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Курсовик Development of skills of independent creative activity in the process of game on the lessons of English. Psychological features of organization of independent work and its classification. Development of independence student in the process of teaching.
Тип работы: Курсовик.
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MOSCOW MUNICIPAL UNIVERSITY OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY
FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Course paper on a theme:
Development of creative abilities at English lessons
Performed by: the fourth-year student,
Faculty of foreign languages,
Scientific superviser: Znamenskaya A.V.
I. Chapter I. Development of independent creative activity in the teaching process
1.1 Teaching of independent activity at foreign language lessons
1.2 Formation and development of skills of the independent creative activity with the usage of educational game at the English language Lessons
Chapter I Conclusion
II. Chapter II. Practical application of methods and ways of development of independent creative activity of pupils at lessons at an average comprehensive school
2.1 Development of skills of independent creative activity in the course of teaching a foreign language
2.2 The forms of teaching promoting development of skills of Independent activity of pupils at lessons
Chapter II conclusion
The List of the Used Literature
English as one of the means of a dialogue and knowledge around the world takes a special place in the system of modern education owing to the social, informative and developing functions.
Teaching a foreign language is connected with the development both thinking and emotions and other spheres of a person. Importance and necessity of including of motivational and emotional spheres of a person of a pupil is underlined in the methodical literature of last years on teaching foreign languages. Mastering of the language in artificial conditions, that is out of the surroundings where it is spoken, demands creation of the imagined situations, being able to stimulate a communicatoin in the language. Learnt is also connected with the development of imigration.
Process of studying a foreign language promotes the formation of creative independence as there is a possibility of using creative tasks and exercises within the limits of the given subject which demands independent work from pupils. They are taught to use a language material for expression of their thoughts in a dialogical and monologic speech.
Teaching English can and should provide the achievement of practical, educational and developing aims. Besides, the practical purpose theleading. The other purposes are reached in the course of mastering English in the conditions of pupils' active informative of power of apprehension and activity. Pedagogics, guiding and synthesising these aspects, defines vision of a problem from its specific point of view.
The urgency of the given term paper consists in insufficient research of methods and ways of development of skills of independent creative activity in the course of teaching a foreign language.
The object of the course paper are methods and ways of process of teaching a foreign language.
The subject of the given term paper is development of skills of independent creative activity in the course of teaching a foreign language.
We shall deal with the studying of methods and ways of development of skills of independent creative activity in the course of teaching a foreign language which also promotes the formation and development of intellectual abilities among pupils that will raise the efficiency of teaching and educational process.
It will be clear from what has been said above. The problems of the given course paper are:
1) To consider concept - «independent creative activity in the course of teaching a foreign language»;
2) To analyze the notion “educational game” as means of formation and development of language abilities;
3) To consider practical application of methods and ways of development of independent creative activity at the English lessons;
4) To consider practical application of methods and the teaching forms, promoting development of skills of independent activity of schoolchildren in the course of training;
Methods of research of the given work is studying the scientific works connected with revealing its psychological aspects, approaches to a technique of the organisation of creative activity at school, criteria of an estimation of its efficiency etc. providing success of formation and development of the person's creative abilities. Great attention of consideration of methodological aspects of a problem of complex formation of creative abilities, formations of its creative potential was paid to works of the famous scientists.
The structure of our course paper consists of the introduction, two chapters, the conclusion, the list of the used literature.
Chapter I. Development of independent creative activity in the teaching process.
1.1 Teaching of independent activity at foreign language lessons
The aspiration to carry out the tasks demanding display great intellect, imagination, desire to get knowledge, dream, - here are necessary conditions of occurrence of a great interest in subjects. Independent work is considered to be the specific form of the schoolpupils' educational activity characterising by all its features. As a matter of fact, it is the form of self-education connected with educational activity of the pupil in a class. The concept of independent pupil's work of modern didactics is sure to correspond with the organizing a teacher's role.
Various kinds of individual and collective pupil's activity mean independent work. They are carried out by them in class and extra activity at home according to the tasks without direct teacher's participation. Learning a foreign language at home and somewhere else out of class, assumes as a basis of consideration of independent pupils' activity. It represents various kinds of activity with education and bringing up of the pupil's character himself, his independent work should be realised as free for choice, internally motivated activity. It assumes performance by the pupil of number of actions entering into it, the comprehension of the purpose of the activity, acceptance of an educational problem, giving a personal sense to it, submission of other interests to performance of this problem and forms of employment of the pupil, self-organising in the distribution of educational actions in time, self-checking in the course of performance and some other actions.
Mastering a foreign language is connected with the formation of pupils' pronounciation, lexical, grammatical, spelling and other skills. This is the basis of abilities to understand oral speech, to improve speaking, reading and writing. As far as it is known, skills are developed only during regular performance of certain actions of a teaching material, i.e. such actions which allow to listen, say, read and write repeatedly in studied language.
Oral speech and first of all speaking practice is carried out directly in the presence of the interlocutors which role at school is carried out by the teacher and schoolmates. However teaching speaking is supposed to have certain stages for which independent work is the most adequate form.
It is also necessary to include certain links of work on a language material in independent work - acquaintance to it and partially training in its usage. As to reading, this kind of activity is made by the reader mainly alone with itself, hence, independent work quite corresponds to it. Attentive listening to English speech takes place now not only in a class, without preparation, in the presence of the teacher, from its voice or in phonorecord, but there are also audiotexts for independent pupils' work, and this form of work is quite applicable to the given kind of speech activity. Training of writting also assumes certain stages. Speaking of independent work and pupils' work in a class the first one is of more significance.
The lesson-performance is effective and productive mode of study. Usage of works of art of the foreign literature at foreign language lessons improves pupils' pronounciation skills, provides creation of communicative, informative and aesthetic motivation. Performance preparation is a creative work which promotes the development of skills of children's language dialogue and disclosing of their individual creative abilities.
Such kind of work stirs up pupils'cogitative and speech activity, develops their interest to the literature, serves the best mastering of culture of the country of studied language, and also extends of language. Thus there is a process of storing of vocabilary. At the same time formation of the school children's vocabilary leads to the so-called passive-potential vocabulary. It is important that pupils are satisfied with such kind of work.
The modern approach to studying of English language assumes not only getting of any sum of knowledge in a subject, but also development of own position, own relation to the reading: mutual wondering, empathy, interfaces and author's "I".
The dictionary of short terms treats the concept "essay" as a sketch version in which the leading role is played both by fact of reproduction and the image of impressions, meditations, associations.
At the English lessons pupils analyze the selected problem, defend their position. Pupils should be able to estimate the read works critically, to state thoughts in written form according to the put problem, to learn to defend their point of view and to make their own decision in an understanding way in a class. Such form of a lesson develops mental pupils' functions, logic and analytical thinking and that is important, ability to think in a foreign language.
The lesson in the form of a musical play promotes development socio-cultural competence and acquaintance with the cultures of the English-speaking countries. Methodical advantages of song creativity in teaching a foreign language are obvious. It promotes aesthetic and moral education of schoolchildren, opens creative abilities of each pupil more fully. Thanks to musical singing at a lesson the favorable psychological climate is created, the weariness decreases, language activity is stirred up. In many cases' it serves also as a discharge reducing pressure and restors pupils' working capacity.
Recently the method of projects gets more and more supporters. It is directed to develop child's active independent thinking and to teach him to remember and reproduce knowledge which are given to him by school, and to be able to put them into practice.
The design technique at work differs by a co-operative character on the project. Activity carried out is creative in its essence and focused on the person of the pupil. It assumes a high level of individual and collective responsibility for performance of each task on project working out. Teamwork of the group of pupils over the project is inseparable from active communicative interaction of pupils. The design technique is one of forms of the organisation of research informative activity in which pupils take an active subjective position. Theme of the project can be connected with one subject sphere or have a interdisciplined character. At selection of a theme of the project the teacher should be guided by interests and requirements of pupils, their possibilities and the personal importance of the forthcoming work, the practical importance of the result of work on the project. The executed project can be presented in the most different forms: an article, recommendations, an album, a collage and many other things. Forms of presentation of the project are also various: a report, a conference, a competition, a holiday, a performance. The main result of work on the project will be actualisation of available and getting new knowledge, skills and abilities and their creative application in new conditions. Work on the project is carried out in some stages and usually is beyond educational activity at lessons: a choice of a theme or a project problem; formation of group of executors; working out of the plan of work on the project, definition of terms; distribution of tasks among pupils; fulfilment of the tasks, discussion the results of fulfilment of each task in a group; registration of joint result; the report under the project; an estimation of performance of the project.
Work by a design technique demands from pupils a high degree of independence of search activity, coordination of their actions, active research, performing and communicative interaction. The role of the teacher consists in preparation of pupils for work on the project, choice of a theme, in rendering assistance by the pupil at scheduling, in the current control and consultation of pupils on a course of performance of the project with function of participator.
So, the basic idea of a method of projects consists in transferring accent from a various kind of exercises on active cogitative activity of pupils during joint creative work.
The specified forms of work are comprehensible in all classes. It is natural that its volume and character of management of it on the part of the teachers differ.
In the methods it is accepted to allocate following levels of independent work:
- Reproducing (copying);
- The semicreative;
- The creative.
Reproducing level of independent work is very important at learning a foreign language as it underlies its other levels, and it is responsible for formation of pronouncing -lexical and grammatical base, for creation of samples in the pupil's memory.
Independence is treated in pedagogy, as one of the person's properties. This property is characterised by two factors. The first factor includes set of means - knowledge, abilities, skills which the person possesses. The second factor - the relation of the person to activity process, its result and conditions of the realisation, and also communications developing in the course of activity with other people.
One of significant problems in pedagogy is the problem of forming - self-dependence means to make, to organize, to generate. We hold that opinion that formation is a process in the course of which there is a creation of something new on the basis of available qualities of the person as genesis character, and acquired. In works of scientists on problems of informative independence, depending on the aspect of research, the definition of concept of informative independence is revealed a condition, methods, structure of development of pupils' creative abilities through independent kinds of activity.
Independent work can be carried out in various organizational forms: individually, in pairs, in small groups and the whole class.
Each of the named forms urged to create and develop organizational, information, informative and communicative abilities of pupils. These abilities will provide advancement of pupils in language mastering in the unity with the development of their methods.
One of the main tasks formulated within the limits of the concept of modernisation of a Russian education for the period till 2010, a role of independent work of pupils and strengthening of responsibility of teachers increase the development of skills of independent work, education of their creative activity and the initiative.
Independent work at the present stage is an obligatory part of the curriculum and one of the major components of the educational process the result of which is development of subject knowledge, the skills, considered as the integrated characteristic of readiness for the decision of problems. Independent pupils' work should be devoted to mastering the ways of informative activity by pupils. At the same time independent work, its planning, organizational forms and methods, and also system of tracing of results are not investigated in the pedagogical theory in a full way of an education modernisation context.
The problem of the organisation of independent work is especially significant at foreign language studying. Moreover, at the present moment development communicative language can be seen in the majority of pupils. In this connection it's necessary to change the way of organizing of independent work. The effect from independent work can be received only in that case when it will be organised and realised in teaching and educational process as the complete system penetrating in to all grade levels. At the present stage such system should include information computer support. Introduction of means of an information technology allows to solve such actual methods of teaching of problem foreign languages as: a problem of the control, an individualization and comfort of teaching foreign languages; nonlinear giving of the information, the account of different types of perception in teaching foreign languages; absence of the language surroundings.
Use of means of an information technology allows to provide learning of foreign languages at an individual rate, to raise independence and responsibility of the children, to build teaching according to the interests and the purposes of each child, to enter an intercultural component into training process.
Independent work in turn should be considered as the specific form of educational activity of the pupil, characterised by all its features. It is the higher form of its educational activity. As a matter of fact it is the form of self-education connected with educational activity of the pupil in a class.
1.2 Formation and development of skills of the independent creative activity with the usage of educational game at the English language Lessons
As far as we can judge, the great value in the organisation of educational process promotes a played motivation of the doctrine. Thinking activization causes interest to this or that kind of task, to filfilment of this or that exercise. The ways of training satisfying requirement of children in novelty of the studied material and a variety of carried out exercises are the strongest motivating factor. Usage of various ways of teaching promotes fastening of the language phenomena in memory, create more proof visual and acoustical images, maintenance of interest and activity of pupils. The foreign language lesson is considered as the social phenomenon where the class audience is a certain social surroundings where educational process is an interaction of all present. Thus, the success in teaching is a result of collective use of all possibilities for teaching.
Great opportunities for formation and development of skills of independent creative activity are given by use of game in the course of teaching a foreign language.
Game makes active aspiration of pupils to contact with each other and with the teacher, creates equality conditions in speech partnership, destroys a traditional barrier between the teacher and the pupil. Game gives the chance the shy to break an uncertainty barrier. In it everyone receives a role and should be the active partner in speech dialogue. In games pupils seize such elements of a dialogue as ability to begin conversation, to support it, to interrupt the interlocutor, from time to time to agree with his opinion or to deny it, ability to listen to the interlocutor purposefully, to ask specifying questions etc. Language games help to acquire various aspects of language (phonetics, lexics, etc.) They devide on: phonetic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic.
The main objective of phonetic games is statement (correction) of a pronunciation, training in a pronunciation of sounds in words, phrases, working off intonation. They are used regularly, mostly at the initial stage of teaching a foreign language (an introductory-corrective course) by way of the illustration and exercises for working at the most difficult sounds for a pronunciation, intonation. In process of advancement forward phonetic games are realised at the level of words, offers, rhymings, tongue twisters, verses, songs. The experience got in games of this kind, can be used by pupils further on speaking foreign language.
Lexical games concentrate attention of pupils exclusively on a lexical material. They help to get the vocabulary and to increase it, to illustrate and fulfill the use of words in dialogue situations. There are various kinds of lexical games:
Grammatical games urged to provide ability of pupils practically to apply knowledge on grammar, to stir up their cogitative activity directed on the use of grammatical designs in natural situations of a dialogue.
Stylistic games pursue the aim of teaching pupils to distinguish official and informal styles of a dialogue, and also to apply each of them correctly in different situations.
Speech games teach the skill of using language means in the course of fulfilment of the speech act and make a start from a concrete situation in which speech actions are carried out.
Games for training urge to help reading and listening with the decision of the problems connected with data VRD. And in the basis they assume work of pupils with the text: coding and an illustration, guess, designing, paraphrase, compression/expansion etc.
Games are very important for forming pupils' informative interests. They promote the realised development of a foreign language. They promote development of such qualities as independence, initiative; to educate the feeling of a collectivism. Pupils work actively, with enthusiasm, help each other, listen to the companions attentively; the teacher only operates educational activity. It is necessary to note efficiency a role game as a methodical way of training raises, if the teacher defines duration of speech dialogues correctly. Duration of optimum working capacity of pupils of elementary grades in a dialogue reaches five minutes. The expediency of use of role games, in 1-4 th forms is caused by the fact that children prefer the group form of study. For them joint activity and a dialogue get the personal importance, they aspire the development of new forms and ways of a dialogue, knowledge of other people of a dialogue, the organisation of mutual relations with contemporaries and adults.
At all variety of plots in games the same maintenance essentially is activity of the person and the relation of people in a society. Essential psychological feature of children's role game isn't its utilitarian character defining appeal of the process of game. Participation in it is accompanied by the diverse and strong emotions connected about breakdown of own forces, self-affirmation. Role game is under construction on interpersonal relations which are realised in the course of a dialogue.
Game use in class allows to form and develop pupils at trained skills and abilities to find out the necessary information, to transform it, t и т.д.................
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