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краткое изложение Общая информация: от начальной школы до средней школы, учителя. Введение в систему образования в США, начальные, средние школы, учреждения высшего образования, тенденции в образовании. Частные колледжи и университеты, колледжи Гарвард, Принстон, Еил.

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Тип работы: краткое изложение. Предмет: Педагогика. Добавлен: 23.09.2009. Сдан: 2009. Страниц: 2. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

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5
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

General information

Elementary School through High School
There are three basic levels in the US educational system elementary school, which usually goes from kindergarten to sixth grade; junior high school, from seventh through eighth or ninth grade; and high school, from ninth or tenth through twelfth grade. Children are required to be in school from the ages of 7 through 16.
About 90 percent of all children attend public school which is free. The remaining 10 percent go to private schools, which often are associated with a religion. About half of all private schools are Catholic.
Teachers in the USA
Requirements for teacher's certificate vary among 50 states. Because of the decentralization of school control in the USA teachers are employed by local districts rather than by the national government. The American teacher does not have the absolute security of tenure which the French or Australian teacher enjoys. A higher proportion of the teaching force are women than in some other countries.

Introduction in the System of Education of the USA
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6 and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in others.
The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".
The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in session from
9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework to be done by elementary pupils.
Elementary, High Schools
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school.
The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has finished the eighth grade.
The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
Institutions of Higher Education
Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state.
Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or a board of trustees.
Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.
Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions which confine their instruction to a single profession.
Three to five years of specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.
It usually takes four years for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. A Master of Arts or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree.
As a note:
Trends in Education
Many more Americans than ever before are finishing high school and college. More than 20 percent of all adults have finished college, and more than 75 percent have finished high school.
Although the number of years of schooling is going up, there are signs that the quality of education may be going down. Many students, upon finishing high school, choose to continue their education.
Private Colleges and Universities
The larger, well-known ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.
State Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was established in
1636. It was a small institution but it soon became a liberal arts college. The College of William and Mary opened in 1693 at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next century, but all of them remained small schools for long periods.
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ СИСТЕМА СОЕДИНЕННЫХ ШТАТОВ АМЕРИКИ

Общая информация
От начальной школы до средней школы
Существует три основных базовых уровня в образовательной системе начальной школы в Соединенных Штатах, которые обычно длятся начиная с детского сада и до шестого класса начальной школы; младшая средняя школа, начиная с седьмого по восьмой или девятый класс; и средняя школа, начиная с девятого или десятого по двенадцатый класс включительно. Детям требуется учиться в школе с 7 до 16 лет.
Около 90 % детей посещают общественные школы, которые бесплатны. Остальные 10 % ходят в частные школы, которые часто ассоциируются с религией. Около половины частных школ - католические.
Учителя в США
Требования для получения сертификата учителя различны по всем 50 штатам. Из-за децентрализации системы школьного управления в США, учителя нанимаются в местных штатах чаще, чем национальным правительством. Американский учитель не имеет абсолютной гарантии пребывания в своей должности, которой обеспечены французский и австралийский учитель. Более высокий процент преподавательского состава, нежели в некоторых других странах, - это женщины.
Введение в систему образования в США
Американское образование предоставляет программу обучения для детей, начиная с 6 лет и до 16 лет в некоторых школах, и до 18 лет в других.
Начальная школа в Соединенных штатах обычно включает первые шесть или восемь классов общешкольной системы, в зависимости от организации обучения в средней школе. Ее называют "начальная школа" или "грамматическая школа".
и т.д.................


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