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Pc apc

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2010
Copa
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    : , , 充.6
      e p coao o腅.6
      Ocoe apae coao o腅8
        oa peypoa oxoo acee8
        oa coao a.10
        oa oecee aoc腅12
    poe peaa coao o Pecye eapyc15
      Oa po aca ac.15
      Coaa aa acee17
      poea aoc acee19
    y coepecoa coao o Pecy eapyc.21
      a apa coao o, o po
    aca ac21
      Coepecoae cce opaoa..24
      yee opo acee pae paooxpae.26
      Pae aoao yyp, yxooe ecoe
    oopoee apoa.27
a充30
Cco cooax cooⅅ.32
po ..33






Occ coao o c ao oo ocapca, apao a co ocox coax pa oa (poooc paoo , apapoa oxoo, aa o pao, apco, co ..) oc ocooo po ac. ocapco a oa cao opaoa paooxpa opoo po, ocpo axc, c, oco p apa.
Ocoo coao o p poo cc xocoa c poca c paaa pax oooc oc cocoo aococo p ao ac ocapca, coa cpo acca ac oop oca co ocx oo op ao pco oxooo poa. p o ocapc coa xoo oca a ao x co ac, oax p ca, oop o o poo caocoo: po opac, aoc, o, cpoco, paoa, aoococ.
coao o paac o pa oocoo poca. Coaa oa pa, c o p opoa ooco cc, o po. o-px, o p oocoo poca coa aopx co coao cp caoc ao ooco oc, o c coao o oppc oocoo poca. o-opx, coaa oa c aopo oocoo poca. c ooc poc copooac poco aococo, o paa c o ooco oc. oca c oocoo pa, poa , oca ooc poc, x a, p .. co op, o p ao pa coao cp.
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      ;
      , 젠 堠 ;
      ꠠ .
Oo ccoa c ocapca coaa oa Pc apc.
Oco coa ao pcoo pao c paa a oca papa, a a poc a, oc oo Pc apc.



    1. Coaa oa: oe, cyoc, po ooe

    1.1. e p coao o

Pae coao cpyyp oeca ocoo yaec peypoa. cae opoc o coao oe. o e opayeaec eeapaeoe oece ocyapca, poeccoax coo pyx oecex opaa a cyecyy ccey oecex ooe.
Peaa coao o ocoaec a ceyx pax:
    peypoae oxoo pepaee ocpeco aoooo exaa
    apa apaoo a aex paoo ocpeco aooaeoo yepe ao apaoo a a oaeo a oae pya;
    aa ypo acee ocpeco eca apaoo a;
    epepoa oxo coao-eopaec pya acee acoc o x coaoo ooe, opaca, pyoo cocooc, cocaa ce;
    oppoae cce aooaeo apeex coao-ooecx apa, peocaex ocyapco co paaa.
Coaa oa o oo ax apae ypee o ocyapca, paoe oece peoc caoc eo coao cce [4, cp.9].
aa e coao o - caa ypo acee coae yco eo eoopoo poca.
Ocoe e oac coao o:
    copaee acao eoc;
    oee o pyox oxoo x peaoo poca;
    yyee aeca .
Cpae ocyapca o yyeaeca peyepep o ypee opoacee, pacpeoooce oyeopaoa, yyeyco pyapoa, pacpeoooce oxa, oeceeoopx yco p.
e coaoo ocyeccye peocaeocyapcex coax apa, peypoa opaa aoa, oopeeaoopeoc, pepaeco a, pepecc eoa, apep, opa c apoeco, epepacpeeeeaepax cpec opaaox yc.
Coaa oapaaapapoaacee aoxo, coaoaa aceee ooee,aoc, epao, capoc. pooeceee ocyapco ax ycoacaec ooex, o eoeo cea caocoeo.
Coao-opepoaa poaooapeoaaeaey eeococyapca peecoax poe.o cao c e,o poa ooaeapapyepyc paoapy, caapoe opaoae, e oeceaecoayayao, aoyx, ecoepo.ooyoae eoxooceaeca ocyapca cepy pacpeeeoxoa. aaac oxooaceeeaoo, aco opaaecocyapcoacee eeexao pa coapopaa.B peyae coao o ocyapca cac pa ypoe oxoo, a a pocxo epepacpeeee x oxoo o oee oeceex coe acee eee oecee epyococo (ecoepa, o, aa)[5,cp.508].
Po c ocyapco, coayay oecea pep(pepae) caaee pao- xpocoe opaa.
ao e coao-ooecoo Pecyeapyca oocpoyepcey coceoaeoe oee ypo acee, cee coaoo epaeca, coxpaee pyoee yypx eoce cpa, occaoee ooeco oeco po pecypoo cooece.

    1.2. Ocoe apaecoao o

    1.2.1. oa peypoa oxooacee

oxo ey pa coacee pacpeec epaoepo, .e. cyecyeepea oxoo - pa ypoe oxooa yy acee a ooo aoo. ooy ocyapco poooy oppoaoxoo.
oa oxoo⠖paecea oa oec a e eee oxo a e oapo ycy, a e ca a e peae oxo. oe ypo a oxoo acee coyc oaae oaoo, pacoaaeoo peaoo oxoa.
Hoae oxo xapaepy ypoe eex oxoo eaco o aooooe ee e. Pacoaaee oxo o oae oxo a eo aoo pyx oaex aee, .e. cpeca, coyee aceee a opeee cepeee. Peae oxo xapaepy oae oxo c yeo ee pox e (apo) [8, cp.307].
poea pacpeeeoxooeea acea: yoaoe pacpeeee oe pacpeeee.
yoaoe pacpeeee oxoo cao co cocoo, oop eee oxo oeca eca apaoy ay, pey, poe p. Cooye oxo pacpeec cooec c ye, oeooyaeeoxoa. yoaoe pacpeeee oppyeepe oxo acee. B ceao ooe, a oaae paa pax cpa, ocoa ac oeo oxoa pxoc a apaoy ay.
oe pacpeeee oxoo cao co cocoo, oop cooy oxo oeca pacpeeec cpe oex ooxoc. Cooy oxoepaoepo pacpeeecey pya. oe pacpeeee cao c ooxoca, a c pacxoye pyo. ac oxooaceeocyae ocyapcy ayae ao, a ocao pacpeeeca oe opeee cepeee.
ocyapcea oa oxooaaecepepacpeee x epeoceyeepepoaoo aooooe pax py oyaee oxoa coax a. poaea o aoaoo oxoa epexo o coe acee c co oxoa co c oxoa [1,cp.288].
pacepe ae aa paeco po ooxocy pe ee ( epeaa oapo ycy), ae oopo ae eocpeceo e oyae oap ycy.
Coae pacepo ccea eex aypax a acee, e cax c eo yace xoceo eeoc acoee pe poo. e coax pacepo ec yaa ooe oece, peopaee poca pecyoc, a ae oepae ypeeo cpoca.
exa coax pacepoaee ope aooac oxoo y cpee- coooxox coeaceeay ocoaoee yacaa, a ae ocoo epaoe [6,cp.311].
epepacpeeee oxoo ocyececpoce eoa. pe aa epepacpeeey oea: copae e aoo (ay po paeecpopeccooxo ao) cpeca peaaaca coae popa, ocoa. K oce eoa oocc aoopee o, ooe aooooee aoyx coe acee, peocaee ecax ycy ocyapceoo opaoa paooxpae aooecee, ocyapce opo e a ooox pax e coco.
Ta a coa oxoo acee c apaoaa aa, oxo o coceoc (e, poe, pea), coae a (ec, oco o epaoe), o ocooe aee ee poea a eex oxoo o . C o e peec eca.
eca o ycaoe ocyapco exa oe eex oxoo acee, oo aco ooc oec ey yopoae opeecx oapo ycy. eca oxoo apaea a oepae oyaeo cocooc, ocoeo coao yx py acee c cpoa oxoa ecoepo, ao, eox ooex cee, a ae ooe [8,c.418].

    1.2.2. oa coao a

oeceea aceeocyapco oo, pee ceo, aooaeo ope ycao ocoe coae apa, exax peaa, y peocae coaooep.
Aa pooo oaooee epe cyoae op coao aacee.ocyapceacoaa ooa,oopecy epyococooc, ocyc pao, coooxoae coco caocoeoaepao oece coe cyecoae. Opeea xapaepcaaoocyaa - coao-aeape eooope ooe ocyapca c yaeopacee (aa, paaa, ee eoxooo cpaxooo caaoye ecocoo oaeoy coaoy cpaxoa). Oaeoe (oaoy) coaoe cpaxoae ypaoxoa (apaooa) -aoeppyococo6oc (oe, ecacoo cya, capoc) eca pao. acoe co蠖cpaxoe oc paooaee, paoo (oa ocyapca), opaoae a pax c oo exao oaeoo coaoo cpaxoa. Opeee xapaepc coao-cpaxox ooe: aeee ypaeo apaoo a, coapoc caooeceoc cpaxoaee acpaxoax. opoooe oe (oeoe) cpaxoae paoo (o ecacx cyae, ecoe ecooe oeceee). acoe co cpaxoe oc cax paoo (oa x oy paooaee), opaoae a pax c oo exao oo cpaxoa. Opeee xapaepc - ae cpaxooo ooopa, caooeceoc paa. Kopopae cce coao a paoo, opayee paooae (eca oopoea oo, oaa x, pacopx, yex yypx ycy, pee ecoe a). acoe co cpeca pep. Cpe aax cyo coao a ao (o oey acox cpec, accooc oxaa paoopa aecy ycy) ec oaeoe coaoe cpaxoae (ecooe ecoe, o ecacx cyae a pooce c c epaoe) [3, cp.271].
Ccea coaoo cpaxoa- o ocoxcyocoaoa ycox poooo, pa oece peaaocyooo paapaaaaepaoe oeceee capoc, cyae oe,oo acoypapyococooc (ocycaooopoe), oepopa, epao. Paep oyaex cpec peypycaoa ac opooeoc cpaxooo (pyooo) caa, eapaooa (oopacyaoace cpaxox oco), cee ypapyococooc. B oe o coao oo, oa yac eoe oyae oco a ce oecex cpec (aec a ce pyx ), aco coa a ycy o popaa coaoo cpaxoa c ceapoae o, oppyee p eocpeceo yac cax acpaxoax. Cyecye a ocox a cpaxoa:
    ocyecec ac oa (opoooe);
    ocyecec ocyapco (pyeoe);
pax cpa oep ec oaeoe cpaxoae, oeceaee a a cyaepao, epyococooc, acye capoc. o a x apaex ocyapco epea ce e ce, a oo e yac, a oopx acoe cpaxoae e cpaaae. Ho a a cpaxoae e oe epep ce apa coax ec, oo oo ooc coao oo.
p coaooo peoaaeacpoae ea. p opeee paepoa ooepe aepax oxoa:
    oo ce oyae aaec oaoo paepe;
    oo opepoaa a yay oeceeoc;
    paep oo oe opepoa a ey pee apaoo a e a ey cpaxox oco oyae;
    ea oo ac o opeoce oyae.
Oao paep oocex oyaee- aoee pocoopaaooooe apa. ococooaaec, oao epo, ec peeo oee ypaeooapaoa, .. paep oep oxoa co oeecy pax oyaee. Ho, p ycaoe e coao oo a cocoo, cac cya eoocoax epea. y acpoa ea ce cce coaoo oecee, ocoe oopx e o p, coo cee ac o acooo ooe ocyapca.

    1.2.3. oa oecee aoc

a aoc - o o pa cooa apoao, opoooo pao c, oppoaa a
poy opacax apao-ox opoc. oy po paao oaoc o pa ocyapca cya pyoycpoca, yp ocyapco o yy aoc. Hoxoo opaoa a cyy poopoa pocco, oop pocxo cp cpoca po pya, papaaa popa popaoa cx op ypo opaoa oy, ooo pooo paox apo. oa o aoc c o paoao, coao apao, o oa poa pa pao c.
Cpaxoa opaopocac cax cpaxox oo. Papa ac, o-px, oocpoa pao, o-opx, occx ycooocpa.
B po cya aca cy a (o 50 o 70% cp apa) aac p c pao opoo poa. a cy a yac. o opo cya pc o a po aoc, pyoo ca, ca pooc pyy, p poca oo p. Ta, pa pyoo ca o coca 6 c aoc 3-x .
Ba o coao a a p pya c popa pyoycpoca paa. p c x popa yacy ocyapco ppa. Eoo apac p pa a p ap oapo. ocyapco pa a paa popa paa oy ac cpc [5, cp.532]. C coa ox paox c ocyapco p a c a o ax ocx pao, a cpoco opo, aaa .. o p oocoo pca ocyapco ya aaoo ocyapc pp.
popa pyoycpoca ocyccay ooo aoooooa, oop coa paoca.
Oc ocaoppaooca ocyapco. P o ocoxo pao, aox aoo cca, xoxoco ..opoc ypacco acpoacyaoc, cc poooapo,opaox po, cocpooaxa oax paocopoc .




    2. poe peaa coao o P eapyc

    2.1 Oa ypo aca ac

Pcya apyc- yapoopaco coaopaooocyapco. Taa o poaa a pao cc coao-oocx cyo, aa oopx paa oc coao cpaoc, aoc, cooo ypo aca .

    B a pcy papaoaa co cca oaa ypo , oopa apyc a pax oaax oxoo ac. Cpyypa x oxoo ac apyc, coaco aacy pacxoo oxoo ac, a: oay pya cx paoax, coa pacp (c, oco, c p.), oxo o cococ (po o aa, yaa, ), oxo o ppaco oc p. 1 ( ) - [7, cp.225].

co o, o oaoxo a cp o cpa, a y paoao ac copo, x o ooc, oo yac cp a 25%. p cao pa a oo oc c , o opa oaa.
y oxooac a cpa ocycc a oco opooo ocoa ooo 6000 ooxoc, oopx 33 % axoc ccococ, 67 - opoax, oc c - 16, ox opoax - 28, ax opoax - 23 %. ooxoco copx ycox paccapaca aco, caa p ocyapco pyo, apa, ppo aco pcypca. Cpca, oy ox cooa, pca coo oxo ooxoc, oop pacxoyc yoop apax yxox opoc. Pya ocoaooxoc coyc oaococo ac c o ooco pa, a a papao coaoo ocyapca coao op ao yx py ac. B a 2 ( ) oopa oxo pacxo ac Pcy apyc [7, cp.229]. aa pacxoo ac aaca pacxoo oxoo ac oaa, o 2006-2009 . pacxo a oy oapo oay ycy coca y o cx pacxoo apyc. c ca oaa oax a opoox oco, oopa a ao, oc pa opaa, p a pop opx o, yc a 3,5% 2008 . cocaa 13,0% o cx pacxoo ac.
pop apao oac oa pya oo ca coaoo cc oa pya a oco pox xao pypoa. apaoaaa oa ca a cyo poca poooc pya opoyoc oo.   Ta 3 ( ) . Haa c 2004 . opycco oo aac poc pao apaoo a, o oopoo, oao, ao c cac pya opacx oa, a oa copo a.
a opoc cpyypoxooooxoc co coapacp, y o oopx cocac, c x oyaaacy coooxoa. a aao 2009 . cpa acaoc 2559 c. copo. cop a o, o c 2003 . aac poc pax c, x cp pap c yoocaox a 2008 . coca 134,4 c. py., o a 20 % aoo opcoo a.
a oaa, xapapy ypo aco 蠠 ac, cop a ycy. Cy opa a a oa, o oao ypo o ocy p pax
apaax oo op, .. cycy p aopo oapo, paoax c op p yoop ocx opoc. c c oa poa axo oaa, acao opaax apap aoaop. B a 4 ( ) opaa cpyypa opcx pacxoo ac [7, cp.234]. ao y c coca pacxo a poy a. Cyco (o 2 paa) yc pacxo ac a pacop c, o cao c o apo a a ycy. o poc poca o pacxoo ac, paax oa o-oyax ycy. c 2006 . o coca 4,7 % o cx pacxoo op, o 2009 . - y 9,1 %, 2 paa o. ao ocaoo coo ca pacxoo ooxoc c pacxo a poooc oap: oy, oy, a.

    2.2. Coaa aaacee

Coaa aaacoo ax ycoocoo ocyapca. Oopao ocpacaco ycooc coao-oocoo pa cpao.o ooyoxoo ypcao apacopcoa cc coaoa.
B apyc cycy coa eo-eopaeca cya, oa caa, oo ceo poeo, c epaoao opaae eco oo. cop a o, o ypoe ecoo ocya eapyc cyeceo e, e epa, pa, e, co oe ox caoapax a 10 c. acee eapyc oe a 27,5%, e epa, a 32,2% - o pa oee e p paa - e.
Xapaepo coooee ca ecx paoo⠠ ocyaeooacee.  eapyca 10 c. eoeacee pxoc45,7 paa, oa aepa 35,4, pa - 30,3, e-31,1. a堠 a ec coooee ceocpaecpexecx paoo. epa CA a ooo paa pxoc 3,3 cpex ecx paoo, oa a eapyc - 2,6 [9]. c o ceecy o o, o ccee paooxpae eapyc ec oooc opao oee paoaoo cooa exc pecypco. Ooo 45% eeo-poaecx ypee pacooe epcocoex oeex. oee 50% ecoo oopyoa paoae ce 10 e oe cca c c opa ec oco.
ooee ox o ox oax aeo: 4-6 eoe eooaae, oa yaeaaa a eca, eyex. ce o opaeo caaeca caoyc ooo.
Opaoae, coca oex aopo eyapooopeca Pecyeapyc, ooeecoxpaooo cooe ecoeyapox peax.
Oao apao-xcoa ayypocopo pcyo xaa. p ocpacopx ao,ooa 35 c. yaxcpxoc oaaacc.
ocyapco acpoa opaoa cpa xo opaca, o oa cc ocao. 2009 . oo oco 5,7% o , a o eyapo caapa aoo pa opaoao cep eoxo ypoe eo oeo acpoa e eee 10% o. o eea coo epepyeoc e oo cpeeo, o yo, poox aaacy e oe ce. aa oa aeo cee opepoaa a a, ye, a, a e a pae opecoo oeaa opacaeo ooe, eeo peaee aee oppoa cecopoe, apoo pao oc.
po ocacpoa op coao yx co py ac. c oax xoc co cp ypo oxoo poooo ypo oc 40,4%. o oo x coca c c , 13,6% - oo paa. ao cya xo c coa co cc apco coao oo [11].

    2.3. poeaaoc acee

Oco poa ocaocac c:
    c pao cp py ac, ao yx a p pya, yc p o x ocyapco op;
    coa yco o aoc pox acx yo poo;
    oc cooc poccoao-aaooo cocaa paoo opoc pa aoao oo;
    o ppopao ooc pao c.
Oox aaccoc pyoycpoc paa, cocox a pax ycox oyppoa a p pya, ocoo yaxc coao a: oo, ao, ca -cpo, po oox ox cx, paa, ocooxc yp yooo-coo cc .
a aop ac ocyapco apapy aoc y coaoox paox c capoax opaa (a opaapya ao), ycao po pa a paoy, opaa oy o capopaa [2, .313].
aco p y c , yaxc oox apax aoc, oca 24%.

ca ocpo co poa pyoycpoca oo, o pca oopo -a ocyc oa paco pao oypococo a p pya. a opac o 16 o 29 , coca 24,1% ooc aoo ac, a 40,1% co oa paox [11].
apyc, a oc pyx cpa, paoa cp , cp y: coca 52,8% ooc ao ac 60,1% o coc paox.
o co paox pca caoo oa acac oco (4,2 c. o) pcco (4,1 c. o) oacx.

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