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The peculiarities of technical translation in the sphere of trade


: . : 15.12.2014. : 2014. : 31. antiplagiat.ru: < 30%


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The peculiarities of technical translation

in the sphere of trade .


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II. Theoretical Part. Lexical problems in translation of Technical texts

II. 1. Translation of technical literature as a special discipline.4

II. 2. Disclosure of the concept Technical translation...7

II. 3. Lexico-grammatical transformations9

II. 4. Linguistic peculiarities of technical texts....13

II. 5. False friends of translator.15

II. 6. Lexicology and grammar of technical literature..17

II. 7. Translation of titles in technical articles...25

III. Practical Part

III. 2. Translation of the text of mechanical engineering in the sphere of trade27

IV. Conclusion ....40

V. Bibliography..42

Appendix ..43

I. Introduction.

The present course work deals with the lexical problems in translation of technical texts and research the main methods of translation of Technical texts at a deeper level. In connection with the rapid developments in technology and increase the technical information practical value of technical translation was raised.
Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text which has an identical communicative value with the source text. Technical translation or research in language for specific purposes has long been considered as a field of the exact sciences, and the idea of cultural embedding of technical texts was dismissed. When someone calls language technical in everyday life, it is usually understood to mean that its message is hard to grasp. In scientific circles however the modifier has a happier connotation. The expressiveness and flexibility of natural language make it hard to process in a methodical fashion, and researchers generally understand technical text? to mean writing which is more tractable because, for example, it lacks figurative language and can be understood in its literal sense.
The aim of our course work is to study and analyse the lexical problems in translation of technical texts.
There are 3 following objectives:
1. To characterize the translation of technical texts.
2. To give a detailed explanation of constructions which cause special difficulties while translating.
3. To suggest some strategies for translating technical texts.
The subject of research peculiarities in translation of technical texts in the sphere of trade.
The purpose of this work - the study of language features and technical literature on the lexical level.
In way translation of technical texts is the opposite of literary translation in what concerns the freedom of translators actions and choices. The technical texts are highly standardized this applies both to the structure of the whole text (macrostructure) and to the arrangement of individual paragraphs and sentence (microstructure). At the macro level in technical texts usually consists of a preamble, main text body and a finalizing (concluding) part. Depending on the type of document the composition and content of its individual parts may slightly vary. This course work is intended for students who are already aware of the basics and peculiarities of the grammatical and syntax of the English language. That is why it offers some introduction in translation of technical texts which can cause special difficulties while translating. In my course work I have used the following resources:
    The usage of different information such as books, references and Internet.
    The own experience of work as a translator from English into Russian.
As for the structure of this project, it consists of the following parts:
Theoretical part
Practical part
Introduction gives the full review of all course work; it contains objectives, short description of each part of my course work.
The theoretical part present the analyze of theoretical aspects in translation of technical texts. The theoretical part gives a detailed review of the study of the theory of translation and also reveals the role of technical literature and terms in everyday life of the humanity which are believed to be interesting to future translator/interpret rs. It also discussed the methods of translation of technical text with purpose to make it easier for translator to achieve adequate translation in the target language.
Also theoretical part deals with the detailed study of grammatical and lexical, difficulties involved in translation of political literature.
It have been also attached some samples of translation of technical expressions and variants of possible translations so that to enable the future translator to benefit from the given paper in their further researches in the fields of translation.
In practical part I tried to apply all knowledge that I have obtained. I prepared translation of automobile, because it is good example of technical text and common for everyday life of humanity.
In conclusion we have summed up the results of our laborious investigation translation of technical literature.

II. Theoretical part. Lexical problems in translation of technical texts.

II.1. Translation of technical literature as a special discipline.

The translation of technical literature is a special discipline that arose at the intersection of linguistics, on the one hand, and science and technology, on the other.
The translation of technical literature must be viewed as a linguistic as well as scientific and technical positions, with the primacy of the first in study of common issues, and secondly, when considering the narrow nomenclature.
Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and would like to see others to treat them like professionals rather than as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators need to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as well as others that they are in control of what they do; that they do not just translate well because they have flair for translation, but rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to understand various aspects of their work.
Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as a subject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing number of universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, it needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines in order to develop and formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to function for its users.
Translation is a process of rendering a text, written piece or a speech by means of other languages. The difference of translation from retelling or other kinds of transfer of a given text is that that translation is a process of creating an original unity in contexts and forms of original.
The translation quality is defined by its completeness and value. The completeness and value of translation means definite rendering of the contextual sense of the original piece and a high-grade functional-stylistic conformity.
The concept high-grade functional-stylistic conformity clearly points on two existing ways of rendering the form in unity with the meaning: the first one is a reproduction of specific features of the form of the original piece and the second one is the creation of functional conformities of those features. It means when translating the specific features of an original literature we should rather consider the style inherent for the given genre but than direct copying the form of an original. While translating, we should also remember that different lexical and grammatical elements of an original might be translated differently if accepted by the norms of conformity to the whole original. The translation adequacy of separate phrases, sentences and paragraphs should not be considered separately but along with achievement of the adequacy and completeness of the translating piece as a whole because the unity of a piece is created through collecting the components.
No matter how a translator (interpreter) is talented he should remember two most important conditions of the process of translation: the first is that the aim of translation is to get the reader as closely as possible acquainted with the context of a given text and then second to translate means to precisely and completely express by means of one language the things that had been expressed earlier by the means of another language.
Bilingvistical study of language and style of scientific and technical literature provides an opportunity to obtain comparative data, which then form the basics of transfers so as a foreign language in Russian, with Russian as a foreign language.
Wall bilingvistical study of theoretical and practical patterns of language and style of scientific and technical literature and the development of translation from one language to another requires the combined efforts of linguists and logic, phycologists and teachers, translators and engineers.
New program of teaching foreign languages in high schools, approved in 1967, focuses its efforts on training teachers of reading and translation of scientific and technical literature. The new goal will require the development of new methods of teaching foreign languages. This new method should be based on the data bilingvistical study of languages and style of technical literature identifying the specific laws of its reading and interpretation.
Based on the characteristics of the language and style of technical literature and its attendant formal and logical style is necessary, starting with the first lessons to teach students a strictly logical analysis of language material, focusing on those phenomenal that are specific to language and style naunoy and technical literature cause errors in translation.
We can not allow the mechanical transfer method of teaching spoken language and leaning to read literature on the development of patterns of reading an translation of scientific and technical texts. In this regard, it is necessary first of all to abandon the emphasis on consolidation of frequency words and grammatical forms that do not cause difficulties in translation, and the popularization of wireless reading, which was build on the conviction that one can correctly understand the scientific and technical thought not knowing special words and combinations based on intuition and speculation.
Translation is the process and the result of turning a text from one language into another, which means expressing the same by the signs of a different language. Bearing in mind that every sign has two planes (plane of expression and plane of content) the essence of translation could be described as changing the elements of the plane of content remains constant.
The language of the original text is called source language, the language into which the text is translated is called target language (the corresponding Russian terms are e and ). One of the main difficulties of translating lies in the fact that the meaning of the whole text is not exhausted by the sum of meaning of its elements. The meaning of a text is made up by words (characterized by their denotative and connotative meaning and stylistic reference), syntactic meaning of sentences and utterances larger than sentences, suprasegmental elements and lexico-semantic connections between words and phrases.

II. 2. Disclosure of the concept Technical translation .

Technical translation is a type of specialized translation involving the translation of documents produced by technical writers (owner's manuals, user guides, etc.), or more specifically, texts which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical application of scientific and technological information. While the presence of specialized terminology is a feature of technical texts, specialized terminology alone is not sufficient for classifying a text as "technical" since numerous disciplines and subjects which are not "technical" possess what can be regarded as specialized terminology. Technical translation covers the translation of many kinds of specialized texts and requires a high level of subject knowledge and mastery of the relevant terminology and writing conventions.
Technical writing, a form of technical communication, is a style of formal writing used in fields as diverse as computer hardware and software, chemistry, the aerospace industry, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. Technical writers explain technology and related ideas to technical and nontechnical audiences. This could mean, for example, telling a programmer how to use a software library or telling a consumer how to operate a television remote control.
Technical writers gather information from existing documentation and from subject matter experts. A subject matter expert (SME) is any expert on the topic that the writer is working on. Technical writers are often not SMEs themselves (unless they are writing about creating good technical documentation). Workers at many levels, and in many different fields, have a role in producing technical communications. A good technical writer needs strong language and teaching skills and must understand the many conventions of modern technical communications.
Technical writing teams or departments are often referred to as Information Development, User Assistance, Technical Documentation, or Technical Publications. Technical writers themselves may be called API Writers, information developers, documentation specialists, documentation engineers, or technical content developers.
For technical documents to be useful, readers must understand and act on them without having to decode wordy and ambiguous prose. Good technical writing clarifies technical jargon; that is, it presents useful information that is clear and easy to understand for the intended audience.
Technical writing is often subject to parody, perhaps due to the publication of poor quality technical documents. A classic parody of poor technical writing is the assembly instruction sheet for a complicated device such as a bicycle or barbecue grill produced by a writer whose native language is not that of the target audience, and who lacks any sense of effective use of overview, naming, and sequencing in technical instruction documents. The phrase "some assembly required" has come to symbolize difficulty with essentially technical writing issues.
Technical translations, in the broader sense, involve any non-literary translation, i.e., translation of texts dealing with electronics, medicine, law, economics, or sports. In a narrower sense, technical translations deal with texts from the world of engineering, including chemistry, computer science, automotive engineering, geology, etc. The number of technical fields is infinitely large, and terminology is expanding and changing daily. Moreover, even within the same field, competing companies often use different terms for the same object to differentiate their products from those of their competitors.
Ideally, a technical text should therefore be translated by a specialist in the specific area in question, who is familiar with the terminology of the company for which the translation is being done. For example, it is highly desirable that a text dealing with IBM computer parts be translated by an IBM computer specialist, because chances are the same part is called a different name by Apple, Dell, or NEC. Obviously, this is not always possible in practice. What is important, however, is that the translator be familiar with the technical concepts involved in the text, so that the translation conveys the right idea to the engineer or technician reading it. The client can greatly contribute to the quality of the translation by providing the translator with any related documents written in the target language, as well as with the drawings and source-language documents dealing with the same topic. Then, especially if the translation is for publication, the terminology must be refined via a dialog between the translator and the client.
Dictionaries do not always provide the right answers to technical terminology problems. A technical translator will know the proper term to use.
Translation/convers on of units of measurement poses a special challenge to the translator. It's not only finding the correct conversion factor from pound per square inch to kilopascal, but also choosing the right fractional units to avoid expressing the weight of a microchip in tons or its dimensions in miles. Competent technical translators know that converting a temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius units or vice-versa requires a different formula from converting a temperature difference between the same units. They realize that some units (like standard screw sizes) are not to be converted. They know when to round numbers and how.
Even if the terminology and all information contained in the document is correct, technical writing has a style that is difficult, if not impossible, for a non-technical person to imitate. A high-quality technical translation combines correct terminology and a style appropriate for the type of document and the intended audience. A text describing a surgical procedure will use a different terminology and style depending on whether it is intended for physicians or laypersons. Excessively technical terminology may not be understood by the layman, while the specialist may be offended by use of popular.

II.3. Lexico-grammatical transformations.

Every language is characterized by a specific structure of its lexico-grammatical fields and has its own lexical, morphological and syntactic system. It may result in lack of coincidence between the means of expressing the same content in SL (source language) and TL (target language). That is why good practical knowledge of the two languages is quite necessary but not sufficient for translating. Besides this knowledge one must possess a number of skills and be guided by a number of principles worked out by the theory of translation. These principles are connected both with linguistic and extra linguistic aspects. While translating one must keep in view typological characteristics of both the language and remember that the same idea may be expressed lexically in one of them and grammatically in the other.
It is well known that language differ in their grammatical structure. Apart from aving different grammatical categories that seem to be similar. This naturally results in the necessity to introduce some grammatical change in the translated version of any text. These changes depend on the character of correlation between the grammatical norms of SL and TL. Various as they are, all the possible changes may be classed under four main types: transposition (), replacement (), additions (), and omission ().

1. Transposition. There may appear a necessity to rearrange elements of different levels: words, phrases, clauses or even sentence. Transposition of words and phrases may be caused by various reasons: differences in the accepted word order in SL and TL, presence or absence of emphasis, differences in the means of communicative syntax.
Speaking of word order, it would be more accurate to say that to change word order really means to rearrange not so much words but part of the sentence when translating from English into Russian one has to change word-order because normally it is fixed in English while in Russian it is relatively free: Most of the modern radio-transmitters can communicate both telegraph and telephone signals.- , , which depends (in this particular case) on the rhythm of the whole utterance. But such freedom of choice is rather rare, since the word order of the Russian sentences is not as arbitrary as it seems to be. The position of a word in the sentence is often predetermined by its communicative function.
Transposition of clauses is also used to preserve the semantic and communicative balance of the whole sentences: We know the primary coil in the ordinary transformer to have more turns than the secondary one. - , , .
Transposition of sentences does not become necessary very often. However, it helps sometimes to render the meaning which is expressed by the Past Perfect from in the English text, so as to indicate the succession of action or events: This question was discussed at the conference - . ( . . )

2. Replacement. Replacements are also made at different levels.
To conform to the demands of the grammatical system of TL it may become necessary to change the grammatical form of a word: fifteen thousand dollars (thousand singular, - plural), etc.
They often have to replace one part of speech by another.
The zinc in the dry cell accumulates a great many excess electrons which will move to the carbon electrode.- , .
Occasionally some other replacements may become necessary.
However, it must be remember that the choice of parts of speech influences the general stylistic coloring of the text, cf. nd , and , etc. Russian abstract nouns are usually more appropriate in newspapers and official texts, short-form adjectives and passive participle are somewhat bookish and should be avoided if possible when rendering colloquial speech, which means that part of speech replacements may be caused sometimes by purely stylistic considerations.
Replacement of parts of sentence. The most of frequent among such of replacements is that of substituting an object for the subject and vice versa. It is very helpful in translating English passive constructions. Statistics shows that in English they use passive constructions much more often that in Russian. Moreover, in English these constructions in themselves are not marked stylistically while in Russian they are mainly bookish and official. The essence of this replacement is in making the subject of the English sentence the object of the Russian version: This transformation is regularly used when the subject of the English sentence is expressed by a noun denoting some message: the text (the telegram, the letter, etc.), ( , ..) (). Occasionally this transformation is applied to other nouns in the function of the subject.
One of the most important syntactic peculiarities of the English language is the existence of the secondary predication created by various participial and infinitive constructions. These constructions are included in the structure of the simple sentences in English while Russian simple sentences have only one predicative center. This may lead to the necessity of the substituting Russian composite sentence for simple sentence of the original text.
A long and syntactically complicated sentence containing secondary predication may be translated by several simple sentences: A few months ago I was nominated for the Governor of the great State of New-York, to run against Mr.Stewart L.Woodford and Mr.John T.Hoffman on an independent ticket -, . ..
A different type of syntactic bond may be used in translation instead of that used in original text; i.e. subordination may be replaced by coordination and vice versa. Generally speaking, subordination is more frequently used in English than in Russian, since subordinating words in English are rather vague semantically while in Russian they state rather definitely the character of semantic connection between the clauses.
Syndetic connection used in English sentence is not always appropriate in Russian, so it would often create a wrong stylistic effect if preserved in translation. That is why asyndetic connection of part of the sentence is rather regularly used in Russian instead of English polysyndeton.
So, the following types of replacement may be used in order to overcome difficulties created by differences in the grammatical system of SL and TL: A. Replacement of word-forms ( ). B. Replacement of part of speech ( ). C. Replacement of part of sentence ( ). D. Replacement of a simple sentence by composite one and vice versa ( ). E. Replacement of the principal clause by a subordinate one and vice versa ( ). F. Replacement of subordination by coordination and vice versa ( ). G. Replacement of syndetic connection by asyndetic and vise versa ( ). Within the fourth type (replacement of a simple sentence by a composite one and vise versa) they also single out two additional varieties: joining several sentence together () and dividing a long sentence into several shorter sentences ().

3. Addition. It is very difficult to say whether this transformation is lexical or grammatical: it is both. Its lexical aspects have already been discussed: it is necessary to make some explanation of transcribed words, describe those notions which have no name in TL, add the words which are implied but not expressed in the structure of attributive phrases, etc. However, in all these cases the structure of the sentence is involved, that is why the transformation is considered to be grammatical. Sometimes there appear grammatical reasons for adding new words: it happens when some meaning is expressed grammatically in the original text while there is no way of expressing it grammatically in TL.
The IMF mission is to arrive in Almaty on November 17.The stuff will focus of the general macroeconomic indicates. (International Monetary Fund )
17 . .
You might ask why engineers have generally chosen to supply us with a.c. rather than d.c. for our household needs. - , , .
In this way the translated version restores as it were the complete structure of the original sentence some elements of which might be only implied and not expressed materially. When using the transformation of addition one should be very careful to add only that which should really be added. It requires good knowledge of deep structure and surface structure grammars of both SL and TL and ability to analyze semantic and pragmatic aspects of text.

4. Ommision. This transformation is seldom structurally obligatory; it is usually caused by stylistic consideration and deals with redundancy traditionally normative in SL and not accepted in TL. A typical example of such redundancy is the use of synonymic pairs in English: their only stay and support both the words mean ", . There is no need to translate them both, one is quite enough: or, according to the demands of the context, , a.
Sometimes it is recommended to omit semantically empty tags of declarative and interrogative sentence: The first thing I did was to give her a call. , , .
They sometimes recommend omitting logical redundancies and repetitions to achieve what is called compression of the text. However, it must be remembered that logical redundancy of speech and various repetitions are used by writers to characterize the personage`s individual manner of speaking, his way of thinking, etc. In such cases omissions are not allowed.
These are the main types of grammatical transformations. It should be born in mind, however, that is practice it is hardly possible to find these elementary transformations in their pure form: in most cases it is necessary to combine them

II.4. Linguistic peculiarities of technical texts.

Within the fields of research and teaching the concept "technical text" covers texts which exist within a technical knowledge area and which as a result make use of the technical terminology belonging to that area. Furthermore, technical texts are considered as being informative, impersonal, objective and with a relatively standardized syntax, e.g. with many pre- and post-modifications, nominalisations and passive constructions. So, in crude terms technical texts are -as mentioned - considered a rather stereotyped and homogeneous group. In 1994 Baakes wrote:
"Scientists and engineers are trained to be objective and to accept as facts only impersonal, objective statements about things which can be seen by any observers who choose to look. This objective attitude is naturally reflected in the way they express themselves...
A natural consequence of the conventional view on technical texts - in a translational perspective - must be that if you master the conventions of technical language, i.e. technical style, the greatest problem to the translator must be of a terminological kind. What I realised during my work as a translator in a technical company was that the expression "technical texts" in business life and among professional translators covers texts within a technical knowledge area (just as was the case within research and teaching), BUT that the expression - in practice - is in no way limited to informative, impersonal and objective text types with a fixed syntax and style. On the contrary it covers a very wide range of text types. In my work I have used the skopos theory (Vermeer 1989) to show that it is the skopos - i.e. purpose/function - which ought to decide which translation strategy is to be used and not an illusion of equivalence between the source and the target text. In the same way you could say that it is the function of the source text which determines the contents and style of a text and not the fact that a text contains technical terminology and certain syntactic characteristics. In translation-oriented text classifications technical texts are traditionally classified as informative texts - and frequently as the extreme opposite to literary language and poetry - which is probably one of the reasons for the very stereotyped view on technical texts. Fortunately, today many researchers are moving away from that view and are becoming more conscious of the fact that most texts whether they are technical or not - are multifunctional:
"The traditional view of objective, a thetorical scientific discourse...has come increasingly into question..."
Some might claim that the texts are only classified according to their dominant function, but you could then ask the question whether such a classification is possible at all - for how do you assess which function is the most important in a text - is it necessarily the function which takes up most space? Buhler and Jakobson's well-known language functions are extremely useful concepts for the description of functions present in a text, but as the basis of a translation-relevant classification they are of no value and even misleading.We have worked with the following overall hypothesis "Though the informative function is evidently important in technical texts it is not the only relevant one. The majority of technical texts are more expressive than assumed up to now and are multifunctional to an extent which should be taken into account by the translator." Before we proceed we would like to explain what is meant by the concept "expressivity&qu t;.
Expressivity Defined and Explained
Non-informative purposes can of course be explicitly expressed in a text, but due to the tradition of objectivity there is a tendency to express non-informative purposes in technical texts in a more subtle or implicit way - which does not exactly make it easier for the translator to discover the underlying messages of a text. Stylistic features which express something non-informative we call expressive features. Inspired by Gliser and to a certain extent Nord we have divided the expressive features into syntactic expressivity and lexical expressivity. Syntactic expressivity structures and emphasizes part of the text. A text can thus be organized in a way which supports the non-informative purposes of the text. Examples of syntactic expressivity can be: parallelisms, rhetorical questions, antithesis or inverted word order.
Lexical expressivity occurs when the attitudes and expressive messages of the writer are expressed at the level of lexis. E.g. by means of metaphors, puns, alliteration, hedging or by the use of lexemes with many connotations and a large number of other lexical means. By means of a mini-corpus consisting of 6 different technical texts in Danish (from the same company) we have tried to show that the technical writer - like any other writer - makes use of syntactic as well as lexical expressive linguistic means. It goes without saying that in most technical texts these features are a bit more subtle than e.g. within literature and poetry, but of course this does not mean that they do not exist. You might even say that a pun or a creative metaphor has a stronger effect in a text type where they are not so frequent. Each expressive feature often seems rather unimportant seen in isolation, but it is important to understand that it is the sum and interplay of the expressive elements in a text which point at the expressive messages.
When working as a staff translator it gradually dawned upon me that we was often left with impressions of a text which did not stem from the purely informative level of the text. We quite often got the impression that a writer was expressing this or that attitude in a very subtle way. I.e. in addition to the obvious subjects and purposes, the texts were filled with "hidden agendas" (not to be understood in any negative sense). Presumably most professional translators would recognize the intuitions just described as it is well known that there is more to a text than meets the eye. However, this is traditionally the way we describe phenomena we do not know enough about and when taking a closer look at the texts we was dealing with we discovered that my intuitions probably originated (at least partly) from a number of lexemes pointing in the same direction, though frequently with only part of their meaning. As we were later to become aware, the phenomenon just described is that of isotopy.
II.5. False friends of translator.

False friends words or expressions that appear the same in two languages, but have different meanings in each. French and English form a happy hunting-ground. As language evolves, meanings change, and words from the past become false friends although in the same language.
In France, the word demander means only to ask or request. Woe betides the translator who renders it into English as demand which is far more peremptory, and in some contexts can sound rude. This error is rumoured to have provoked a diplomatic incident. Another, which I witnessed myself, was made by the official interpreter whom the late President Georges Pompidou brought with him to London when Britain was seeking to join the European Community, as it was then called. The President had said on television that he well understood the emotional bonds between Britain and the Commonwealth. His interpreter translated liens sentimentaux as sentimental links. He should perhaps have said links of sentiment: but his actual words implied that those links were mawkish, false, or a blend of both.
These are plain instances of how false friends can affect diplomatic relations. But there are many that merely confuse ordinary people. Actuel means present-day, not actual; une bribe is a fragment (of music or talk), not a bribe; un courtier is not a courtier, but a broker; descente de lit (bedside mat) was misread, by a translator of Jean Cocteau, as getting out of bed. The alphabet could continue indefinitely.
Translation remains the problem, especially when the words in each language appear the same. And false friends are not the only culprits. Less usual suspects also carry burdens from the past. These are words and expressions that are directly translatable, and sometimes virtually identical.
For example, the words:
1. Actual -- means "&qu t;, not "&quo ;.
It is interesting to illustrate, at this point, how Flory's original equation can lead to serious discrepancies if applied without due regard to the actual concentration of materials. , , .
2. Original -- means " quot;, not "& uot;.
The relationship is responsible for the original shifting of this band. .
3. Progressive -- means "&quo ;, not "&q ot;.
A progressive increase in volume was noticed at all extensions. .
4. Actually -- "&quo ;, not "" .
This compound actually proved to be an isomer. .
5. Originally -- "& uot;, not "&qu t;-It is the method originally developed by Hahn and his co-workers. , .
6. Progressively -- "" , " ", not "&qu t;.
The stability of an ion of the present type decreases as the number of aromatic rings decreases, so that benzhydrol and benzyl alcohol appear to behave as progressively weaker bases. , , , , .
7. Specific -- means "" not " quot;.
If one knows the value for the specific rotation of optically pure phenylmethylacetic acid, it then becomes possible to set minimum values for the rotations of the optically pure aphenylethylphenols. , .
8. Technique -- "", "" "", not ""
9. Procedure -- "" "", not"& uot; (. 60).
10. Figure -- "", "", "", not "".
11. Object--"&qu t;, "", not "".
12. Subject-- "", "", not "".
13. Extra -- "&quo ;, " quot;, "", not " "

II.6. Lexicology and grammar of technical literature.

Any translator comes across various problems within translating any text documents; many lexical problems can be seen during his course of work. To check out these lexical problems we should first of all know what does lexicology means: The term lexicology is of Greek origin / from lexis - word and logos - science. Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.
The term vocabulary is used to denote the system of words and word-groups that the language possesses.
The term word denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance.
The term word-group denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit, has the unity of meaning, the unity of syntactical function, e.g. the word-group as loose as a goose means clumsy and is used in a sentence as a predicative / He is as loose as a goose/.
Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. In this case it is called historical lexicology.
Another branch of lexicology is called descriptive and studies the vocabulary at a definite stage of its development.
a) Language units
The main unit of the lexical system of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning is a word. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest language unit which can stand alone as a complete utterance.
A word, however, can be divided into smaller sense units - morphemes. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. The morpheme consists of a class of variants, allomorphs, which are either phonologically or morphologically conditioned, e.g. please pleasant, pleasure.
Morphemes are divided into two large groups: lexical morphemes and grammatical (functional) morphemes. Both lexical and grammatical morphemes can be free and bound. Free lexical morphemes are roots of words which express the lexical meaning of the word; they coincide with the stem of simple words. Free grammatical morphemes are function words: articles, conjunctions and prepositions (the, with, and).Bound lexical morphemes are affixes: prefixes (dis-), suffixes (-ish) and also blocked (unique) root morphemes (e.g. Fri-day, cran-berry). Bound grammatical morphemes are inflexions (endings), e.g. -s for the Plural of nouns, -ed for the Past Indefinite of regular verbs, -ing for the Present Participle, -er for the Comparative degree of adjectives.
In the second half of the twentieth century the English word building system was enriched by creating so called splinters which scientists include in the affixation stock of the Modern English word building system. Splinters are the result of clipping the end or the beginning of a word and producing a number of new words on the analogy with the primary word-group. For example, there are many words formed with the help of the splinter mini- (apocopy produced by clipping the word miniature), such as miniplane, minijet, minicycle, minicar, miniradio and many others. All of these words denote obects of smaller than normal dimensions.
On the analogy with mini- there appeared the splinter maxi- (apocopy produced by clipping the word maximum), such words as maxi-series, maxi-sculpture, maxi-taxi and many others appeared in the language. When European economic community was organized quite a number of neologisms with the splinter Euro- (apocopy produced by clipping the word European) were coined, such as: Euratom Eurocard, Euromarket, Europlug, Eurotunnel and many others. These splinters are treated sometimes as prefixes in Modern English.
There are also splinters which are formed by means of apheresis that is clipping the beginning of a word. The origin of such splinters can be variable, e.g. the splinter burger appeared in English as the result of clipping the German borrowing Hamburger where the morphological structure was the stem Hamburg and the suffix -er. However in English the beginning of the word Hamburger was associated with the English word ham and the end of the word burger got the meaning a bun cut into two parts. On the analogy with the word hamburger quite a number of new words were coined, such as: baconburger, beefburger, cheeseburger, fishburger etc.
The splinter cade developed by clipping the beginning of the word cavalcade which is of Latin origin. In Latin the verb with the meaning to ride a horse is cabalicare and by means of the inflexion -ata the corresponding Participle is formed. So the element cade is a combination of the final letter of the stem and the inflexion. The splinter cade serves to form nouns with the meaning connected with the procession of vehicles denoted by the first component, e.g. aircade - a group of airplanes accompanying the plane of a VIP , autocade - a group of automobiles escorting the automobile of a VIP, musicade - an orchestra participating in a procession.
In the seventieths of the twentieth century there was a political scandal in the hotel Watergate where the Democratic Party of the USA had its pre-election headquarters. Republicans managed to install bugs there and when they were discovered there was a scandal and the ruling American government had to resign. The name Watergate acquired the meaning a political scandal, corruption. On the analogy with this word quite a number of other words were formed by using the splinter gate (apheresis of the word Watergate), such as: Irangate, Westlandgate, shuttlegate, milliongate etc. The splinter gate is added mainly to Proper names: names of people with whom the scandal is connected or a geographical name denoting the place where the scandal occurred.
The splinter mobile was formed by clipping the beginning of the word automobile and is used to denote special types of automobiles, such as: artmobile, bookmobile, snowmobile, tourmobile etc.
The splinter napper was formed by clipping the beginning of the word kidnapper and is used to denote different types of crimesters, such as: busnapper, babynapper, dognapper etc. From such nouns the corresponding verbs are formed by means of backformation, e.g. to busnap, to babynap, to dognap.
The splinter omat was formed by clipping the beginning of the word automat (a cafe in which meals are provided in slot-machines). The meaning self-service is used in such words as laundromat, cashomat etc.
Another splinter eteria with the meaning self-service was formed by clipping the beginning of the word cafeteria. By means of the splinter eteria the following words were formed: groceteria, booketeria, booteteria and many others.
The splinter quake is used to form new words with the meaning of shaking, agitation. This splinter was formed by clipping the beginning of the word earthquake. Ther following words were formed with the help of this splinter: Marsquake, Moonquake, youthquake etc.
b) Word-building
Word-building is one of the main ways of enriching vocabulary. There are four main ways of word-building in modern English: affixation, composition, conversion, abbreviation. There are also secondary ways of word-building: sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blends, and back formation.
c) Affixation
Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.
d) Suffixation
The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part of speech from another; the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. (e.g. educate is a verb, educatee is a noun, and music is a noun, musicdom is also a noun).
There are different classifications of suffixes:
1. Part-of-speech classification. Suffixes which can form different parts of speech are given here:
a) noun-forming suffixes, such as: -er (criticizer), -dom (officialdom), -ism (ageism),
b) adjective-forming suffixes, such as: -able (breathable), less (symptomless), -ous (prestigious),
c) verb-forming suffixes, such as -ize (computerize), -ify (micrify),
d) adverb- forming suffixes , such as : -ly (singly), -ward (tableward),
e) numeral-forming suffixes, such as - teen (sixteen), -ty (seventy).
2. Semantic classification. Suffixes changing the lexical meaning of the stem can be subdivided into groups, e.g. noun-forming suffixes can denote:
a) the agent of the action, e.g. -er (experimenter), -ist (taxist), -ent (student)
b) nationality, e.g. -ian (Russian), -ese (Japanese), -ish (English),
c) collectivity, e.g. -dom (moviedom), -ry (peasantry, -ship (readership), -ati ( literati),
d) diminutiveness, e.g. -ie (horsie), -let (booklet), -ling (gooseling), -ette (kitchenette),
e) quality, e.g. -ness (copelessness), -ity (answerability).
3. Lexico-grammatical character of the stem. Suffixes which can be added to certain groups of stems are subdivided into:
a) suffixes added to verbal stems, such as : -er (commuter), -ing (suffering), - able (flyable), -ment (involvement), -ation (computerization),
b) suffixes added to noun stems, such as : -less (smogless), ful (roomful), -ism (adventurism), -ster (pollster), -nik (filmnik), -ish (childish),
c) suffixes added to adjective stems, such as : -en (weaken), -ly (pinkly), -ish (longish), -ness (clannishness).
4. Origin of suffixes. Here we can point out the following groups:
a) native (Germanic), such as -er,-ful, -less, -ly.
b) Romanic, such as: -tion, -ment, -able, -eer.
c) Greek, such as: -ist, -ism, -ize.
d) Russian, such as: -nik.
5. Productivity. Here we can point out the following groups:
a) productive, such as : -er, -ize, --ly, -ness.
b) semi- productive, such as: -eer, -ette, -ward.
c) non- productive , such as: -ard (drunkard), -th (length).
Suffixes can be polysemantic, such as: -er can form nouns with the following meanings: agent, doer of the action expressed by the stem (speaker), profession, occupation (teacher), a device, a tool (transmitter). While speaking about suffixes we should also mention compound suffixes which are added to the stem at the same time, such as -ably, -ibly, (terribly, reasonably), -ation (adaptation from adapt).
There are also disputable cases whether we have a suffix or a root morpheme in the structure of a word, in such cases we call such morphemes semi-suffixes, and words with such suffixes can be classified either as derived words or as compound words, e.g. -gate (Irangate), -burger (cheeseburger), -aholic (workaholic) etc.
e) Prefixation
Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes. Prefixes can be classified according to the nature of words in which they are used: prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. Prefixes used in notional words are proper prefixes which are bound morphemes, e.g. un - (unhappy). Prefixes used in functional words are semi-bound morphemes because they are met in the language as words, e.g. over- (overhead) (cf over the table).
The main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. But the recent research showed that about twenty-five prefixes in Modern English form one part of speech from another (bebutton, interfamily, postcollege etc).
Prefixes can be classified according to different principles:
1. Semantic classification:
a) prefixes of negative meaning, such as : in- (invaluable), non- (nonformals), un- (unfree) etc,
b) prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions, such as: de- (decolonize), re- (revegetation), dis- (disconnect),
c) prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations, such as : inter- (interplanetary) , hyper- (hypertension), ex- (ex-student), pre- (pre-election), over- (overdrugging) etc.
2. Origin of prefixes:
a) native (Germanic), such as: un-, over-, under- etc.
b) Romanic, such as: in-, de-, ex-, re- etc.
c) Greek, such as: sym-, hyper- etc.
When we analyze such words as : adverb, accompany where we can find the root of the word (verb, company) we may treat ad-, ac- as prefixes though they were never used as prefixes to form new words in English and were borrowed from Romanic languages together with words. In such cases we can treat them as derived words. But some scientists treat them as simple words. Another group of words with a disputable structure are such as: contain, retain, detain and conceive, receive, deceive where we can see that re-, de-, con- act as prefixes and -tain, -ceive can be understood as roots. But in English these combinations of sounds have no lexical meaning and are called pseudo-morphemes. Some scientists treat such words as simple words, others as derived ones.
There are some prefixes which can be treated as root morphemes by some scientists, e.g. after- in the word afternoon. American lexicographers working on Webster dictionaries treat such words as compound words. British lexicographers treat such words as derived ones.
f) Composition
Composition is the way of word building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word. The structural unity of a compound word depends upon:
a) the unity of stress,
b) solid or hyphenated spelling,
c) semantic unity,
d) unity of morphological and syntactical functioning.
These are characteristic features of compound words in all languages. For English compounds some of these factors are not very reliable. As a rule English compounds have one uniting stress (usually on the first component), e.g. hard-cover, best-seller. We can also have a double stress in an English compound, with the main stress on the first component and with a secondary stress on the second component, e.g. blood-vessel. The third pattern of stresses is two level stresses, e.g. snow-white, sky-blue. The third pattern is easily mixed up with word-groups unless they have solid or hyphenated spelling. Spelling in English compounds is not very reliable as well because they can have different spelling even in the same text, e.g. war- ship, blood-vessel can be spelt through a hyphen and also with a break, insofar, underfoot can be spelt solidly and with a break. All the more so that there has appeared in Modern English a special type of compound words which are called block compounds, they have one uniting stress but are spelt with a break, e.g. air piracy, cargo module, coin change, pinguin suit etc.
The semantic unity of a compound word is often very strong. In such cases we have idiomatic compounds where the meaning of the whole is not a sum of meanings of its components, e.g. to ghostwrite, skinhead, brain-drain etc. In no idiomatic compounds semantic unity is not strong, e. g., airbus, to blood transfuse, astrodynamics etc.
English compounds have the unity of morphological and syntactical functioning. They are used in a sentence as one part of it and only one component changes grammatically, e.g. these girls are chatter-boxes. Chatter-boxes is a predicative in the sentence and only the second component changes grammatically.
There are two characteristic features of English compounds:
a) Both components in an English compound are free stems that are they can be used as words with a distinctive meaning of their own. The sound pattern will be the same except for the stresses, e.g. a green-house and a green house. Where as for example in Russian compounds the stems are bound morphemes, as a rule.
b) English compounds have a two-stem pattern, with the exception of compound words which have form-word stems in their structure, e.g. middle- of- the- road, off-the-record, up-and-doing etc. The two-stem pattern distinguishes English compounds from German ones.
g) Ways of forming Compound words
Compound words in English can be formed not only by means of composition but also by means of:
a) reduplication, e.g. too-too, and also by means of reduplication combined with sound interchange , e.g. rope-ripe,
b) conversion from word-groups, e.g. to Mickey-mouse, can-do, makeup etc,
c) back formation from compound nouns or word-groups, e.g. to blood transfuse, to fingerprint etc ,
d) analogy, e.g. lie-in ( on the analogy with sit-in) and also phone-in, brawn-drain (on the analogy with brain-drain) etc.
Terminological words are also relatively context free though the context often helps to identify the specific field to which the term belongs. In the sentence These rifles are provided with a new type of foresight, the context clearly shows that the meaning of foresight is that of military term and therefore all other meaning of the word can be disregarded. The context may also help to understand the meaning of the term in the text when it can denote more than one specific concept. For instance, in the US political terminology the term state can refer either to a national state or to one of the states within a federal entity. The following context will enable the translator to make the correct choice:
Both the state and Federal authorities were accused of establishing a police state.
In the first case term state is contrasted with Federal and will be translated as , while in the second case it obviously means .
As a rule, English technical terms (as well as political terms and terms in any other specific field) have their permanent equivalents in the respective Russian terminological systems:
Magnitude , oxygen , surplus value , Embassy , Legislation .
Many Russian equivalents have been formed from the English terms by transcription or loan translations:
Computer , electron , Congressman , impeachment , shadow cabinet , nuclear deterrent .
e) Handling context bound words
The words dealt with in the previous chapter are relatively independent of the context so that they have a definite meaning which is reproduced in many texts as it stands. This in not the case, however, with most words in the English vocabulary whos meaning in any sentence largely depends on the context in which they are used. True, all words have meaning of their own which are defined in dictionaries but the context may specify or modify the word`s meaning, neutralize or emphasize some part of its semantics. And before looking for an equivalent, the translator has to make a careful study of the context to identify the contextual meaning of the word that should be rendered in translation. This meaning is the result of the interaction between the word semantics and the methods of its actualization in the speech act.
Most of the words arc polysemantic, that is, they have several meanings. As a rule, the words are used in the sentence in one of its meanings and the context must show what meaning has been selected by the speaker at cut off all other meanings irrelevant for the particular act of communication. If somebody complains that Few Europeans speak Mandarin, the context inequivocally shows that it is the Chinese language that is meant and not a Chinese imperial official or the Chinese fruit. If the same idea is expressed in a more ambiguous way, for instance, Few Europeans know the first thing about Mandarin, the context of the sentence may fail to indicate the relevant meaning beyond any doubt but the rest of the text or the circumstances of communication will certainly do that.
The context has also a decisive role to play in the selection of TL equivalents to the words of the original. We know that in most cases, the meaning of a SL word can be rendered in TL by a number of regular equivalents. Variable equivalents can be found only to the polysemantic words but also to the monosemantic words as well as to a semantic variant of a polysemantic word, that is, to one of its meanings which can be actualized in the course of communication.
In such cases after the translator has ascertained word meaning the word has in the original text he still has to choose one of the regular equivalents which fits the context best of all.
Accordingly, the UN ambitious program of providing food for the people of the earth will be translated as ͔ while the ambitious plans of South African racists will be rendered as - .
The English-Russian dictionary is the translator`s best friend and assistant in finding the appropriate equivalent. Sometimes the context tells the translator that one of the dictionary equivalents to the given word can be well used in TT. Even if the entry in his dictionary does not provide him with an equivalent that fits his context, the translator can use the dictionary data to facilitate the solution. Suppose he comes across a sentence in ST which runs as follows:
The United States worked out a formula which later came to be known as dollar diplomacy.
None of the equivalents suggested by I.R.Galperin`s New English-Russian Dictionary (, , ) fits the context of the sentence which deals with a stage in the US political history. But combining this data with context the translator will look for a Russian substitute for a political formula and may arrive at such terms as or : , .
The translator should consult the context with special care if his dictionary suggests only one equivalent. He should not be in a hurry to use this equivalent in his text without first ascertaining that the English word really is context free and is always translated in the same way. In case it is not, the entry is not exhaustive and the translator should look for another way out. The New English-Russian Dictionary, for example, treats the English words opportunism and opportunist as political terms and gives only one equivalent to each: and . When the word is used as a general term of disapprobation implying little regard for principles or consequences, the equivalents suggested by the dictionary have to be rejected in favor. Professional skill in using both the dictionary data and the information extracted from the context to solve his translation problems is the hallmark of a good translator.

II. 7. Translation of headlines in technical articles.

The headlines of the Anglo-American technical articles are presented well-known difficulties for the translation.
The main features of the headings of the Anglo-American technical articles are: a particular style, bright, showy manner in which they present to the reader expressiveness of lexical and grammatical means
Headlines are usually characterized by extremely short form of presentation. They may be omitted auxiliary verbs, verb, conjunctions and articles. Reductions and Abbreviated compounds are widely used in headlines.Neverthele s, headings of technical articles, as a rule, give concept about the basic maintenance of article.
It is possible to translate the headline only after acquaintance with article.
In modern British and American technical literature can be found in the form of headlines: questions, statements, exclamatory sentences.
Samples of the headlines of interrogative character and ways of their transfer:
*Whats coming for light weight clay blocks? .
*Why wash aggregates? .
*How to figure duct fitting losses? .
*Modernize? ()
The headlines of interrogative character are translated into Russian as the declarative sentences.
The headlines of statements:
*Exhibition halls go underground C .
*We give an old swimming pool new ideas. or * .
*The roof you save .
*All-weather site protection. -.
* Continuous turbidity monitoring controls chemical coagulation. .
*Large- scale pipe-laying for California aqueduct .
It is not obligatory to result figures in translating of headlines.
*Development of a 230-k V 20.000 Mva Oil Circuit Breaker. .
The headlines of the exclamatory sentence:
*Heres a simple way to interpret data!

I. The Practical Part


BMW X6 is the first car in the world to feature Dynamic Performance Control for unique directional stability and precision under all driving conditions as well as BMWs intelligent xDrive all-wheel-drive technology. BMW X6 captures the eyes of the beholder through its highly innovative combination of design and concept features. The car combines four doors and a dynamically flowing coupe roofline with a high sill-line, muscular wheel arches, and a strong centre of gravity positioned right in the middle and making a clear reference to four-wheel-drive technology.
The result is a unique vehicle clearly presenting the DNA of a BMW X model but interpreting the character of such a vehicle in a unique and truly sporting manner. The design of BMW X6 is the authentic visualisation of outstanding driving qualities borne out by the car mainly through BMWs intelligent xDrive technology as well as Dynamic Performance Control.
Unique, aesthetic look: dynamic coupe line and the typical features of a BMW X model. The front end of BMW X6 is dominated by highlights in design clearly symbolising the cars dynamic orientation to the road. From the side, in turn, the proportions are definitely elegant, the short front body overhang emphasising the dynamism of the car, the long overhang at the rear, its stretched and sleek look. The long line of the engine compartment lid merges smoothly and gently into the elegantly rising A-pillars, the greenhouse moved far to the back and the roofline tapering out clearly and consistently from the B-pillars interacting with the high window line to provide low and, indeed, almost flat window graphics.
The roofline, in turn, flows down gently to the rear spoiler, finally moving up again slightly in a small upward swing perfecting the overall line of a coupe and at the same time optimising the cars aerodynamic qualities.
The dynamically stretched side lines highlight the aesthetic effect of this concept car, with BMW X6 obtaining its impressive presence clearly through the unique combination of these lines and the design elements of a BMW X car.
Apart from the high window line, the large wheel arches and the centre of gravity visibly in the middle of the car, particularly this distinctive and powerful interaction of convex and concave surfaces, of the muscular side-sills with running boards made of drilled aluminium beneath the doors and the strong underfloor protection elements front and rear also made of aluminium express all the genuine DNA of BMW X.
Consistent focus on sporting performance. BMW X6 combines the design features so typical of a BMW X model with a truly individual, aesthetic look. In its character and design, this concept car stands out clearly from BMWs highly successful SAV models, although the core features of those models provide a strong and sound foundation for the development of a unique personality in the guise of BMW X6 as the Sports Activity Coupe.With its impressively dynamic driving characteristics, the BMW X5 already excels as a true exception in its segment, and was indeed the forerunner creating the entire segment in the first place. Now BMW X6 provides a clear impression of how an even more consistent focus on sporting performance in this class is able to set standards once again.
Through its design alone, this new concept car arouses the greatest expectations of the driving experience in a Sports Activity Coupe, bearing out the robustness and superior traction of a BMW X model in combination with dynamic driving qualities never seen before in this segment of the market.
World debut: Dynamic Performance Control in BMW X6.Dynamic Performance Control making its world debut in BMW X6 provides ideal qualities for experiencing new dimensions in driving dynamics. This drivetrain and chassis control system, combined with BMWs intelligent xDrive all-wheel drive technology, offers a truly unique standard of driving stability in every situation, benefiting both driving dynamics and safety at the same time.
Dynamic Performance Control, a truly innovative system, spreads out drive forces as required in all situations, feeding a varying degree of power whenever required to the two wheels at the rear.
Dynamic Performance Control is the only system of its kind in the world able to provide its stabilising effect both under power and with the engine in overrun.
As soon as the system detects possible over- or understeer of the vehicle, for example in a bend, it will vary the distribution of drive forces between the wheels for perfect stability, dynamic traction, and forward motion. And in the process Dynamic Performance Control improves driving stability at all speeds, this unique chassis and suspension innovation ensuring not only safe traction when setting off and precise control when ent

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