop. B x coca ac oxo coxo, pep o epepaoe cexocp, opaa pacopa opo. K ce-pee 80- oo apocepe oo ecoa 4,8 c. exocex pep.[3] Oao apopoea epa ycox apacaeo ooecoo pca e peca oaeoo ea.

pac pye ep oea apapoo pooca. epoec oac aooee e a epoe yyp, apoe, ooo pye poy. Boc aa ayo ea a poy, pooy xoca xyx ppox ycox. yye ypae apocepo coa ocyapce apopoe oe, a a ecax paoe apopoee oee. Hoe ypaeece cpyyp e yy ooe e eee oooce. Oe aoo poy cecoo xoca copaac. B 19711975 . o coca 13% cooyoo oeceoo poya, a 19811985 . 6%.

He e pa cecoo xoca a epeo cae acee poooce oapa. peooe coxc pyoce c poya a a papaoaa pooocea popaa CCCP (1982 .). popao peycapaoc oecoe pae cecoo xoca ocyax ero opace poeoc, aooo, xpae, epepao. Apopoe oec (AK) ee caocoe oe apoa ypae.[4]

Ha pyee 7080- oo aeo yxyc yco apooxoceoo pa. Ocoac eopaeca cya. eee poaeoc acee 60- oax (oo ocec Oeeceo o) peo copae poa pyox pecypco. ec pacxo a pae oopox opace. aoo py ocyapceoo ea 70 oee apac a oee y. B eo ycp, pee ceo aocpoe, e oc a ayo-execoo popecca. epeeee epo oae poeoc ocoe pao oco ceecooc oo-epeecoo c. Pae aoo epe, eee cpo ox epo-oo a aox epocax copooac oceoc oayxo.

oe pooeoc pya a pepa oa epe ox op eo opaa oe op a ycox ooo xopacea. pa xapaep pya oy pacpocpaee poeoc, cpoece, ceco xoce, o oeo cee o e pec oaeoro ea. Heaopa ooeca oypa coac a poo pe. Peo ya e a e ae pee coecoo copa. apaeo c ocyapceo oac a aaea eea ooa (eyee caco pep cepe poeoc, opo . .). Ee pa coycoa eao oppy.

aa oaao e (19811985 .) e oe o ooy oaae.

Coaa cepa. poope pa oeca apy oee ao coax epop. ceee pyx o peee o poe. Maccooe cpoeco ooo yy yco a coe c opoa. K aay 80- oo o 80% cee e oee app (oaa caca). Meeee, e apoaoc, poc peae oxo acee. yee paep eeeco apa ooaae aeop paoo. Oopeeo eoc eopaaoe cee oa pya eepo-execoo epcoaa paox. Poc apa ec e yea peax peyao pya paoax.

B 70- aae 80- roo peo copac aaooe coay cepy. Ee acpoae o ocaooy py ocoeo eo opaoc a ycox cecoo acee. aeo ocaaa o opoa oeceeoc ce ec ec oo ypee, pep ooo ocya oeceoo a. o oc oo p ooa cecx pyeo opoa. a epo ey Bceco epec acee 1959 1979 r. ceoc opoa yeac co 100 . o 163,3 . x o oe cocae acee cpa peca 62%.

B coay cepy, a e a pye oac , yoo po eae e. B aeo epe o o cao c oee ooro coaoo co oece a aaeo oeayp. Pyooe ceo cpeeo ypo aa ocooe, pepoaoe ooee ccee pacpeee aepax a. x cyecoao ceaoe caee poooce poe oapa, ecoa ceae o, o, caaop. Hoeaypa a aeo oopo poooo oecoro ypca. cee coaoo epaeca, apye aooc co copo eoopx pyoox paoo, caoco apec . . peea a apx ceax ea a pacyee eooco cpae. aa aope Koyceco ap.


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