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Modern slang in the USA


: . : . . : 2.5.2017. : 2016. : 33. antiplagiat.ru: < 30%


Chapter 1. .....5
1.1 The notion of slang ... ...5
1.2. Spoken English and Slang. Origin and source of slang....8
1.3. Development of slang....19
1.4. Linguistic processes of forming slang.......19
Chapter 2. Types of slang....21
2.1. American slang.....21
2.2. American Internet slang.....25
2.3. Afro-American slang....28
2.4. American student slang....28


Slang ... an attempt of common humanity
to escape from bald literalism, and express
itself illimitably ... the wholesome fermentation
or eductation of those processes eternally
active in language, by which froth and specks
are thrown up, mostly to pass away, though
occasionally to settle and permanently crystallise.
Walt Whitman, 1885
Evry languge llows diffrnt kinds f varitions: ggraphical r territril, prhps th mst bvius, stlisti, the differnc btwn th writtn nd th spkn frm f th stndrd ntionl lnguage and thers. It is the ntional lnguage of Englnd prper, th USA, Australia, New Zealand nd sme prvincs f Cnada. It is the fficial lnguage of Wales, Scotland, in Gibraltar and on the island of Malta. Mdern linguistis distinguishs trritorial vriants of a ntional lnguage and lcal dialcts. Vriants of a lnguage are rgional vrieties of a stndard litrary lnguage chracterized by sme minr pculiarities in the sund systm, vcabulary and grmmar and by thir wn literry nrms.
Thematic justification
The prblem of suh a thme hs gt a grat thoretical maning fr nalysis f th frm/functin rlation in lnguage: th sme frm prforms mre thn ne funtion. T gnerate the oung studnts lxicon, the spaker hs to use qulitatively diffrent typs of knowldge, bth linguisti nd xtralinguisti (intractive nd ncyclopaedic), s wll s th bility t reson. A numbr f thories tr to explin wh w shuld us xtra wrds smetimes nd hw w undrstand thir nn- literl maning, but th rsearch is still fr frm bing cmplte.
The practical value of the term paper lis in th fct tht it is impssible to rch a high lvel of linguisti cmpetnce withut undrstanding th nture of spch nd knwing tpical yuths spch of a prticular lnguage.
Thus the hypothesis f ur thme is th fllowing: t stud a lexicn of yung gneration of mericans, it bcomes a littl mre ccessible to prfessionals s it cn not lways b fund in gneral dictionries.
The object of the term paper is the Modern slang n the USA.
The subject of the term paper is slng.
The term paper is structured as following: introduction, chapter one, chapter two, conclusion, bibliography.
In the first chapter we consider: the notion of slang, spoken English and Slang.Origin and source of slang, development of slang.
In the second chapter we study the types of slang.

Chapter 1.
1.1 The notion of slang
Slang simply is the informal language that is used in everyday interactions. It is defined as an ever changing set of colloquial words and phrases that speakers use to establish or reinforce social identity or cohesiveness within a group or with a trend or fashion in society at large [29; p. 11].
Martin, Weber, and Burant (1997) claim that aggressive messages are different from slang when slang is not used with the intent to offend people (cited in Mazer & Hunt, 2008). Using slang cannot be considered as an aggressive act even though there are some slang words that might be considered offensive. It can only be considered offensive if someone intentionally said a slang word to offend another.
Crystal (2003) specified fifteen varied functions of slang. He indicated that number 13 is the primary function of slang which is to show that one belongs to a certain school, trade, or profession, artistic or intellectual set, or social class (p. 182). In other words, slang is used to interact or to establish contact (p. 182). Similarly, Mary Bucholtz (2007) indicated that slang is used to construct identity, especially youth identity. Bucholtz investigated the California teenagers use of slang and found that slang is used as an interpersonal source to attain specific interactional goals.
As indicated earlier, slang can be positive and negative. Mazer and Hunt (2008) specify that positive slang is the informal language that a speaker utilizes to signal identification with the listener [29; p.22].For instance, using words such as cool, sweet, or awesome is regarded as positive slang. On the other hand, negative slang is the informal language that may be perceived as offensive by the listener [31; p. 22]. For example, using words such as jerk, waste, or shit are regarded as negative slang and therefore offensive.

Examples of Slang
Since formal interaction is what is being taught in EFL classes, ELLs acquire certain expressions and language uses in slang through interaction with native speakers of the language. They find out that there are expressions that are used to express particular messages that differ from what they have learned. For instance, in textbooks, ELLs acquire new ways of asking about well-being rather than just using the expression How are you? In informal English, most of the people tend to ask questions like Sup?, whats up?, How is it going?, or howre you doing? that are commonly used expressions in informal English depending on the context and the relationships between the speakers. ELLs modify their use of formal language to slang to belong to the community they are interacting with.
There are other examples of expressions that might be new and unknown to ELLs and might be incomprehensible because of the lexical items of unfamiliar slang [Eble, 1996, p. 98]. The following example was chosen from Facebook (for privacy purposes the commenters names will be C1 and C2 whereas the name of the person who posted this will be P).
The Facebook post was: Beautiful day for a drive! Heading over ..................

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