На бирже курсовых и дипломных проектов можно найти образцы готовых работ или получить помощь в написании уникальных курсовых работ, дипломов, лабораторных работ, контрольных работ, диссертаций, рефератов. Так же вы мажете самостоятельно повысить уникальность своей работы для прохождения проверки на плагиат всего за несколько минут.

ЛИЧНЫЙ КАБИНЕТ 

 

Здравствуйте гость!

 

Логин:

Пароль:

 

Запомнить

 

 

Забыли пароль? Регистрация

Повышение уникальности

Предлагаем нашим посетителям воспользоваться бесплатным программным обеспечением «StudentHelp», которое позволит вам всего за несколько минут, выполнить повышение уникальности любого файла в формате MS Word. После такого повышения уникальности, ваша работа легко пройдете проверку в системах антиплагиат вуз, antiplagiat.ru, etxt.ru или advego.ru. Программа «StudentHelp» работает по уникальной технологии и при повышении уникальности не вставляет в текст скрытых символов, и даже если препод скопирует текст в блокнот – не увидит ни каких отличий от текста в Word файле.

Результат поиска


Наименование:


методичка Методический обзор вопросов грамматики английского языка, основных правил и необходимой техники преподавания. Характеристика комплексного набора примеров правил и упражнений для проверки знаний по грамматическим темам. Техника расширения знаний языка.

Информация:

Тип работы: методичка. Предмет: Педагогика. Добавлен: 09.04.2011. Сдан: 2011. Страниц: 3. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):



3

Федеральное агентство по образованию

ФГОУ СПО «Моршанский текстильный техникум»

Аудиторная и самостоятельная работа по английскому языку

Составитель:

преподаватель английского языка

Скаткова В.А.

2010

В данной методической разработке рассматриваются вопросы грамматики английского языка, а также приводятся примеры правил и разнообразных упражнений, которые проверяют знания студентов по основным грамматическим темам. Правила и упражнения предназначены для студентов, продолжающих изучение английского языка на базе знаний, приобретенных ими в средней школе.

Правила и упражнения могут быть использованы на занятиях групп второго и третьего курса со студентами разного уровня знаний.

Содержание

1) Глагол. Общие сведения.

2) Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

3) Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense.

4) Types of questions.

5) Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

6) Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

7) Present Perfect Tense.

8) Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

9) Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense

10) Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense

11) Past Perfect Tense

12) Future Perfect

13) Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

14) Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense

15) Сопоставление времен

16) Adding. Приложение

методика грамматика правило английский язык

ГЛАГОЛ (The Verb) ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ

Глагол - это часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета.

Не works as an engineer. Он работает инженером.
The child is sleeping now. Ребенок спит сейчас.

1.Глаголы бывают простые, производные, сложные и составные.

К простым глаголам относятся глаголы, не имеющие в своем составе ни префиксов, ни суффиксов: to sit, to go, to eat, to come.

Производные глаголы имеют в своем составе суффиксы или префиксы: to deepen, to rewrite.

Наиболее характерные суффиксы глаголов:

-ate: to decorate, to separate, to educate,

-en: to widen, to strengthen, to brighten,

-ize: to memorize, to organize, to dramatize,

-fy: to purify, to satisfy, to justify.

Наиболее характерные префиксы глаголов:

re-: to build- to rebuild (строить-перестроить), to read- to reread, to pay- to repay,

dis-: to like- to dislike(нравиться- не нравиться), to appear- to disappear, to prove- to disprove,

un-: to wrap- to unwrap(запаковывать-распаковывать), to pack- to unpack, to limit- to unlimit,

mis-: to understand- to misunderstand(понимать-не понимать), to trust- to mistrust,

under-: to underline(подчеркивать), to undergo(подвергаться), to undertake(предпринять).

Сложные глаголы в английском языке состоят из двух основ, но выражают одно понятие: to broadcast-вещать(о радио), to whitewash-ретушировать, to kidnap-похитить

Составные глаголы состоят из глагольной основы и предлога или наречия, которые могут отделяться друг от друга другими словами. Местоимение в объектном падеже всегда стоит между глаголом и предлогом (наречием).

Ring me up, please. Позвони мне, пожалуйста.

Switch on the radio, please Включите, пожалуйста, радио.

Многие английские глаголы совпадают по форме с существительными (реже с прилагательными).

to work - работать work - работа

to play - играть play - пьеса

to dry - сушить dry - сухой

2. По своему значению и выполняемой в предложении функции глаголы делятся на

смысловые, вспомогательные, модальные глаголы и глаголы-связки.

Смысловые глаголы (Notional Verbs) имеют самостоятельное лексическое значение и употребляются в предложении в роли глагольного сказуемого.

He lives in Minsk. Он живет в Минске.

She left school last year. Она закончила школу в прошлом году.

Вспомогательные глаголы (Auxiliary Verbs) не имеют самостоятельного значения и служат для образования сложных глагольных форм сказуемого. К ним относятся глаголы: to be, to have, to do, shall, should, will, would.

He is working now. Он работает сейчас.

I have answered all the questions. Я ответил на все вопросы.

Do you speak Spanish? Вы разговариваете на испанском языке?
She doesn't teach English. Она не преподает английский язык.
They will discuss the plan Они обсудят этот план,

Не said that he would buy a car Он сказал, что купит машину.

Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) can, may, must, should, ought(to) употребляются в сочетании с инфинитивом, образуя в предложении составное модальное сказуемое.

You may go home. Вы можете идти домой.

Can you help me? Можете ли вы помочь мне?

You must not do it. Вы не должны делать это.

Глаголы-связки (Link Verbs) служат для образования составного именного сказуемого. Основным глаголом-связкой служит глагол to be. В функции связки могут выступать также, глаголы to become, to get,
to grow, to turn (в значении становиться), to look - выглядеть и др.

Не is an economist. Он экономист.

She became a lawyer. Она стала юристом.

It gets dark early in autumn. Осенью темнеет рано.

Все глаголы (за исключением модальных) имеют личные (Finite Forms) и неличные формы (Non-Finite Forms или Verbals).

Личные формы глагола имеют категории лица, числа, наклонения, времени и залога. Они служат в предложении сказуемым и согласуются с подлежащим в лице и числе

Не knows English well. Он знает английский хорошо.

They are playing chess. Они играют в шахматы.

She has seen this film.Она видела этот фильм.

Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив (The Infinitive), герундий (The Gerund) и причастие (The Participle) не имеют категории лица, числа и наклонения и не употребляются в предложении в функции сказуемого.

Английские глаголы, также как и русские, делятся на переходные (требующие после себя прямого дополнения: to take, to tell) и непереходные (после которых не употребляются прямое дополнение: to go, to live).

В английском языке выделяются четыре основные формы глагола, которые в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами образуют все времена в действительном и страдательном залогах:

В зависимости от способа образования второй и третьей форм все глаголы делятся на правильные (Regular Verbs) и неправильные (Irregular.Verbs).

Infinitive
Past Indefinite
Past Participle
Present Participle
Инфинитив

Прошедшее

неопределенное время

Причастие

прошедшего

времени

Причастие

настоящего

времени
ask
speak
asked
spoke
asked
spoken
asking
speaking

Правильные глаголы образуют формы Past Indefinite и Participle II при помощи суффикса -ed, который прибавляется к основе глагола, причем соблюдаются определенные правила произношения и правописания:

to stop - stopped - stopped Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком

to travel - travelled - travelled конечной букве 1 предшествует краткий гласный

to permit - permitted - permitted ударение падает на последний слог

Неправильные глаголы образуют формы прошедшего времени (Past Indefinite) и причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) различными другими способами. Формы неправильных глаголов нужно заучивать: to go - went - gone, to become - became - become, to be - was/were - been, to have - had - had to hope - hoped - hoped [t], после глухих согласных

to close - closed - closed [d], после звонких согласных и гласных

to visit - visited - visited [id], to study - studied - studied

to play - played - played букве у предшествует согласная

Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense

Настоящее простое ( неопределенное) время.

Present Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения обычного, постоянного, регулярного действия, свойственного подлежащему. Констатация факта.

Слова-определители времени:

Always -всегда, often - часто, usually - обычно, every day (week, month) - каждый день (неделю, месяц), sometimes - иногда, seldom - редко.

1) Утвердительная форма Present Simple (Indefinite) образуется из первой основной формы глагола (инфинитив без частицы to );

в 3-м лице единственного числа она принимает окончание -s или -es. ( V, Vs)

Примечания:

Окончание -s 3-го лица единственного числа произносится после глухих согласных [s], после гласных и звонких согласных [z]:

Не works [wo:ks] He lives [livz] She writes [raits] She knows [nouz]

Если глаголы оканчиваются на согласные -s, -ss, -ch,-tch, -sh, -x, то в 3-м лице единственного числа к ним прибавляется окончание -es, которое произносится [iz]:Не teaches ['ti:t?iz] She dresses ['dresiz]

Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на с предшествующей согласной, в 3-м лице единственного числа меняют -у на -i и принимают окончание es:

I carry -- he carries Ср.: I play -- she plays

Глаголы to do и to go принимают в 3-м лице единственного числа ок. -es:

Не goes [gouz] He does

в) Глаголы to be и to have образуют формы Present Simple (Indefinite) не по общим правилам.

2 ) Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do, does в 3 лице единственного числа, который ставится перед подлежащим, и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме( без окончания) -- после подлежащего.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(без окончания) +…..? (общий вопрос)

Do you work at a factory?

Does he take part in the concert?

Вопросы к подлежащему образуются без вспомогательного глагола, к глаголу прибавляется окончание - s или -es:

I take part in the concert. Я принимаю участие в концерте.

Who takes part in the concert? Кто принимает участие в концерте?

3) Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do или does в 3 лице единственного числа и отрицания not, которые ставятся между подлежащим и смысловым глаголом в первой основной форме.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол + not + основной глагол (без окончания) + … .

I do not work there. (I don't work there.)
He does not take part in it. (He doesn't take part in it.)

Для справок:

1.Вопросительная и отрицательная формы Present Simple (Indefinite) смыслового глагола to do образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do.

What do you do on Sunday? He does not do his morning exercises.

2.Вопросительная форма глаголов to be и to have образуется путем постановки этих глаголов перед подлежащим. Отрицательная форма глагола to be образуется при помощи частицы not, а глагола to have -- при помощи отрицательного местоимения no, которые ставятся после соответствующего глагола. Are you all right? How many lessons have you today?

I am not a student yet. The postman has no letters for us.

3. No употребляется также для образования отрицательной формы с оборотом there is (there are).

There are no tickets left for the performance of the Vakhtangov theatre.

Но: Перед местоимением any в отрицательных предложениях с глаголом to have и с оборотом there is (there are) употребляется not.

I haven't any questions.

There isn't any river in this place.

Ex.1 Поставьте окончание -s или -es , где нужно.

1) Mike like_ coffee. 2) My friends often go_ to the cinema. 3) I make_ dinner myself. 4) Mary wash_ her face in the morning. 5) He go_ to bed at 10 o'clock. 6) Dan speak_ English well. 7) They live_ in Tambov. 8) My mum watch_ TV in the evening. 9) I clean_ my teeth every day. 10) My sister play _ the piano.

Ex.2 Поставьте Do / Does.

1).... you sleep well? Yes I .... 2)..... your sister wash the plates? Yes, she... 3) What ... the teacher give you for homework ? She gives exercises. 4) .... the child read Russian ? No , she ... not. 5) He ... not like cakes.

6) We ...not go to school in August.

Ex. 3 Поставьте в отрицательную форму.

Например : He goes to school by bus . - I do not go to school by bus .

1) We get up at 7 o'clock .- He ... 2) I drink tea in the morning.-You ... 3) You go to bed at eleven . - They ... 4) They play in the yard in the afternoon . - She ... 5) He likes TV.-She... 6) I live with my parents . - He …

Ex.4 Опровергните утверждения.

1) My mother gets up at 7 o'clock but I ......... .

2) I like cartoons but my dad ........... .

3) We watch horror films but they ...... .

4) My sisters like to read but I ............ .

5) We like apples but my friend ........... .

6) I go to school every day but Tolya ............. .

Ex. 5 Complete the sentences with am, is, are, have got, has got, am not, is not, are not, haven't got or hasn' got.

1) I … on the first course. 2) They … got an English class today. 3) He … eleven. 4) They … students.

5) We … English books at home. 6) … you at the college? 7) Where … she? 8) He … got a lot of friends.

9) Mother … got a cake. 10) Paul and Mary … got two children, a boy and a girl. 11) Why … she crying?

12) What … he doing? 13) A dog … four legs. 14) I … not got a camera. 15) … your father got a car?

16) … it a cat? 17) She … very beautiful.18) Tom … in the garden. 19) She … got a nice home.

20) … you got any brothers or sisters? 21) Tom and Mary … playing tennis. 22) The table … in the

middle of the room. 23) Everybody likes Tom. He … got many friends. 24) The books … on the table.

25) The weather … very nice today. It … raining. 26) There … pictures on the wall. 27) The sky … blue.

28) … there any clouds in the sky? 29) You cannot buy anything on Sunday in England. The shops …

open. 30) The cat … grey. 31) The kittens … very funny. 32) English … a difficult language. 33) Jane

wants to go to Moscow, but she … any money. 34) Ann … black hair. Her hair … very beautiful. 35) I

don't like this book. It … interesting. 36) I can't open the door. I … the key. 37) John is going to be the dentist. He …got a bad tooth. 38) He … got a good library at home. 39) Be quick! We …got much time.

Ex. 6 Какие слова соответствуют определениям?

1) Customs a) get smth secretly and illegally into/out of the country

2) prohibited article b) person employed in a hotel to receive clients

3) weapon c) smth designed for and used in fighting and struggling

4)smuggle d) smth not allowed (for importing in a country)

5) check in e) department of government that collects duties on goods imported into a country

6) guest f) arrive and register at a hotel

7) receptionist g) make known clearly or formally; announce

8) form h) printed paper with space to be filled in

9) declare i) person staying at or paying a visit to some place

10) key board j) a board where keys are left at a hotel

Ex. 7 Add the sentences with the following words.

Smuggler, restrictions, reception desk, excess, declare, double, checking in, suit, bellboy, cross the border.

1) Have you got anything to … ? Any jewels, objects of art, weapon?

2) Before you … you should go through the Customs.

3) If a person has prohibited articles he can be called a … .

4) Mr. Smith is going to stay at the hotel with his wife, so he's made a reservation for a … room.

5) If this room doesn't … you we can offer you a suite.

6) If you don't want to have any troubles you should know the Customs … .

7) The very first thing a person does at the hotel is … .

8) Where shall I check in? - At the …, over there.

9) (knocking at the door) - Who's that? - It's a … ,here's the message for you,sir.

10) Put your luggage on the scale, please. Oh, you'll have to pay for the … weight.

Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense. Настоящее длительное время

Present Progressive обозначает длительное действие, которое совершается в настоящее время, в момент речи, процесс.

I am having dinner. (I'm having dinner.) He is waiting for you. (He's waiting for you.)

They are travelling in the south. (They're travelling in the south.)

Слова-определители времени:

Now - сейчас, at this moment - в данный момент, at the present moment - в настоящий момент

Present Progressive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be (am,is,are) и к основному глаголу в первой основной форме (V) прибавляется окончание -ing (V-ing).

go -- going; read -- reading

Примечания:

а) На письме при образовании Present Participle глаголы оканчивающиеся на немую -е, теряют эту букву: write -- writing; take -- taking

б) Одна согласная после одиночной гласной в ударном (конечном) слоге удваивается, удваивается также конечная -1: win -- winning prefer -- preferring

shut -- shutting travel -- travelling

Ho: sleep -- sleeping work -- working

wash -- washing develop -- developing

c) Глаголы, выражающие чувства, желания, восприятия и умственные состояния, такие, как to like, to want, to love, to wish, to know, to understand, to see, to hear, to feel и др. как правило, не употребляются в форме Progressive(Continuous).

При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

Вспомогательный глагол (am, is, are) + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме + -ing) + …..? (общий вопрос)

Is he sleeping? What are you doing?

В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who -кто или what - что, вспомогательный глагол всегда is . I am ringing at the door. Who is ringing at the door?

При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.

Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме + -ing) + … .

I am not reading. (I'm not reading.)

He is not taking his examination. (He's not taking his examination. He isn't taking his examination.)

They are not travelling. (They're not travelling. They aren't travelling.)

Для справок

1. Present Progressive (Continuous) иногда употребляется для обозначения
будущего действия, когда выражается намерение совершить действие.

She is leaving by the five-o'clock train.Она уезжает с пятичасовым поездом.
We are going to the theatre tonight.Мы собираемся вечером в театр.

2. Для выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенности, вероятности в его совершении в будущем употребляется оборот to be going в сочетании с инфинитивом.

Не is going to spend his winter holidays in the mountains.

What are you going to do now? Что ты собираешься делать сейчас?

We are not going to wait for him any more.Мы больше не собираемся его ждать.

The weather is going to change. Погода похоже меняется.

Ex. 8 Open the brackets & put the verbs into Present Progressive..

1) She (to read) magazines. 2) He (to work) hard at his French. 3) Mr. White (not to give) a lecture. 4) He (to write) a letter to his brother. 5) I (to prepare) for the test. 6) They (to work) at this factory. 7) She (to sit) in an arm-chare and (to watch) TV. 8) I (to have) supper with my friends. 9) Her brother (not to go) to school. 10) He (to stand) at the table.11) What you (to do)?

Ex. 9 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. My sister is playing the piano now. 2. The teacher is explaining the rule. 3. We are learning the new words. 4. Ann is standing at the window. 5. We are going to the park.. 6. John is taking a piece of chalk and writing a sentence on the blackboard. 7. I am doing my homework. 8. Jane is speaking on the telephone. 9. She is cooking supper.

Ex. 10 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например:: My friend is sitting at the desk. - I am sitting at the desk too .

1) The children are reading the text.- I ... 2) The teacher is working in the school garden .- The pupils...

3) The father is sleeping. His daughter ... 4) The mother is cleaning her room . - Her son … 5) I am putting on my coat. You ... 6) Our teacher is speaking English.- We...

Ex. 11 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например: He is going home .- I am not going home.

1)He is sleeping .-You ... 2) The women are standing in the street.- We... 3) You are doing your exercises .-He ... 4) He is putting on his suit.- I ... 5) She is washing socks and stockings . - Her friends ... 6) The bus is turning to the right. - The car...

Ex. 12 Измените предложения по образцу.

Например : I go to school. - I am not going to school now .

1) You read English newspapers after dinner . 2) I drink milk. 3) We play ball. 4) 1 sleep well. 5) They work at a factory . 6) I have breakfast with my father . 7) We get up at 7 o' clock . 8) They go there by bus . 9) You do your homework in the evening.

Ex. 13 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Present Progressive

1.The man who (to speak) with my mother (to be) our neighbor who (to live) across the street. 2. It (to be) a very interesting scientific film. In it you can see how the plants (to grow) right before your eyes. 3. Where you (to hurry)? -- I (to hurry) to the railway station. My sister (to come) from Moscow. 4. You (to hear) the speaker well? -- Yes, I (to hear) him clearly. I (to listen to) very attentively, but still I (not to understand) the main point of his speech. 5. Don't come into this room. Father (to work) there now. 6. Where are you going this Sunday? -- This Sunday I (to go) to the country, but usually on Sundays I (to stay) at home.

Ex. 14 Put the words into three columns according to the types of syllables.

a)Sit, her, we, term, bed, market, test, cart, duck, dark, plate, farmer, due, part, harm, luck, port, large, take, burn, make, girl, pot, broke, hum, see, sir, men, nurse, then, can, pine, toss, sate, sad, first, plane.

b)Dress, his, pupil, student, much, nice, milk, music, name, myrtle, hill, tack, stock, bone, cosy, curly, phone, clock, sun, from, middle, first, smart, far, but, big, has, that, like, go, long, hot, funny, happy, as.

Ex.15 Choose the right answer.

1. Our manager …………. in the office all day. a)stay b) stays c) is staying
2. As a rule I ………… customers in the evening. a) meet b) meets c) am meeting
3. We usually ………… … our work at 6. a) finishes b) finish c) are finishing
4. He often ………… to London. a) go b) goes c) is going
5. They ………….. customers in different cities. a) have got b) has got c) are having
6. We don't ………. out at weekends. a) goes b) go c) are going
7. After lunch the secretary … letters to different companies. a) write b) is writing c) writes
8. I ……….. my chief tomorrow. a) meet b) am meeting c) meets
9. My boss … with your enquiry now but you won't get a rapid answer. a) is dealing b) deals c) deal
10. The office ………… at 6 p.m. on weekdays. a) is closing b) closes c) close
Ex. 16 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Present Progressive
1.Where is John? He (to play) football in the yard. 2.I not (to like) the picture you (to look) at now. 3. He (to read) books in three languages, and now he (to read) a French novel. 4. She usually (to do) her homework at home, but now she (to do) it at the library. 5. In autumn many birds (to fly) to the South. 6. What that woman (to do) there? She (to sell) vegetables. 7. What you (to buy) here? I (to buy) an English text-book. 8)Look! How many birds (to fly) high up in the air! 9)There are many children in the garden. Some of them (to run) about, others (to sit) on the benches and (to laugh)! 10. Where you (to go) now? I (to go) to the library to prepare for my examination.
Ex. 17 Open the brackets
1)Let ( I, me) introduce you to my family. 2) Ken knows ( he, him) very well. 3) This is Ann. Jane and I go to school with ( she, her). 4) My grandmother and grandfather do not live with ( we, us). 5) Aunt Helen often comes and stays with (they, them). 6) Peter Brown and I saw ( he, him) and ( she, her) in town. 7) How often do you write letters to (they, them)? 8) Will you stay with (we, us) long? 9) We saw ( they, them) at the theatre. 10) Please give (my, me) that book. It's on the table. 11) We like (our, us) English teacher. She is very kind to ( we, us). 12) Jane is very pretty.( She, her) eyes are blue and (she, her) hair is black. 13) I don't know this man. What is ( him, his) name? 14) Thank you for (you, your) letter. 15) Tom is a very nice boy. I like ( his, him). 16) I know Ted and Ann and ( they, their) children.17) They are very nice people. I like (them, their). 18) I am fond of reading. It is( my, me) hobby. 19) Do you see that boy? Give (my, me) an apple. 20) Tennis is (me, my) favourite sport.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS Типы вопросов
I. The General Question (Yes/No questions) (Общий вопрос)
относится ко всему предложению в целом;
требует ответа, начинающегося с yes или по;
начинается с вспомогательного глагола (глагола-связки);

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?
Рrеsent Simple Do you live in Saratov? Does he study at the University?
Present Progressive Is the child drawing? Are they going home now?
Future Simple Will you come tomorrow? Will he go there next week?
Past Simple Did your sister come to you yesterday?
Present Perfect Have you already been there? Has she done it ?
II. The Special Question (Wh-questions) (Специальный вопрос)
относится к части предложения;
в качестве ответа требует конкретную информацию;
начинается с вопросительного слова, за которым следует вспомогательный глагол (what-что, какой, whom- чей, which- который, какой, whose- чей, how- как, when- когда, where- где, why- почему);
Вопросит, слово + вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + …?
Рrеsent Simple Where do you live?
Present Progressive What is the child doing?
Future Simple When will you come tomorrow?
Past Simple Where did he find it?
Present Perfect Why have you been there?
Вопрос к подлежащему.
- Начинается с вопрос. слова who (для одушевленных) и what (для неодушевленных предметов)
- Прямой порядок слов.
Рrеsent Simple We know her address. Who knows her address?(без вспом. глагола,к основному глаголу прибавляется окончание -s или -es)
Present Progressive You are going home . Who is going home ?( вспом. глагол to be в форме is ,подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Future Simple You will come tomorrow. Who will come tomorrow?( вспом. глагол will,
подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Past Simple You asked me about it. Who asked me about it? ?(без вспом. глагола,
подлежащее заменяем на Who)
Present Perfect We have been there. Who has been there? ( вспом. глагол has, подлежащее заменяем на Who)
III Alternative Question ( Альтернативный вопрос)
представляет собой вопрос выбора между двумя действиями, предметами, явлениями и т.п.;
- повышение тона перед союзом or- или;

Вспомогат. глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол + or + …?
Рrеsent Simple I prefer skating. Do you prefer skating or skiing?
Present Progressive I am keen on reading. Are you keen on travelling or reading?
He is studying Maths. Is he studying Maths or Physics?
Future Simple He will come tomorrow. Will he or she come tomorrow?
Past Simple He studied at a lyceum. Did he study at a gymnasium or at a lyceum ?
Present Perfect She has already done this task. Has she done or started this task?
IV. The Disjunctive Question (Tag-question) (Разделительный вопрос)
-- состоит из двух частей:
- первая часть- повествовательное предложение с прямым порядком слов
- вторая часть так называемый вопросительный "хвостик"
если первая часть имеет утвердительную форму, "хвостик" строится как отрицание, и наоборот (+ - или - + )

Утвердительное предложение , вспомогательный глагол + not +
подлежащее, выраженное личным местоимением?
Отрицательное предложение , вспомогательный глагол +
Подлежащее ,выраженное личным местоимением?
Рrеsent Simple Kolya prefers skating, does not he?He doesn't go in for sports, does he? John is a driver, isn't he? He isn 't a painter, is he ?
Present Progressive I am keen on reading. I am keen on reading, am not I?
Future Simple He will not come tomorrow. He will not come tomorrow, will he?
Past Simple Mary went to school. Mary went to school, did not she?
Present Perfect You have sent the parcel. You have sent the parcel, haven't you?
Употребление различных типов вопросов
Great Britain consists of three parts.
I. Does Great Britain consist of three parts?
II. How many parts does Great Britain consist of?
Does Great Britain consist of three or two parts?
Great Britain consists of three parts, doesn't it?
Great Britain doesn't consist of two parts, does it?

V. What island consists of three parts?
Ex.18 Задайте вопросы к предложениям.
1) Mike goes to the theatre every month. 2) My sisters get up at 6 o'clock. 3) Kate plays on the computer every day. 4) My parents work in a bank. 5) He reads interesting books in the original.6) Tom usually plays in the garden. 7) Sometimes we eat at a restaurant.8) School year begins in September.9) She is cooking a Christmas dinner now.
Ex . 19 Make 5 questions to the following sentences.
1. Sandra always gets up early in the morning. 2. He is dancing with his girl-friend at the disco now.
3. Peter has some problems with Maths.4. They are climbing the mountains without a guide. 5. Mike says that school is the best thing in the world. 6. I am doing well in lot of subjects.
Ex. 20 Read the following words. Прочитайте следующие слова:
a) количественные числительные:1, 2, 11, 12, 13, 27, 69, 248, 1000;1,008; 1,096; 2,355; 3,579;
b) порядковые числительные: 17, 20, 24, 149, 83, 56, 150, 178, 209;
c) хронологические даты: 1975, 1982, 1990, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2500, 2903.
Ex.21 Say in English.Скажите по-английски:
а) 1 сентября 1984 года, 8 мая 1861 года,7 ноября 1990 года, 21 января 1824 года, 9 октября 1947 года, 22 апреля 1907 года, 11 марта 1951 года, 27 июля 1990 года, 5 июля 1945 года, 10 февраля 1972 года.
b)1 325 543 книги, первый автобус, 1 325 учеников, вторая страница, 266 дней, сороковой размер, около 18 000 студентов, часть первая, более 1 500 000 человек, номер десятый, менее 1000 страниц.
Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense.

Будущее простое время
Future Simple (Indefinite) употребляется для выражения однократных или повторяющихся действий, которые совершатся в будущем.
We shall see you tomorrow.
They will be glad to meet you.
Слова-определители времени:
Tomorrow - завтра , next week - на следующей неделе,
in three years - через 3 года
Future Simple (Indefinite) образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall (для первого лица единственного числа) и will (для всех остальных лиц) и первой основной формы смыслового глагола. В разговорной речи употребительны сокращения вспомогательных глаголов.(shall, will + V)
I shall ring you up. (I'll ring you up.) She will be twenty next month. (She'll be twenty next month.)
You will find him in the library. (You'll find him in the library.)
В вопросительной форме вспомогательные глаголы shall и will ставятся перед подлежащим.
Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)
Shall I read? What will you do in the evening?
В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who -кто или what - что, вспомогательный глагол всегда will.
I shall go on the excursion.
Who will go on the excursion?
Отрицательная форма Future Simple (Indefinite) образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательных глаголов shall или will (возможны сокращения shan't, won't).
Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .
I shall not be able to join you on your trip. Я не смогу присоединиться к вам в вашей поездке.(I shan't be able to join you on your trip.)
He will not receive the telegram in time.Он не получит телеграмму вовремя.
(He won't receive the telegram in time.)
Примечания:
а) Вопросительная форма типа Will you sit down? используется для выражения просьбы.
Will you please take off your coat?
Won't you go with us to the concert?
Чтобы общий вопрос ко 2-му лицу не воспринимался как просьба, в Англии вместо вспомогательного глагола will употребляется глагол shall.
Shall you be at home at 9?
В США в этих случаях обычно употребляется will.
б) Future Simple (Indefinite) не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В них для выражения будущего действия глагол ставится в Present Simple (Indefinite).
I shall give him a letter when he comes. The children will go for a walk if it stops raining.
Ex. 22 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.
1. I (to think) about this information. 2 According to the forecast it (to be) raining tomorrow. 3. We (to come) to see you on Monday. 4.I (to prepare) to my examinations next week. 5. You (to show) me your new picture? 6. I think he (not to come) tomorrow. 7 I don't think she (to answer) all the questions. 8. We (to work) in our garden tomorrow. 9. How you (to pack) your things? 10. Her mother (to buy) her a silver chain for her birthday.
Ex. 23 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. My sister will graduate from the University next year. 2.I shall go to the cinema tomorrow. 3. They will play tennis on Saturday. 4. We shall translate this text the day after tomorrow. 5. He will write a letter to his sister tomorrow. 6. My parents will go to the South next year. 7.I shall finish this work in a week. 8.He will come back on Friday. 9. We shall meet our friends tomorrow.
Ex. 24 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Future Simple.
1) Я буду завтра в институте. 2) Она будет зубным врачом. 3) Где ты будешь завтра? -- Я. буду дома. 4) Мы будем в Москве на следующей неделе. 5) Его не будет на работе завтра. Он будет в командировке. 6) Позвони ему позже. Может быть, он будет дома. 7) Завтра никого не будет в офисе.
Ex. 25 В предложениях описаны события, которые происходили прошлым летом. Представьте, что эти события произойдут будущим летом.
1.I was in America a year ago. 2.Where were your parents last summer? 3. It was in July. 4. There was no fruit in May. 5. Did you roller-skate? 6. She bought a new dress, didn't she? 7. My mom taught my brother to swim.
В придаточных предложениях времени и условия после союзов
If-если, when-когда, as soon as- как только, till-до тех пор, before- перед, after- после, until- до тех пор, как, while - во время.
Future Simple заменяется на Present Simple.
Ex. 26 Раскройте скобки, употребляя. глаголы в Future Simple.
1. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 2. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 3. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 4. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 5. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 6. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 7. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 8. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 9 .I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 10. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 11. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 12. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.
Ex. 27 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Present Simple.
1.We (to begin) as soon as Tom (to be ready). 2. I (stay) here until it (to get) warmer. Mother (to bring) us cakes when she (to go) out. 3. If he (to have) time he (to come) to us. 4. Don't leave until I (to send) you a message. 5. She (to be) very happy if you (to take) her to the theatre. 6. We (to go) swimming as soon as school (be) over. 7. She (to be) a good actress if she (to work) hard. 8. I (to open) the door when father (to ring). 9. I (to see) him again if he (not to come) today.10.I (to notify) you as soon as I (to hear) from her.11.You (not to go) until I (to know) the truth. 12. He (to come) every day to help you with your work while I (be) away. 13. You (to have) a chocolate if you (to be) good. 14. I (to do) it as soon as I (to get) book. 15. When you (to see) Mr. Smith ask him to call immediately. 16. If the rain (not to stop) there (to be) a flood. 17. Don't leave before you (to get) our message. 18. If all (to go) well we shall land tonight. 19. Take care of my luggage while I (to get) my ticket. 20. Tomorrow if the weather (to be) good we (to go) to the country. 21. We (to stay) in the waiting-room while Robert (to look) for a porter. 22.I (to make) you a nice cup of tea as soon as the water (to boil). 23. If you (to come) past six o'clock you (not to find) him waiting. 24. I think I (to wait) here until your bus (to come). 25. If you (to be) so excited you hardly (be able) to think.
Ex. 28 Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных:
a) tall, long, short, hot, cold, nice, large, big, wide, happy, warm, high, heavy, low, hard, busy, easy,bright;
b) interesting, comfortable, important, necessary, beautiful, famous, pleasant, popular, wonderful, active, careful.
c) old, tall, thin, thick, fat, red, warm, high, short, black, small, light, late, large, fast, rich, dark, quick, sad, weak, pretty, bright, dry, full, nice, wet, early, strong, ugly, quite, funny, lazy, far, expensive, good, difficult, helpful, many, heavy, dirty, clean, near, little, famous, much, clever, cheap, pale, early, practical.
Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense.
Прошедшее простое ( неопределенное) время.
Past Simple (Indefinite) обозначает действия или состояния, происходившие в какой-то период в прошлом и не связанные с моментом речи. Past Simple (Indefinite) -- форма, типичная для описания прошедших событий.
В предложениях с Past Simple (Indefinite) часто указывается время совершения действия.
Слова-определители времени:
Yesterday - вчера, two days ago - два дня назад, last year - в прошлом году .
Victor hurried to the station, went to the booking-office and bought two tickets.The show finished at 11 o'clock.
Past Simple (Indefinite) образуется: (V2, V-ed)
Если глагол неправильный используется его вторая форма( смотри таблицу неправильных глаголов) , которая не изменяется по лицам и числам, за исключением глагола to be (was - единственное число, were - множественное). I spent a lot of time at the library last month.
Если глагол правильный (т.е. его нет в таблице неправильных глаголов) к его первой форме прибавляется окончание - ed : ask - asked
He worked hard at his composition.
Вопросительная форма образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did, который ставится перед подлежащим.
Смысловой глагол употребляется в первой основной форме.

Вспомогательный глагол + подлежащее + основной глагол(в первой форме) + …..? (общий вопрос)
I liked the match. Did you like the match? When did the train arrive?
Вопросы к подлежащему образуются, без вспомогательного глагола did.
Подлежащее заменяем на who -кто или what - что.
It happened yesterday. We were absent today.
What happened yesterday? Who was absent today?( to be всегда в форме was)
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола did, частицы not и смыслового глагола в первой основной форме.
Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол did + not + основной глагол (в первой форме) + … .
I did not know you were ill.
В разговорной речи в отрицательной форме обычно употребляется сокращение didn't [didnt]. I didn't know you were ill.
Для справок:
1. Глагол to be в Past Simple (Indefinite) меняется по лицам.
I was ill. We were absent.
You were right. You were at school at that time.
He (she, it) was late. They were at the theatre.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to be образуются без помощи вспомогательного глагола.
Where were you at eight yesterday?
Was he at home at 8 o'clock?
It was not very cold.
2.С оборотом there was (there were) употребляется отрицательное местоимение no, как и в Present Simple (Indefinite).
There was no rain for two months.
3. При образовании отрицательной формы Past Simple (Indefinite) глагола to have используется отрицательное местоимение no.
I had no letters for many weeks.
Ex. 29 Вставьте глагол was или were.
1) I .......at the stadium last Sunday. 2) Dam and Mary .......in America a year ago.3)We .....in Moscow yesterday. 4) Mike ........at school last Monday. 5) We .........in Tambov a week ago.
Ex.30 Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple.
1. Yesterday (to be) the third of October.2) It (to be) warm, and we (to play) ball in our yard. 3)Our dog (to be) with us too.4) It (to like) the game. 5) It (to jump) and (to jump). 6) We (to have) five lessons yesterday. 7) After the lessons the pupils on duty (to wash) the flowers and (to clean) the blackboard and other things. 8)When everything in the classroom (to look) clean, they (to go) home. 9)It (to be) half past three then, and they (to be) very hungry.10) The children (to work) on a collective farm last summer.11) We (to play) football and other interesting games at the pioneer camp a year ago.12) Mike (to go) to his circle early yesterday.13) It ( to snow) in last winter. 14) The Ninth Form pupils (to clean) the street in front of the school.15) She ( to answer) questions well yesterday.16) Yesterday evening I (to watch) TV. 17) He (to be) tired and (to go) to bad at half past ten.18) My brother and I (to be) at camp from the first of July to the twentieth of July.19) We (to take) warm things with us, because it (to be), cold. 20) My father (to give) us good ideas for our pictures. 21) Everything in the country (to look) beautiful when we (to be) there last spring. 22) Mike (to show) her how to take off her skis.
Ex.31 Поставь глаголы в Past Simple.1.My sister … to England last summer (to travel).2. Ann … an interesting book yesterday (to buy).3.Helen … French last year (to study). 4. Kate … dinner two days ago (to cook).5. Не … to the south last year (to go).6. My friend … a letter yesterday (to write).7. I … English ten years ago (to study). 8.They … coffee yesterday morning (to drink).9. I and my friend … to France, last year (to travel).10. Tom …me a telegram two days ago (to send).11. Is Kate at home? Yes, she … 5 minutes ago (to arrive).12. Yesterday I … early and …a shower (to get up, to have) 13. She … yesterday afternoon (to come).14.My granny … a chocolate cake last Sunday (to make).15. I … TV yesterday (to watch) Ex. 32 Поставь вопросы к предложениям.1. Lena lived in Moscow in 1998. 2. She walked to the station. 3. The cat liked fish. 4. The students worked in the garden. 5. They went to the cinema yesterday. 6. She told us a very interesting story. 7. A strange woman came to our house yesterday. 8. I played piano when I was a boy. 9. Last year I began to write a book.10. Yesterday I had five lessons at school.
Ex.33 Put into negative form. Сделай предложения отрицательными.
1) I had six lessons last Tuesday.2) The first lesson was Russian.3) We wrote a dictation. 4) My friend went to the blackboard and wrote the date.5) I went to the canteen after the third lesson. 6) I ate a salad and a sandwich.7) After school I took a bus and went to the library.8) In the library I read a book.9)Then I played snowballs in the yard.10) In the evening I cleaned my teeth and went to bed.
Ex.34 Put the sentences into Past Simple, Present Progressive and Future Simple.
1)We like our trip to Spain. 2)They bathe in the sea every day in summer. 3) Mike lives in the country. 4) He knows well every subject.5) I get good marks in English.6) Helen dances every evening. 7) They play football every Sunday. 8) I like to play chess in my childhood. 9) The teacher writes new words on the blackboard. 10) We study English every evening.
Ex. 35 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.
1.She (to make) tea for her guests. 2. We (to know) everything about that event. 3. He (to think) much about this problem. 4.I (to be) wrong and apologized to him. 5. He (not to realize) his mistakes. 6. When you (to speak) to him? -- I (to speak) to him only yesterday.7.She (not to get) letters from her son last month.8.He (to go) to the airport to meet his brother. 9. What you (to do) yesterday evening? -- Nothing in particular. We (to watch) TV and (to look) through newspapers.
10. I understand the article well. 11. I listen to this music. 12. I find many good stories in this book. 13. The students spend must time in the library. 14. She makes many mistakes in her test. 15. They read many English books.
Ex. 36 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple.
1. Ей понравилось представление. 2. Было очень холодно на прошлой неделе. 3. Я встретил их у моего друга дома. 4. Кто-нибудь звонил мне пока меня не было? 5. Мы не получили ее ответ вчера. 6. Я отправил вчера письма моим друзьям. 7. У меня не было времени делать эту работу. 8. Я читал этот журнал вчера. 9. Ему не понравился фильм. 10. Он звонил тебе вчера? 11. Они провели каникулы в Лондоне. 12. Он сдал экзамен по английскому в понедельник. 13. Я навестил бабушку и дедушку на прошлой неделе. 14. Я разговаривал с ним вчера. 15. Я починил свою машину в воскресенье.
Ex.37 Поставьте предложения в Past Simple.
1. There is a large forest near our city. 2. There are many berries and mushrooms there. 3. There is always much work to do about the house. 4. There is no need to begin all over again. 5. There is nothing to do but to wait. 6. Are there any museums in your home town? 7. There will be no vacant seats in the stalls. 8. There will be an interesting lecture on literature tomorrow. 9. There is a sofa and two armchairs in our living-room. 10. There is always much light in this room.
Ex. 38 Поставьте следующие предложения в Past и Future Simple.
Образец: There is a park near our school. There was a park near our school. There will be a park near our school.
1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are not any German books in our library. 3. There is one theatre and five cinemas in this town. 4. There is no lift in our house. 5. There is little milk in the bottle. 6. There are few shops in this district. 7. There are three rooms in our flat. 8. There is a new film on at our local cinema. 9. There are not many difficult exercises in this text-book. 10. There are two hospitals in this town.
Ex. 39 Put the nouns in plural.
a) a dish, a fork, a knife, a pen, a desk, an armchair, a land, a house, a house, an Indian, a dog, a game, a lion, an eagle, a road, a wolf, a watch, a glass, a city, a country, a day, a party, a bush, a box, a bus, a class, a potato, a foot, a tomato, a tooth, a child, a deer, a solo, a roof, a goose,
b) a chief, a man, a woman, a mouse, an Englishman, a form, a tie, a page, a bench, a bird, a bag, a copy, an apple, an enemy, a photo, a cherry, an army, a toy, a loaf, a comedy, a dining- room, a mother-in-law, an ear-ring, an ear-phone.
Ex. 40 Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных:
Train, seat, tie, shop, fork, forest, game, lesson, name, week, page, bag, bird, class, box., bush, bus, birch, bench, inch, copy, hero, cake, knife, wife, wolf, tomato, fly, piano, leaf, safe, victory, roof, watch, form, roof, room, pen, lamp, arm, tram, book, apple, day, ship, toy, university, chief, photo, style, handkerchief, enemy, match, bush.
TEST. THREE TENSES.
Ex. 41 Choose the write form of the verb.
1) Kate ... to the shop yesterday. a) go b) went c) will go
He ... interesting books in the original, a) read b) reads c) will read
John ... his leg last year. a) broke b) breaks c) will break
4).... he like cats? a) Does b) Do c) Doesn't
5) Tom usually ... in the garden. a) played b) will play c) plays
6) They ... to the cinema yesterday, a) have gone b) go c) went
Mum ... the washing up yesterday, a) does b) is doing c) did
She ... got two brothers. a) have b) has c) will have
9) They always ... fruit for breakfast, a) will buy b) buy c) buys
10) He ... to school because he was ill. a) doesn't go b) didn't go c) won't go
Every summer she ... holidays at her grandmother's, a) spent b) spend c) will spend
I ... this film 3 years ago. a) see b) saw c) shall see
13) He never eats eggs. He ... them. a) doesn't like b) didn't like c) won't like
We ... a trip to Italy next summer, a) made b) make c) shall make
I think they ... the exam tomorrow. a) do pass b) will pass c) shall pass
16) He ... a minute ago. a) leave b) left c) leave
17) Yesterday I ... in the library. a) work b) worked c) shall work
I ... my English lessons on Fridays. a) took b) take c) shall take
Nancy ... her teeth now. a) brushes b) is brushing c) brushed
Sometimes we ... at a restaurant. a) eat b) are eating c) ate
She ... a Christmas dinner now. a) cooks b) is cooking c) cooked
22) It often ... in autumn. a) rains b) is raining c) rained
23) School year ... in September. a) begins b) begin c) is beginning
Bob ... television, he can't answer the call. a) watches b) is watching c) watched
John ... adventure books. a) liked b) like c) likes
Ex. 42 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глагол to be в Present, Past и Future Simple.
1. Моя сестра сейчас в магазине. 2. Моя сестра была в театре вчера. 3. Моя сестра будет в библиотеке завтра. 4. Сегодня мы в Москве, а завтра будем в Туле. 5. Вчера он был за городом, а сегодня он дома. 6. Она была учителем в прошлом году сейчас она переводчик. 7. Она на работе сейчас, а вечером она будет у родителей. 8. Твоя сестра будет учителем? -- Нет, она будет журналистом. 9. Нас будет дома завтра.10. Кто будет здесь завтра? -- Я буду.
Ex. 43 Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в прошедшем и будущем временах.
1.There are many trees in our garden.2.There is a trolley-bus stop near my office.3.There are some mistakes in his dictation.4.There is a piece of chalk on the table.5.There is much snow in the street. 6. There are many flowers in the vase. 7. There are two pens in my bag.
Ex.44 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени Simple (Present, Past или Future):1.Не (come) to school tomorrow. 2. Ann not (come) to the park.3. He not (go) to the cinema every day. He (go) last Sunday. 4. Peter (write) a letter in two days. 5. The teacher says that the boys (speak) English next year. 6. When he (come)? I think he (come) next Tuesday.7. Where the teacher (go) last summer? 8. I (take) the book to the library tomorrow. 9. They not (see) the film because they were very busy. They (see) it in the near future. 10. When we (do) it? Tomorrow or next week?
Ex. 45 Задайте альтернативные вопросы своему собеседнику.
A. Образец: I'm a pupil (a student).
Are you a pupil or a student?
1. Kate is at home (at school). 2. They are in England (Scotland). 3. Oxford is far from (near) London. 4. She is a writer (a painter). 5. She is interested in music (drawing). 5. I am seventeen (eighteen) years old. 6. The ice was thick (thin) on the river. 7. That was Jane (Ann) on the phone.
8. He was rude (polite) with you. 9. It will be cold (warm) tomorrow. 9.The weather will be fine (rainy) next week.
B. Образец: You have many (few) friends at school?
Have you many or few friends at school?
I had dinner at home (at school) yesterday.
Did you have dinner at home or at school yesterday?
They have a house (a flat) in Minsk. 2. My friend has a lot of English (French) books. 3. Our family had a rest in the countryside (abroad) last summer. 4. I usually have coffee (tea) in the morning. 5. We have meals three (four) times a day. 6. You will have five (six) lessons tomorrow.
Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время
Present Perfect употребляется для описания событий, которые произошли в еще неистекший период времени, или который продолжался вплоть до настоящего времени, а также при наличии наречий неопределенного времени: today- сегодня, this week/year/month-на этой неделе, already- уже, ever - когда-либо, never- никогда, yet - еще(в отрицательных предложениях со значением еще и в общих вопросах со значением уже), just- только что, for (a long time)- долгое время, for two hours- в течение 2 часов, up to now- до сих пор, since - с тех пор; при наличии слов it is the first (second) time...- в первый раз; в письмах, в первом вопросе и ответе, начинающих беседу о прошлых событиях. already- уже, ever - когда-либо, never- никогда, just- только что ставится между вспомогательным и основным глаголом
She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.
Present Perfect в отличие от Past Simple(которое выражает действие, свершившееся в истекшем отрезке времени) выражает связь прошлого действия с настоящим благодаря наличию результата сейчас. Present Perfect никогда не употребляется в вопросах, начинающихся с вопросительного слова when).
Present Perfect Tense образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has - в 3 лице ед. числа) , и третьей формы неправильного глагола, а к правильному глаголу прибавляется окончание -ed (причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) смыслового глагола). (have/has + V3, V-ed) При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
Вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + подлежащее + основной глагол(V3, V-ed) + .? (общий вопрос)
Have you learnt this poem by heart? -Yes, I have,
- No, I haven't learnt it yet.
В вопросах к подлежащему порядок слов не изменяется, подлежащее меняем на who -кто или what - что, вспомогательный глагол всегда has .
We have just left home.
Who has just left home?
При образовании отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола.
Подлежащее + вспомогательный глагол (have, has) + not + основной глагол (V3, V-ed) + … .
We have not just left home.
to have + Participle II
Present Perfect
have/has done
Past Perfect
had done
Future Perfect
shall/will have done
Future Perfect in the Past
Should / would have done
She has already left for Moscow. Она уже уехала в Москву.
She had left for Moscow Она уехала в Москву до
before I arrived. того, как я приехал.
She will have left for Она уедет в Москву до
Moscow before I arrive. того, как я приеду.
She said that she would Она сказала, что уедет в
have left for Moscow Москву до того, как я приеду.
before I arrived.
Сравните:
а)The lift has broken down Лифт сломался, (приходится ходить сейчас пешком)
The lift broke down. Лифт сломался, (возможно, он уже снова работает)
When did the lift break? Когда сломался лифт?
Не has smoked for two years. (He continues smoking)
He smoked for two years. (and then stopped smoking)
б)I'm sorry I haven't written before because I've been very busy lately. Извините, что я не писал раньше, но я был занят последнее время.
Ex 46 Заполните пропуски глаголом has пли have:
1.Mum … already cooked dinner.2.My friends … not watched this film.3.I … never been to England. 4. He ... gone home. 5. ... she come yet? 6. They ... gone home. 7. ... they gone home? 8. The bus ... gone. 9. I ... found it. 10. ... the bus gone? 11. Where ... he been? 12. Where ... you been? 13. I ... got some interesting books.
Ex 47 Поставьте глаголы в Present Perfect.
1.I (clean) ...........the room.2. He (not read)...........this book.3. We (play) .........football.4. She (be) ........to America.5. I ( not see) ..........her yet.
Ex48 Напишите предложения в Present Perfect, добавив нужные наречия. 1.He is leaving home at the moment.2. She does her homework in the evening.3. They are crossing the road.4. He sends me two letters every month. 5. Mr.Norris finishes the work at 5 p.m.
Ex 49 Задайте 4 вопроса к предложению.
1.We have seen a good film recently.2. I have done a lot of work today.3.He has been in the yard.
Ex. 50 Переведите на английский язык.
1.Они были в Америке в этом году. 2.Я только что встретил Тома. 3.Мы уже перевели этот текст.
Ex . 51 Complete the sentences with how long, since, for, already, yet.
1. My sister has been at the University … six months. 2. ... have you known John and Susan? 3. Haven't you typed those letters ... ? 4. She's ... cleaned the house and it's only nine a.m. 5.I haven't watched TV ... my set broke down.
Ex.52 Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.Не (see) just me. 2. They (finish) already the letter. 3. John (find) them. They (be) in the yard. 4. What he (do)? 5. Where he (be)? 6. The car (stop). 7. I never (be) there. 8. We just (be) to the cinema. We (see) a good film. 9. Peter (come) home yet? 10. I (be) to the doctor. 11. I am so tired. I (do) a lot of work today.
Ex 53 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect.
1.I (be) to Paris. 2.I think the director (leave) the town. 3. We (know) her since she arrived to our city. 4.I (forget) your name.5. He (close) the door? 6. He (do) it since we left him. 7. They (leave) Moscow this month? 8. He (not bring) a lot of French papers. 9.I (get) a long letter from father this week.10. She just (come); she will speak to you in a minute. 11. This order (lead) to many misunderstandings.12. He (write) his name on my book.
Ex 54 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.I (meet) two of my friends today. I (meet) them on mу way to school. 2. A month ago my uncle (build) a new house in the country. We (visit) it recently and (enjoy) ourselves very much. 3. He (forget) to close the window when he (leave) the house. 4. He (write) several letters this week. 5. Where Helen (go)? I don't see her here. -- She (go) home an hour ago. 6. When the concert (to begin)? 7.1 don't think I ever (to see) such a beautiful garden as this one. 8. Jack London (to be born) in San Francisco in an extremely poor family. 9. You (to read) many books by Jack London? 10. How careless you are! You (to break) your mother's favourite cup.
Ex.55 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1.I never (to hear) this story from my father. 2. He (to be) a reader of this magazine for years. 3. She (to be) ill last week. 4.I cannot tell you whether I like this book, as I not (to read) it. 5. My mother not (to come) home yet. 6. I (to be) there last year. 7. When you last (to see) him? 8.I cannot give you this book as I (to give) it to Ann. When you (to give) it to her? 9. The child (to be) quite all right for the last two weeks. 10. It is cold today. The weather (to change) since yesterday. 11. You ever (to visit) this picture gallery? 12.I (to lose) my textbook and cannot remember when I last (to see) it.
Ex 56 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. Не never (to be) in Germany. 2. He (not to answer) my letter. 3. My mother (to go) to the country a month ago. 4. His brother not (to go) to school yesterday. 5. Where you (to be) last night? 6. You (to receive) a letter from your father this week? 7.I (to see) Ann on Wednesday. 8. My mother just (to go) out. 9. She never (to read) this book. 10.I (not to come) to you yesterday because I (to be) very busy. 11. When you (to write) a letter to your friend? -- I (to write) a letter to him this week. 12. How many books you (to read) this week? 13. I (to be) at the theatre five or six times last month. 14. I (to reply) to his letter today. 15. They (to lose) their way. 16. I (to speak) to him about it over and over again. 17. I (to speak) to him about it yesterday. 18. He (to be) in Vienna several times.
Ex . 57 Choose the correct item.
1. We (live/have lived) in Hastinhs. 2. I (got/have got) two brothers and a sister. 3. He (plays/is playing) football once a week. 4. We (are/ have been) here since the shop opened. 5. I always (am drinking/drinks) black coffee. 6. (Has/does) he got a camera?7. When did you (got/get) home last night? 8. (We're/We) going to stay at home today. 9. We (knew/have known) them for a long time. 10. I (worked/am working) there two years ago.
Ex . 58 Put the words in the correct order.
1.I/on Saturday/didn't/you/at the party/see/night. 2. Some/in the library/ we/interesting/books/found. 3.Walked/ around the town/have/I. 4. Every week-end/do/clean/you/the house? 5.Slowly/he/getting/is/better.
Ex. 59 Переведите на английский язык.1)Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору? - Да. Вам он понравился? - Не очень. 2)Что ты делала в выходные дни? -Я ходила по грибы (to go mushrooms). 3)Когда ты приехал?- Я приехал на прошлой неделе. Ты хорошо (well) доехал?
Ex.60 a) Напишите в каком времени вы бы перевели эти предложения.
Мы играем в прятки сейчас.
Моя тётя только что приготовила завтрак.
Я поеду на море следующим летом.
Мы убираем свою комнату раз в неделю
Гости уехали неделю назад.
b) Соотнесите время и способ его образования.
1. Past Simple
2 Present Progressive
3 Future Simple
4 Present Simple
5 Present Perfect,
V2
V, Vs
to be + Ving
will/shall + V
have + V3
c) Добавьте к каждому предложению подходящий указатель времени.
1. I went to school....... .
2. I go to school .......
3. I am going to school......
4. I have....... gone to school.
5. . I shall go to school......
( next Monday, yesterday, now, already, every day)
Ex.61 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужном времени.
1. I never ( cook) dinner myself.
2. She ( make ) a cake at the present moment.
3. He ( visit ) my granny next summer.
4. They ( see) this film last week.
5. My friend ( phone) me every day.
Ex.62 Измените предложения в соответствии с местом действия.
1. I write letters every day. ------- next month.
2. He has crossed the road.----------- 2 hours ago.
3. They are playing hockey now.------already.
4. She went to the theatre last month.----- once a month.
5. We will eat ice-cream tomorrow. -----now.
TEST . 5 TENSES.
Ex. 63 Choose the right tense.
1) He … newspapers after dinner every day . a) reads b) read c) has read
2) She …. home now . a) is going b) goes c) will go
3) Helen …. her friend in the street yesterday. a) see b) has seen c) saw
4) My brother … just … from work.. a) has come b) will come c) comes
5) I …. at 7 o`clock tomorrow. a) get up b) shall get up c) got
6) They often … to the theatre. a) go b) will go c) have gone
7)We …. an English lesson at this moment. a) have b) are having c) have had
8) My family … to England last year. a) went b) go c) has gone
9) I …. already …my homework . a) shall do b) did c) have done
10) I ….. to you tomorrow. a) shall come b) came c) will come
11) He … to school by bus every day. a)goes b) shall go c) will go
12) What … you … now ? a) are doing b) will do c) have done
13) Where …. you … yesterday ? a) did go b) have gone c) do go
14) I …. just …my breakfast . a) shall have b) had c) have had
15) They … to Moscow next week. a) will go b) go c) went
16) He usually …. coffee in the morning. a) shall drink b) drinks c) drank
17) You ….. for a walk now . a) have gone b) are going c) go
18) She …. you about it a day ago . a) has asked b) asked c) will ask
19) I …. supper next Sunday. a) shall prepare b) prepared c) have prepared
20) I … already … the window. a) have opened b) do open c) will open
Ex. 64 Use the necessary word.
1) Many people go in for … a) take b) beautiful c) sports
2) English helps people in cultural … a) relations b) own c) important
3) I like to watch sports … on TV. a) competition b) kinds c) favorite
4) I want to read foreign literature in the … a) develop b) original c) different
5) Sport is very … a) hear b) go c) useful
6) Today English is the … of the world . a) adventure b) foreign c) language
7) … is the most famous summer kind of sports. a) swimming b) skating c) skiing
8) Books help people in our … a) studies b) important c) often
9) We … many things from books a) learn b) self-education c) nature
10) I think a book is the best … a) often b) present c) favourite
Ex. 65 Choose the right word .
1) The gallery in Moscow is named in honour to … a) Tretyakov b) Surikov c) Rublyov
2) The history … begin in the year 1147. a) Moscow b) St. Petersburg c) Samara
3) The oldest part of London is called … . a) East End b) City c) West End
4) The first American president chose the place where the city now stands to build a capital and the city was named after … .
a) George Washington b) Winston Cherchil c) Abraham Lincoln
5) The … is the home of the president . a) Library of Congress b) White House c) Capitol
6) … is situated on several islands and has 5 districts. a) New York b) Boston c) London
7) Black Americans usually live in … where life is difficult. a) Broadway b) Harlem c) Brooklyn
8) Russia is bounded by … countries. a) four b) thirteen c) ten
9) Our … shows dramas, tragedies and comedies. a) cinema b) school c) theatre
10) The … begins when the third bell has rung. a) performance b) lesson c) competition
Ex. 66 Use the necessary form of the verb.
1) I … to school every day . a) go b) am going c) have gone
2) She … basketball last week. a) plays b) play c) played
3) Look. They … football now . a) had played b) played c) are playing
4) He … to the library every month. a) go b) goes c) went
5) We ….. the book this week. a)are reading b) were reading c)have read
6) Lena …. to the stadium tomorrow . a) was going b) has gone c) will go
7) John … to the cinema yesterday. a) is going b) went c) go
8) She … just … the exercise. a) is doing b) has done c) did
9) He …. his work by 6 o'clock. a) finished b) had finished c) was finished
10) They … a music lesson at 10 o'clock. a) have b) have had c) were having
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense Настоящее завершено-длительное время

Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Отрицательная форма
I have been waiting
He
She has been
It waiting
We have been
You waiting
They
Have I been waiting?
he
Has she been waiting?
it

we
Have you been waiting?
they
I have not been waiting
He has not
She been
It waiting
We have not
You been
They waiting
Типичные предлоги для Present Perfect Progressive for, since. Present Perfect Progressive выражает действие, начавшееся в прошлом и продолжающееся в настоящем.
Present Perfect Progressive.
Ex. 67 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect Progressive.
1.John is in his room, he (to sit) there since the morning. 2. For two hours now we (to talk) about it and we haven't come to any conclusion yet. 3. John, do you know where my bag is? I (to look) for it for half an hour and I can't find it. 4. Look, your brother (to dance) with that red-haired girl since she came into the room. 5. He (to try) to solve this problem for several months now but he hasn't found a solution yet. 6. She (to teach) at school for twenty years. 7. Mr. Brown (to work) in his room since early morning. 8. The children (to sleep) for six hours.
Ex. 68 Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Mr. Smith has been staying with them for a fortnight. 2. It has been raining all the morning. 3. He has been writing this exercise for two hours. 4. The boy has been fishing since early morning. 5. For a week you have been promising to take me for a walk. 6. The children have been playing in the garden since their mother came.
Ex. 69 Выпишите конструкции с Present Perfect Progressive.
1.No, I wasn't thinking of Martin's cottage. I must have been thinking of another one -- perhaps your own. 2. Surely you must have known that Martin took it. You can't have been thinking all this time that I did. 3. And I've not been thinking about it -- I've been torturing myself with it. 4. You've been living in a fool's paradise, and now ... you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in.
Ex. 70 Переведите на русский язык
1.I have been waiting for you since 12 o'clock. 2. She has been working here for 2 hours. 3. For how long have they been sleeping? 4. What have you been doing? -- I have been marking essays. 5. I have been pruning my roses. 6. I've been waiting here since three o'clock. 7. I've been drinking too much. 8. That noise has been going on since they came home. 9. The telephone has been ringing for five minutes, why don't you answer it? 10. Look at my hands I've been cleaning your shoes. 11. He has been coming here day after day for years. 12. I suppose you have been telling lies again.

Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense Прошедшее длительное время

Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма
I
Не was
She walking
It
We
You were
They walking
I
Was he walking?
she
it
we
Were you walking?
they
I
He was not
She (wasn't)
It walking.
We were not
You (weren't)
They walking
Past Continuous выражает действие, которое совершилось в определенный момент времени в прошлом (at 6 o'clock yesterday) или в определенный период времени в прошлом (from 5 till 8 o'clock yesterday).
Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense Будущее длительное время

Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма
I shall be waiting
He will be
She waiting
It
We shall be waiting
You will be
They waiting
Shall I be waiting?
he
Will she be waiting
it
Shall we be waiting?
Will you be wait-
they ing?
I shall not be waiting
He
She will not be waiting
It
We shall not be waiting
You will not be
They waiting.
Future Progressive выражает действие, которое будет происходить в определенный момент в будущем (at 5 o'clock tomorrow) или в определенный период времени в будущем (from 2 till 5 o'clock tomorrow)
Present Progressive, Past Progressive & Future Progressive
Ex. 71 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Progressive или Past Progressive.
1.Why you (to look) at me in that way? 2. He (to skate) yesterday from five till nine o'clock. 3. Why you (to smoke) in the room? 4. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 5. What you (to look) at? I (to look) at this monument. 6. He (to write) the article all the week. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) us for two hours about his trip to India. 8. I (to learn) to ride a bicycle now. 9.We (to work) at this problem during three months. 10.Be quiet, he (to write) a composition now.
Ex. 72 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.1. Не (not to wait) for us at 6 o'clock tomorrow. 2.I (to translate) this article, when my mother come. 3. The conference (to take place) from 2 till 6 o'clock on Monday. 4. How long you (to stay) at your parents?
Ex. 73 Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Future Progressive.
1.Завтра я буду работать весь вечер. 2. Мы встретим их, когда они будут идти в институт. 3. Когда я приду сюда, мои дети будут играть. 4. Завтра мы будем проводить опыты с 2 до 5 часов. 5. Когда мы приедем в лабораторию, они будут показывать свои опыты. 6. Я буду гулять в парке с 7 до 8 часов. 7. Она будет делать уроки в 8 часов? 8. Мы не будем играть в шахматы весь вечер.
Ex. 74 Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple и Future Progressive.
1.Don't ring him up at 11 o'clock tomorrow. He (to work) at that moment. 2. At this time tomorrow my brothers (to play) football. 3. Maybe we (to play) football tomorrow. 4. They (to come) soon. 5.I am afraid it (to rain) all day tomorrow. 6. When the train (to come) my parents (to wait) for me at the station. 7. I (to finish) this book very soon; I (to read) it all day tomorrow. 8. I must tell John that Nick (to wait) for him at ten o'clock tomorrow. 9. He (to be) busy tomorrow. He (to put) electric light in our country-house. 10. What you (to do) all day tomorrow? 11. I (to listen) to the radio till you come back. 12. Don't come tomorrow, I (to write) my report. 13. This time tomorrow, I (to leave) Moscow for Tula.
Ex. 75 Fill in the gaps with : will start , is finding out, has been , have been studying, lasted, were eating , came.
1) Natasha … never … in an American school. 2) The second class … 30 minutes yesterday. 3) Homeroom class … at 8 p. m. tomorrow.4) They… American History for a year.5) The teacher … which students are absent at the moment. 6)The guests … cake when he … home.
Ex. 76 Choose the proper form of the verb .
1) A . Pushkin .... a lot of books
a) wrote b) have written c) has written
2) She .... her first book fifteen years ago .
a) writes b) has written c) wrote .
3) ..... you ever ...... Italian food ?
a ) do try b) did try c) have tried .
4) I ..... in Glasgow for six years now and don't want to move .
. a) live b) have lived c) lived .
5) He ...... in Paris for thirteen years , and then in 1988 he .... to Lion .
a) lived , moved b) has lived , moved c) lived , has moved .
6) They usually ..... to the south for the summer , but this year they .... abroad .
a) go , will go b) goes , are going c) go , are going .
7) “ Why you ...... ? “ - ,, I ..... my watch “.
a) cry , lost b) do you cry , have lost c) are you crying , have lost .
8) ,, ......... you ........ the book ?'' - ,, Yes , I ..... it yesterday .”
a) did found , bought b) have found , bought , c) do find , have bought .
9) She ...... very nice with her hair up .
a) looks b) is looking c) look .
10) You always ...... the same mistake . I ..... it several times already .
a) make , correct b) are making , is correcting c) are making , have corrected
Ex. 77 Put in who ,what , which or that .
1) Do you know that gentlman ..... is talking to Peter ?
2) I visited the museum ..... is very famous .
3) A book .... was left on the table belongs to John .
4) Have you got back the things ...... were stolen ?
5) Jane works for the company .... sells washing machines .
6) I have lost all .... makes life pleasant .
7) The holiday was not at all ..... I expected .
8) The police haven`t found the man ..... stole my car .
9) Do you know a shop .... sells good coffee ?
10) You misunderstood - that isn`t ...... I meant .
Ex. 78 Choose the right answer .
1) How much ..... ? a) it costs b) does it cost c) it cost d) is it .
2) When ....... him last ? a) you saw b) have you seen c) you see d) did you see .
3) Who ....... the window ? a) break b) did break c) broke .
4) I hope she ...... come. a) will b) is going to c) comes d ) is coming .
5) I ` ll meet you ...... Wednesday . a) at b) on c) in .
6) You ..... touch the switch. It`s dangerous . a) can`t b) must not c) may not d) don`t have to .
7) He left without ..... goodbye . a) to say b) saying c) say d) he says .
8) I`ve know him ..... we were at school . a) since b) when c) for d) as .
Ex. 80 Ask all kinds of questions to the sentences .
1) After breakfast he goes to the university . 2) She is giving a lecture now . 3)You have had a tape-reorder. 4)He has been learning English for 5 years. 5)She studied very hard .
6)They were taking notes at the lecture at this time yesterday.7)We had done the translation by the time he came.
8)He had been doing the homework for two hours when she came.9)We shall have the exam tomorrow.10)I hope , I`ll have finished it by next Sunday.1 1)Tomorrow at this time you will be looking for it .12)He will have been writting a letter for three hours when you come.
Past Perfect Tense Прошедшее завершенное время

< и т.д.................


Перейти к полному тексту работы



Смотреть похожие работы


* Примечание. Уникальность работы указана на дату публикации, текущее значение может отличаться от указанного.