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. 2010
.


_____________________________________________________ 3
1 ____________________ 5
2 _________________________ 9 3 ________________________________________ 12
4 _______________________ 20
5 ___________________________ 21
.___________________________________________ 23










, . .
.
, , , .
, . . .
:
      .
      .
      3. .
    4.
    5. .














1
D 84
S 84
i 4 -
nN 5600 -1
? 8.8 -
0.086
1.7
z 7.04
0.46
r 0.118
0.1

















    1.


i,
, (1.1)
l1 l1 = Z/C;
l1 =7,04/1,7=4,141;
n1, n2 - :
n1 = (lgPc lgPa)/lge; n2 = (lgPz lgPb)/ lge;
n1 = (lg1,7 lg0,086)/lg8,8=1,372;
n2 = (lg7,04 lg0,46)/ lg8,8=1,238.

i,:
i =i? , (1.2)
? .
(j = 0,92-0,97; ). j=0,97;
i =1,1830,97=1,147 .
Ni, ,
(1.3) Vh - , ;
, (1.4)
D S .;
,;
.
Ġ?i:
hi = (1.5)
      lo - I , /.(lo = 14,95 );
    Hu - , /.(Hu = 44 );
a - (a = 0,85-0,96 ), a =0,95;
hv - ;
r - , /3.
      r = 0 106/(RBT0), /3,
      =0,1 ;
,
        0=273+(10...20),), 0=293;
RB = 287 /(?.) .
      r = 0,1106/(287293)=1,189, /3.
hv :
(1.6)
j - (j = 1,02-1,15, ), j=1,1;
      D - , (D=0-25 ), D =20;
    gr - ;
      r - , (r = 900-1100 ), r=1000 .
gr
gr = (1.7)
gr = ;
;
hi =
gi, /,
gi = (1.8)
gi = /.







, ,
          = i - , (1.9)
- , , ,
      = + b V. , (1.10)
, b - .
1.10 :
    S/D?1 = 0,034 + 0,0113 V.; (S/D=0,084/0,084=1)
V., /,
V.= SnN/30,
S - , .
V.= 0,0845600/30=15,68 /;
= 0,034 + 0,011315,68=0,211 ;
= 1,147-0,211=0,936 .
N, ,
          N =
          . (1.11)

N, /,
        N =
        , (1.12)

=4
N = ;
N = /.
, ,
          = . (1.13)
= .

        h = hi h, (1.14)
h - ,
h = /i.
h = 0,936/1,147=0,816;
h = 0,3630,816=0,296.



g, /
g = gi/h. (1.15)
g = 225,334/0,816=276,182 ,/.

G, /
G = g N/1000 (1.16)
G = 276,182 81,322/1000=22,46 ,/.



2
-
-
i 1.147
Ni 99.672
Ġ hi 0.363 -
gi 225.334 /
0.936
0.211
N 81.322
N 43.674
138.672
Ġ h 0.296 -
Ġ h 0.816 -
g 276.182 /
G 22.46 /
Vh 0.466
Vl 1.862










.

, , 2:1
=2S=284=168 .

,
=/(?-1) (2.1)

=168/(8,8-1)=21,538 .

:
- /,
- v=0.002458 /.

a, , z, ,b, r,.

. :
- PVn1=const; PVn1 =PVn1,
P =P (V/V) n1; (2.2)
- PVn2=const; PVn2 =PbVbn2 ,
P =Pb (Vb/V) n2 ; (2.3)
V/V, Vb/V 1- ?

3.
3
Va/Vx Vx ,
Vx, P, M Px, Vx, P, Px,
1 0,519 189,5 0,086 2,15 189,5 0,460 11,5
2 0,259 94,6 0,223 5,5 94,6 1,085 27,1
3 0,173 63,1 0,388 9,7 63,1 1,792 44,8
4 0,130 47,4 0,576 14,1 47,4 2,559 63,9
5 0,104 37,9 0,783 19,5 37,9 3,374 84,3
6 0,086 31,4 1,005 25,1 31,4 4,228 105,7
7 0,074 27 1,242 31 27 5,117 127,9
8 0,065 23,7 1,491 37,2 23,7 6,036 150,9
8,8 0,059 21,5 1,700 42,5 21,5 6,792 169,8


aacfzbbra ( ) :


-: ( ) - 25 ..., ( ) 60 ...; ( b) 55 ..., ( r) 18 ...

- ( c),
j
. = 25 . ...;

- z =0,85z =0,85*7,04=5,984

- (
Dj
1 = 15 . cf = (
j
. -
Dj
1) cf =25-15=10 .;


- P" = 1,2,

P"=1,21,7=2,04

?

=/2[(1-cos?)+?/4(1-cos2?)], (2.5)

? ( ?=0,25).

4.


4


?, ,
25 .. 25 15.8
60 ... 120 118
b 55 ... 125 106.6
r 18 ... 18 8.2
c 25 ... 25 15.8
f 15 ... 15 5.6











, ( 1).










1-









3


2 , - .







2 , -




3.1


, :

(3.1)
      , ;

0- , ;

, 2.

= ?D2/4=0,00533 2,

D (D=0.084).



, , . .


(3.2)
? , ?=0,25;


Vh , . (Vh=0,466 ).


3.2

j, -

, (3.3)

mj- - , ;

R- , (R=0.042 );

- , ( =586,41333 -1).

:

- R,

; (3.4)

- R,

; (3.5)

- R,

. (3.6)

, - , mj=m+m, - , mR, .





:

/2- .

/2-.

/2- .

.;

;

;

;

;

;

;

-1;

R=-1,48580,042(586,41333)210-3=-21,4593 .


3.3 ,

-


, , ,

=r+j. (3.7)

N, , ,

N=Ptg?,(3.8)

?- .

, , ,

. (3.9)

, ,

.(3.10)



5.


5
j, DP, P, Pj, P, N, T, K, , R
..................



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