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3aaa cyeo-oepoeeco cep peoaae ycaoee cepo-oepoeo cy eo poeccyaoo ooe ceax oa oac cyeoo oepoee aecx ax, eoxox cyeo-ceceo pa.

Oepo ec acca aa a eaoe, accaoe aocece.

eaoe aa cyeo-oepoeeco cep peoaa ycaoee yao-opeoo oeca coe pyoc (oc) oee oepox oeo o pa a. Heocpece oeo eaox cceoa ec oep a oce yao cce coc. pee ax aa a oopye cepa axoc eop cyeo-oepoeeco ea cooecye eo (eo) cep.

Kaccaoe aa cooec c cyece oooc cyeo-oepoeeco cep e e opeeee oa, opaca coe pyoc. B oceee pe paaec ooe apaee, peooaee ycaoee o oepy ooecx coc oc, apopo xapaepyx opeeee py yx. pee aoo poa aa papaaac cooecye oee ae eo.

aocece aa apae a ycaoee yco oe opeo pyoc. oe yco cyeo oepoee ae cocoe yeo, e caoy ca, caoy a acpoy oepa. eea ycaoa aoceco aa oe apaea a pacoaae aa eooc ca oe oe oepooo oea ope o; xapaepa eooc (peeo ocoo opeoo a); aa aepeoo ee coeo oepa; coco yeo ee ycao ca; opeoo caeo aopa, oycoeo eooc ca p oe cceyeoo oea. Opaa poecca pee cyeo-oepoeecx aocecx aa oaec oe cooc, e accaox, e cepaec oo , o poecce opeeeoe eco aa eaoe cceoa peee opoca o oece coe cpaaex oeo cococye oy o peeo ocoo eooc aeopeco ope, opaeoe peee epeee eaoo oaa ooe cea o o xapaepe eooc epoo ope. e P.C., yo A.B. p. Kpaceca cepa: ooee, caoee, ee pa. - M., 1994. - . 62.

ocaoee opeeee o aae cep ec ocoae ee pooca. Ka x oyeo oe cocae c coee yooo paaco-poeccyax op. B ocaoe opeee cya o aae cep o cooe ce aepa ea, ee ee aee. K oocc aya, ae o eox ycox oe oepox oeo, ae o peoaaex coex eco (oce), ax, oc o e oopx oea cceoa.

Bopoc cepy, copypoae ocaoe (opeee) o aae cep, o coepa aae oyea aae aee coa cceyeoo eca, ay oyea, eo paeee, a, , oeco peoaaeoo coe, a p cceoa oc - a a a, o e oopoo oa ac, e ec o o e, eycaoe epao, e ye paccac. - . . .. . - . 1950. - . 102.

B ocaoe opeee o epece pecaee pacopee cepa aepa: cceyee oye c yaae x peo, oeco co, e oye (pooo opoca, coox opao oepa oce , epecex opocax cepy, cepeae opa oepa oce x c yaae oeca co o aoy x.

Ocop oepox oeo ceoaee (co) ee ooe aee pao ooo cpaeoo aepaa, ooo oppoa opoco, ocaex a papeee ceo-oepoeeco cep. B poecce caaa xapaep oyea (oa oe a epeca ..), pe aca eca oc, ec e ce execo oe oea (oc, cpae pe exece pe), pop (pace), oop oe ec oc (apaa, apoa pa, oacep, opoaa yaa ..), a coe ec oc (copoc, c opaae eaoy p), oe pa oepa oc (cee paoaoc, e coe, paep, ao cex ao, pacp oc).
Hapy c ocopo oyeo eoxoo poec p cecex ec, apaex a cee ocoec oe oepox oeo. Hapep, ycao opoc , o e oopx coe oeae cceoa oc (c o eceo cyecy e), pe peoaae coe oeae cceoa oye oac c ocaoy, oopo ooc co, cocoe yeo. B aece cpaeoo aepaa p cceoa oepox oeo cya cooe cepeae opa oepa oc. yo A.B., pao .. Kpaca. - M., 1996. - . 154.
Cooe opa oepa oc - o pyoc oc, oee o ooe yoooo paacoo ea e c c . O c aoee e cpae aepao p pee cyeo-oepoeecx aa, ocoy aoee oo ocoepo oopaa ycoe xapaepe a opeoo a.
Pae oce, coe ae .., oee c c yoo paac eo, po aa ycoo coo. p coox opao eoxoo oac x coocaoc c oea cceoa eca, oc o eeoy aae, coepa ope oyea, aepay ca, y aay, pee coe. Coocaoc pee coe e oaae, o cooe opa oepa oce o oe o e c cceye oyeo. ocaoo, ec o yy oe o o e o, o cceyee oye, ae o o oce x aoe. Oao cooe opa pyoce oce , y oopx a ee eocaoo coppoac, a ae oo capecoo opaca, cpaax aoea epo cce, o acao pe o pee coe cceyeoy oyey. Ocoo ae eoae cy o opaa a poepy ocoepoc (ecoeoc pocxoe) x coox opao. Opeeee ocoepoc pooc ye pee oyeo a, o e oopx o oe.
cepea opaa c pyoc oc, oee ope o o ceaoy aa eoae cya c c oooo aepao a cyeo-oepoeecy cepy. opa ae copac c yeo cooec x cceye eca o aepaa ca yco coe. Opa cocac o oy ceoae cy. Ec o aec coopae oa cceye ec e, cocaec cea ec c ee eo paeo cceyeo pyoc. Ka cepea opae oe e yocoepy ac, ceecyy o coee ycox x oe. Hapep: Opae oepa ., oe eo pyo. oc. .., .. - . - ., 1980. - . 21.
pecaee a cceoae cpaee aepa o e oo aeaeo aeca, o ocaooo oeca. Cooe opa oepa pecac e eee e a 5-10 cax. B cyae eooo oea cceyex eco (pax ace) oe x aepeo cae oepo, x oeco oo yeeo o 20. cepeae opa oepa pecac oece 5-10 co. p cceoa oce eoxoo peca opa oce a 5-7 cax ya a 25-30 aax. Ka c oe coepa e oee 7-9 oce. B x cyax pecac opa oce , o e oopx o aac, a ae opa oce oepo peooaex coee. Opa oepa ocex oc e ace a ao , o e oopx coe cope oc, a ae opa oepa yaax e poox eco. poee aocecx cceoa pecac opa oep oece, eoxoo pee eaoo aa.
Cyeo-oepoeeca cepa pacoaae po apceao ceax eoo cceoa, oope peaae pee cooecyx aa cep. Hapy c pao aeceo-ocae eoa coyc paece, cpyeae, aeaece (oee) epeece (ae) eo.
Kaeceo-ocaee eo pec p oaoe c ocy a cepy aepaa, paeo aae cceyex oeo opao, cpaeo cceoa oepox oeo (ox acx pao), oee eo peyao, oppoa oo cepa.
paece eo - o cocaee cepx papaoo opax ox acx pao oepox oeo, cooecyx paox a. B cepx papaoax cpyc peya paeoo cpaeoo cceoa. O cococy oce oeoc poecca cceoa, oecea eo aoc oea py cepy. .. // . - 1998. - 2. - . 35.
cpyeae eo - o peee pocoo, oopa, execx cpec (epex popo).
Maeaece (oee) eo, coyee cyeo-oepoeeco cepe, ocoa a epooco oepoa. O pacp oooc cepx cceoa, oo pea oe aa, oc aeoc oocoaoc ae. a ae epooco-cacecoo oepoa peac ceye aa: ycaoee oa opaca o oepy, aa aepeoo cae oepa copoc cocoo, epepyc coe oepox oeo o cee coepeca e, oeac coaee pao oepa c yeo eo pyoo paeoc, a ae pa cxox oepax. .. . - , 1975. - . 31.
Hapy c aeaec eoa pec epeece, apaee a aoaa poecca cepoo cceoa, epoo-cea exa (BM). Mae eo oecea oee aoee pyoeo ac pao cepa, oa ooc ocoepoc peyao, acoc papaoa aoapoae oec ycaoe aa aepeoo ee oepa (Poa), ea coe o aepeo caeoy oepy (pc), cceoa pax pocx ace epea ox oce, oex ox ycox, eoex, oex c opaae oce peapeo pepo (o), epeao-eao aop cceoa pax oepox oeo (A). .. . - . - ., 1974. - . 71.
To o eo ccea eoo, opaya eoy cepoo pee, coyec acoc o xapaepa peaeo aa. Peee eaox aocecx aa oeceaec pao aeceo-ocae eoa, a opeeey ccey aao-ocaex, paecx cpyeax peo, a ae cooae aeaecx epeecx eoo. Kaccaoe aa, apaee a ycaoee oa, opaca coe pyocoo eca, peaec c oo epoo-cacecx oex eoo.
Cpyypa pee eaox aocecx aa.
Oa oeceaec opeee eea cpyyp, ypo, aa, ca, a oop apee co oaa eo.
p ypoe pee aa - peapeoe cceoae, oooe a, pa ay po cepo poecce. O ae ceye ca:
- oaoee co ce ocy aepaa;
- ocop (peape aa) cceyex oea opao;
- peapeoe cpaeoe cceoae oea;
- ee cepx epc apoae pecoeo cceoa.
ep ypoe ooe cepy coppoa pecaee cee cooc aa, ooocx apae ee pee, capoa eoec pa oxo e pee e oocoa o o eoooc pee aa.
Bopo ypoe ec oco cepo poecce.
peapee peya, oyee a epo ypoe, yyc, cecopoe oeac peopaoac oey opa, eoxoy oppoa ocoepoo oa. B oe o oooeoo cceoa a opo ypoe cceoa pooc ca ae opao c cooae eoxox cyax aeaecx epeecx eoo. a ypoe p pee eaox aa oee a, peycapae paepyoe eaooe cceoae, p pee aocecx aa - a eaooo aocecoo cceoa. - ( ). - ., 1989. - . 24.
a paepyoo eaoo cceoa coep ceye ca:
- pae aa ox acx pao cceyeo oe cpaeo aepae (opaax);
- cpaeoe cceoae;
- aea oea peyao cceoa, oppoa oo o oece coe xapaepe eooc ca (peeo ocoo).
a paepyoo aocecoo cceoa coep ceye ca:
- aa eoo oeca pao eooc;
- cpaee (coocaee) eoo oeca pao eooc c ec oeca (aoa), xapaep opeeex paooce cax aopo;
- ea eoo oeca pao cooyoc co ce cooae aa oppoae oa o cax pax, oycox eooc ca oe oe cceyeoo oea. pao .. Oco paceco ex. - M.,1975. - . 40.
Kpaceca cepa pao ceo pe ae p oxoa x cceoa: aece, oece cceo-cpyyp. oxo aoca ey coo a x ae ce ee yx pyx.
a aooycoeoc aecex cacecx xapaepc eca, oo oaa, o aecee oecee eo paax cceo-cpyypoo oxoa pacecoy cceoa pao ceo pe o pec oece. ye pao ceo pe aa ooa x aaa a ca paeoo cceoa. Ec cceoa oepa oyc oa pe eocpeceoo cpae pao, o cceoax ceo pe oe cooao oo cpaee oeox ax o paax. Tae oeoe cye oya peyae paeoo ye aaa oyea opao. pa ox ao ceo pe cceyc aae a ypoe paoc pe, a ae a ypoe yyp pe. p ycaoe pao ox ao a ypoe paoc pe aae pooc aece aa ox e a ocoe pepe: pao - epao (eee yyaox, opopaecx pyx oo). Ca .. Pacceoae pecye a ccea eeoc. - M., 1989. - . 115.
3ae a ocoe oecex pepe ycaaac oe pa (cee pa) ox ao. Boooc aaa pao ceo pe ac o oea aae pyoc. B eox caapx ecax (apep, aex) aco e yaec poaapoa pa, opaae ccece a, a apxeo oe, oy pecaee o cooa paeooecx cpec a. p ye oox eco aoe ae yeec oopae paaecx ao, ao aepoa .. Opaae oooc cceoa oee eca cpoo opeeeo yoao ce - peco, aeaeco .. B ax cyax e oo yeac oooc cooa paoopax ox cpec, ae ec coe aee, coapoo aaca, o oc caape eca pacpocpaee ceae pae ep. B cyae, ec oye coep xapaepe pa ceo pe, oce aaa ocex cep epexo cpaeoy x cceoa. oceee aaec coocae oeox ax o paax pee opoca o a coae pa.
Cpaeoe cceoae aaec c coocae ypo ae ceo pe, oop ec ae ox pao, cocax ocoy pe, oo coxpayc p pax ee apax. oce coocae ox pao epexo cpaeoy cceoa acx. cepa e oe epo yepeoc o, o eoe, aca pyoc, ec o e pe ee aopo. Pyoc oe oea o oy, oa paaece yyaoe o yy xapaepoa a coe. .. . - , 1975. - . 35. Pyoc oe ooc aco epecaa, oa oo oe cpeca, o ccece, paaece a ae ypoe ae pe yy xapaepoa e coe, a pyoo eoea. ooy cceoae oea pao ceo pe eoea o oepa, oce cyae oo cooyoc pao ceo pe oepa oe cy ocoae oa oeca.

2.

, , , 50-, 60- - , -, , , .
.. , , ; - . , , , , - ; , , ( , ..), , , , , ... .. : . - ., 1979. - . 64.
, .. , . . , , , , .. . , , , (, , , , , ..).
.. .. , , , , , , , . .. , , : . . . - .: , 1969. - . 83.
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, ;
, ; ; , .
2. :
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3. - :
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60- , , , , , , . , .. , , , . .. . - ., , 2002. - . 83.
, , , , , . , , . - , , , , . , , , , , , . , .
, .. , , , , .. , , , . - , , , , .. , , () .
, : 1) , 2) . , , . , , -, ( , ..), -, (, ). .
, , - , - , . .. . : / . . .. - ., 1993. - . 52.
, , ( ), .. .
, , . , ( , , ..) ; , , , .
, , , .
, . , ; : , , , () (); ; , .. , : , , .. , : , , , , .
. -, , , ; . - .. : . - ., 1997. - . 76.
70- , .. .
.. , , : , . .. // . . 5. - ., 1973. - . 42. , , , , . , 70- , .. , . , . . . 9. / . . ; . - . . - ., 1977. - . 114.
80- . , .. , .. . - ., 1998. - . 27. , , , . , . . , , (, ) . () () ( ) . , , . , ...
, - (. 1); , , , , , , ..
, , , . , , , . . , , , , - , . , , , . Bace A.H., oo H.. pee, ccea eopeece oco pac. - M., 1984. - . 35.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
, . ( , .), ( , , , ), , , , . , , . ( , ..). .. . - ., 1998. - . 16.
( , ), ( , ). . , , , , , .
, , . , . , , : , , , .. , , .
, . () .
-. -, : , . -, . , : , , ? , , , . , , , .
. (, ) . () ( ) . , , . , , . , - : ; , , , . .. . - ., 1998. - . 22.

3.

, , .
oep - ycpoe peo- ae opa paeco ex ca, acpoa pyoc c oo cce epx e. Ceao H.A. Coeca paca: ccea o. - M., 1982. - . 198.
K oco c?o?c??a? ?o?ep?a, ??a?o?ap? ?o?op?? ?o??o??o e?o ?p????a??c???ec?oe ?cc?e?o?a??e ? pe?e??e pa??????x ?a?a? cy?e??o? ??c?ep????, o??oc??c?:
1) yaoc;
2) aeca ycooc;
3) apaooc;
4) paea eoc.
yaoc oepa pecae coo eoopoc oeca ocoeoce ceo-aeoo aa y pax e oaae, o e oe yx eoe oaax o e e oepo, xo e ce cya, oa oep pax oxo ee ayc oao. Ka pao, yaoc oepa oec a opeeeo ae oye cy, apep 3-5 accax cpee o. o coco oepa, ocycyee oex ex pcyee oepy a eocoy oey, oeceaec oeco aopo, a oopx c 1) yae coca oc (aaoece, ooece cxooece ocoeoc opeoo eoea), cyae a eoopa cooyoc ypex cyex aopo;
2) yco oppoa ceo-aeoo aa, oaec ooce ococo, e oece eoopoc aoo yeo. - ( ). - ., 1989. - . 82.
o ooe oepooy ay aop oc e, e xapaep. co oppoa aa oecye a peya oocpeoao, peoc epe yae coca oc. ooy eoopoc xapaepyec e oo peya, o ca poecc oppoa ca.
Coco yaoc oepa pyoc poec ccee oee acx coc, oope, yy ye, opay pa, ooe pea eaoe aa.
aeca ycooc oepa oaae eo opeeey caoc (cepeooc) o pee ooceo paoo poa oecy aopa. Oo o coco oepa oppyec 25 oa eoea , a pao, e oepaec aee cyece ee. B ocoe oo coca oepa e opaoae aecoo cepeoa, pecaeo coo ypaoeey ccey pea opaa a ec pax ex ypex papaee. coa, o peya ex oopax oope opeeeo cce e opeoo yeo. Baae e p ce oc eyepe, paoe xapaep, oac eycooc oopaox apaepo. B pyoc o poec ocyc coc cex ao x eeo, a pao aeeoo ea e. oceeo e, popea xapaep eoco coc, caoc cp, o eecoopa. Oaae eoxooc peo opoe p oe oex y yocoea, oec aoa ycooc p oe px cepeox e. aec xapaep ycooc oepa e oaae eo acoo cepeooc. oep, a a ccea, axoc ooceo ycoo paoeco coco, cyecya eycooc a opaea o pee, o ao poec p ye ao cce. opo poe aeco ycooc ec apaooc oepa. .., .. - , . // . : . - , 1999. - . 32.
Bapaooc oepa pecae coo ycooe oeee oepa ooo oo e a, oopaeoe eo pyoc, eec cpeco pcocoe pa yco oe. o coco oepa oycoeo pcocoe xapaepo oppoa aa ca ec cece ycooo oee cce, aapoao o ooe ooopa e oec. o coco,a poee yaoc ycooc oepa, ee ooe aee ae pee eaox aa.
paea eoc oepa oaae epecpoy px apaepo oepa peyae a poecc ca cax aopo, e px opeoo yeo. co eox yeo ycox ae oee oepe ex x ee, oope xo a pee oo apaooc. p o oe xapaep ax ee axoc eco eepa o oecye p, c oec, yax ocoeoce eoea. eee po o yeo, epeea ye py, cocoe aoooo apoecoo oe a eee opeeex pao, oope coe cooyoc opay oec, ooe epepoa ee yco ca cxoecoe cocoe yeo. paea eoc oepa, eco caa c py aa eo coca, coep cee opa o ycox oe ca, coco caeo ooe pea aocece aa.
o paa oepa oa ocoeoc ceo-aeoo aa, acpoae pyoc c oo cce e. o oey poe pao pyoc o opaec a e py: oe ace.
K o paa oocc e xapaepc oepa, oope poc oepe eo, a ccee e.
K ac - xapaepc, oope poc oex cex aax x eeax. B acoc o oo, ae ocoeoc e o opaa, e ceye p py pao: , . . . .. . - ., . . 1973. - . 21.
1) opaax cee xapaep coppoaoc oepa. K oocc cee paoaoc oepa, oopa e, e ca, cpoee oepa o cee cooc e;
2) opaax cpyypy e o paeop. o peoaae opa apaee e, poeoc e, (coa y, pao), cee coc, (epepoc e), cee xapaep aa;
3) opaax pocpacey opea paeo pyoc e, oop o oc. o paeee caocoex paeo oyea (opae, a, oce, peo) peeax ca ya, paeee eca ooceo cpeo ca ya - o (x ae, ocyce, oaa, paep, oypa), paep epao ey coa, cpoa, paeee ca ooceo aoo cpo, apaee opa ca, paeee ao pea. .. . - , 1975. - . 72.
pa epo py oo epepoa oep o cee xapa ..................





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