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Контрольная European capitals as the centers of tourism. Bonn, Madrid, Rome tourist information about eating and drinking, sightseeing, music, theatre, transport, hotels of cities. The role in the tourism in Europe is a tourist exchange between European peoples.


Тип работы: Контрольная. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 18.07.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

      1. Bonn tourist information
      2. Madrid
      3. Rome


The word “tourist” has appeared in English language in the beginning of the XIX century and in translation from English means: the man who makes trip for the sake of own pleasure or expansion of a cultural outlook.

Tourism is a dynamical, developing phenomenon focused on the consumer. The world advice on tourism and travel has specified the following characteristics of modern tourism:

it is the largest industry of the world having approximately S 3,5 bln. of a working capital and including such components as:

travel (cruises, buses, planes, automobiles, railways);

residing (hotels and motels, conferences, exhibitions, meetings);

a feed (restaurants, cafe, bars);

rest and leisure (games, parks, entertainments, attractions).

The conducting manufacturer of an industrial output, whose contribution to a total national product makes 6,1%.

The leader tax payer.

The employer 127 million people, i. e. about everyone 15 from all working.

the most developing branch of the European economy.

Europe is a traditional tourism center. Let's consider some European capitals as the centers of tourism.

1. Bonn tourist information

Until 1999 Bonn was the seat of government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Even today it still retains some governmental functions as Bundesstadt (Federal city).

Set in the beautiful Rhine valley between the Siebengebirge hills and the Eifel, Bonn enjoys a rich heritage from its 2,000-year history. In the past half-century, however, Bonn has gone through dramatic changes. In 1949, the quiet university town was turned into the western capital of a divided Germany (mainly because Konrad Adenauer lived here). When reunification led the government to return to Berlin in the late 1990s, the city changed its course and became a centre for enterpreneurs and businessmen.

In spite of the fact that Bonn is no longer the political center of modern Germany, visitors still come here to see where Ludwig van Beethoven was born and Robert Schumann died.

The architectural style of the city is mainly Baroque, as Bonn was a royal seat of the former princes elector.

Bonn is naturally also committed to the arts. One of the famous features of Bonn is the so-called "Museum Mile", a road with several important and interesting museums.

Most visitors to Bonn are pleasantly surprised by the contrasts between magnificent historical buildings and the charm of a small village, all mixed with a sense of cosmopolitan urban life and high-quality cultural attractions.

Beethoven's home (now a museum) can be seen in the Bonngasse. Other sights include the Poppelsdorf Palace (with Botanical Garden), Bonn University (housed in an astonishingly beautiful Baroque palace which was formerly the palace of the Prince-Elector of Cologne) and the Bundeshaus (former Parliament House).

Just south of Bonn begins the romantic Middle Rhine valley with its vineyards and castle ruins. Nearby is one of the all-time "German" tourist sites: the Drachenfels (Dragon's Rock) in the village of Kцnigswinter.

Bonn history

Roman soldiers first bridged the Rhine at Bonn in the year 11 BC. And the name "Bonna" appeared in official records between 13 and 9 BC. Two thousand years have left their mark in Bonn, tracing its development from a Roman camp into the settlement known as "Villa Basilica", and on through the Baroque era's Electoral Palace which today houses the University.

Much of its history, ancient and modern, can be read in Bonn's cityscape. In the north, for instance, traces of the Romans can still be found, and in the south, providing a modern contrast, soars "Lean Eugene" - the highrise Parliamentary Office Building and symbol of high politics.

Especially worth seeing are the Basilica in the heart of the city, the venerable Mьnster in which kings were crowned between 1314-46; the two-storied church of Schwarzrheindorf; and Baroque Poppelsdorf Palace. Rounding out the historic array are magnificent turn-of-the-century villas. Bonn is renowned as the city of music. Ludwig van Beethoven first saw the light of day here in 1770. Paying homage to the great composer are Bonn's international Beethoven Festivals. His birthplace, with museum, is a must attraction. It is one of the characteristic Baroque town houses from the Electoral era.

With the National Art and Exhibition Hall and the new Art Museum, as well as numerous other collections, Bonn boasts a museum scene that is second to none. But the City of Beethoven has even more to offer. Such as the lovely Rhine riverbank promenade leading past the Beethovenhalle (concert hall), the old Customs House and Villa Hammerschmidt - all the way to Bad Godesberg, the diplomatic quarter. From here one has a splendid view of the fabled Siebengebirge with Drachenfels, Drachenburg and Petersberg. Bonn - Your destination on the Rhine.

Bonn sightseeing

The University and the late Baroque Royal Palace

Not many universities can boast to be housed in such a beautiful building as the Bonn University. This amazing Baroque palace was built for the Elector Joseph Klemens in 16007-1705. Enrico Zuccalle designed the palace. It was later extended after 1715 by Robert de Cotte. The university was founded in 1818.

Beethoven House: Birthplace of the famous composer Ludwig van Beethoven, with museum Ludwig was born here and lived in this house until the age of 22. The house itself is in Baroque style. After he left at the age of 22, he never came back to his home town again. The museum has a large collection of memorabilia from the life of the most famous German composer.

Museum Mile: alongside the road on the right bank of the Rhine are several museums: the Kunstmuseum Bonn (Art Museum), the Alexander Koenig Museum, the Kunst - und Ausstellungshalle (Art and Exhibition Hall) and the Haus der Geschichte (German History Museum).

Historical Town Hall in the Rococo style, built in the time of the Wittelsbach princes elector.

The town hall is situated at the central market square, shaped like a triangle. The square shows a mixture of modern and Baroque architecture. The Rathaus (town hall) was built in 1737-1738 to a desing by Michel Leveilly. The Saint Remigius kirche is also situated near the Market Square. This gothic church was built for the franciscans in 1274-1317.

Das St. Martin Mьnster is the 12th-century cathedral of Bonn (1150-1230). It is a wonderful example of Romanesque architecture in the Rhine valley. The present prayer house was constructed on the site of an earlier 11th century cathedral. From this church a three-naved crypt has survived.

Schloss Poppelsdorf with the Botanical Gardens. Poppelsdorf is a classical Bonn district. With its lovely houses dating from the 1871-3 and art nouveau periods, this area is one of the most popular residential areas. Around the Poppeldorfer Castle and Botanical Gardens there are many nice cafes, restaurants and pubs. The neighbouring Sьdstadt is also lovely and just as popular, with many nice student pubs.

Beuel is the name of the city district on the eastern side of the Rhine. It is connected to the centre of Bonn by the Kennedy Bridge. Well known because of the "fifth season", carneval. Today the memorial to the laundry women remembers the pioneers of "Weiberfastnacht" in 1824. The memorial plaque on the Synagogenplatz in Beuel reminds one of one of the worst chapters in Germany's history. The Heimatmuseum Beuel is also worth seeing.

Hotels BONN


2. Madrid

Madrid became Spain's capital by grace of its geography: when Philip II moved the seat of government here in 1561, his aim was to create a symbol of Spanish unification and centralization. However, the city has few natural advantages - it is 300 km from the sea on a 650-mentre-high plateau, freezing in winter, burning in summer - and it was only the determination of successive rulers to promote a strong central capital that ensured its success.

Today, Madrid is a predominantly modern city, but the streets at her heart are a pleasant surprise, hiding odd pockets of medieval buildings and atmospheric, narrow alleys. There are admittedly few sights of great architectural interest, but it is home to some of Spain's best an: the monarchs acquired outstanding picture collections which went on to form the basis of the Prado museum. This has long ensured the city a place on any European art-tour, and the more so since the 1990s arrival of the Reina Sofia and Thyssen-Bornemisza galleries, state-of-the-art homes to fabulous arrays of modern Spanish painting (including Picasso's Guernica) and European and American masters.

Galleries and sights aside, though, the capital has enough going for it in its own city life and style to ensure a diverting stay. You soon realize that it's the inhabitants - some 5,300 000 Madrilenos - that are the capital's key attraction: hanging out in the traditional cafes and Chocolaterias or the summer terrazas;. packing the lanes of the Sunday Rastro flea market, or playing hard and very, very late in a thousand bars, clubs, discos and tascas. Whatever Barcelona or San Sebastian might claim, the Madrid scene remains as it is immortalized in the movies of Pedro Almodovar - vibrant, noisy and lots of fun.

City transport

The centre is comfortably walkable, but Madrid also has a good metro system that serves most places you're likely to want to get to. It runs from 6 am until 1.30 am. The urban bus network is more comprehensive than the metro, but also more complicated - trust the transport information stand in the Plaza de Cibeles before the myriad and quickly outdated handouts. Buses run from 6am to 11.30pm, but there are also several nightbus lines in the centre, from Plaza de Cibeles and Puerta del Sol (midnight-3аm every 30min, 3-6am hourly).


The cheapest accommodation is around the Estacion de Atocha though places closest to the station are rather grim, and the area can feel somewhat threatening at night A better option is to head up c/Atocha towards Sol, to the streets surrounding the buzzing Plaza Santa Ana Prices rise as you reach the Plaza Mayor and Puerta del Sol, but e\en here there are affordable options. Other promising areas include Gran Via, where the huge old buildings hide a vast array of hotels and hostales, and north of here up noisy c/Fuencarral cowards Chueca and Malsana.

The City

Central Puerta del Sol, with its bustling crowds and traffic, is as good a place as any to start a tour of Madrid This is officially the centre of the nation a stone slab in the pavement outside the main building on the south side marks Kilometre Zero, from where six of Spain's National Routes begin, while beneath the streets, three of the city's ten metro lines converge A statue of a bear pawing a madrono bush lies on the north side this is both the emblem of the city and a favourite meeting place.

Immediately north of Sol, c/de Preciados and c/del Carmen head towards the Gran Via, both are pedestrianized and constitute the most popular shopping area in Madrid West, c/del Arenal heads directly towards the Opera and Royal Palace, but there's more of interest along c/Mayor, one of Madrid's oldest thoroughfares, which runs southwest through the heart of the medieval city, also to end close to the Royal Palace.

Plaza de la Villa and Plaza Mayor

About two-thirds of the way along c/Mayor is the Plaza de la Villa, almost a case-book of Spanish architectural development The oldest survivor here is the Torre de los Lujanes. a fifteenth-century building in Mudejar style, next in age is the Casa de Cisneros, built by a nephew of Cardinal Сisneros in sixteenth-century Plateresque style, and to complete the picture is the Ayuntamiento (tours Mon at 5pm; free), begun in the seventeenth century, but later remodelled in Baroeque mode Baroque is taken a stage further around the corner in c/S. mJusto, where the church of San Miguel shows the unbridled imagination of its eighteenth-century Itilian architects.

Walking straight from the Puerta del Sol to the Plaza de la Villa, it's easy to miss altogether the Plaza Mayor, the most important architectural and historical landmark in Madrid This almost perfectly preserved, extremely beautiful, seventeenth-century arcaded square, set back from the street, was planned by Philip II and Juan Herrera as the public meeting place of the new capital: autos-da-fe (trials of faith) were held by the Inquisition here, kings were crowned, festivals and demonstrations staged, bulls fought and gossip spread the more important of these events would be watched by royalty from the be-frescoed Casa Panaderia, named after the bakery that it replaced Along with its popular but pricey cafes, the plaza still performs several public functions today in summer, it's an outdoor theatre and music stage, in autumn, a book fair, and just before Christmas it becomes a bazaar for festive decorations and religious regalia. The warren of streets surrounding the Plaza Mayor are well worth exploring, housing as they do a treasure trove of gleat tapas bars and restaurants.

The Palacio Real

Calle del Arenal ends at the Plaza Isabel II opposite the Teatro Real or Opera House, which is separated from the Palacio Real by the newly renovated Plaza de Oriente The chief attraction of the area is the grandiose Palacio Real, or Royal Palace (Mon-Fn 9am-5/6pm, Sat & Sun 9am-2/3pm, free Wed to EU citizens). Built after the earlier Muslim Alcazar burned down on Christmas Day 1734, this was the principal royal residence until Alfonso XIII went into exile in 1931. The present royal family inhabits a more modest residence on the western outskirts of the city, using the Palacio Real only on state occasions. The building scores high on statistics it claims more rooms than any other European palace, a library with one of the biggest collections of books, manuscripts, maps and musical scores in the world, an armoury with an unrivalled and often bizarre collection of weapons dating back to the fifteenth century, and an original pharmacy, a curious mixture of alchemist's den and early laboratory, its walls lined with jars labelled for various remedies Take your time to contemplate the extraordinary opulence of the place acres of Flemish and Spanish tapestries, endless Rococo decoration, bejewelled clocks and pompous portraits of the monarchs. In the Sala del Trono (Throne Room) there's a magnificent frescoed ceiling by Tiepolo representing the glory of Spam - an extraordinary achievement for an artist by then in his 70s.

The Gran Via

North from the palace, c/Bailen runs into the Plaza de Esparia, longtime home of the tallest skyscrapers in the city. From here join Gran Via, it was once the capitals major thoroughfare and effectively divides the old city to the south from the newer parts.

Permanently crowded with shoppers and sightseers, the street is appropriately named, with splendidly quirky Art Nouveau and Art Deco facades fronting its banks, offices and apartments, and huge hand-painted posters on the cinemas. At its far end, by the magnificent cylindrical Edificio Metropolis, it joins with c/Alcala on the approach to Plaza de la Cibeles Just across the junction is the majestic old Circulo de las Bellas Artes, a contemporary art space with a trendy cafe/bar.

The Prado

Just across the Paseo del Prado from the Circulo de la Bellas Artes lies Madrid's Museo del Prado, which has been one of Europe's key art galleries ever since it was opened to the public in 1819. It houses the finest works accumulated by Spanish royalty as well as standout items from other Iberian sources: over three thousand paintings in all, including the world's finest collections of Goya, Velazquez and Bosch. The most rewarding approach to the museum is perhaps through tile Puerta de Goya, on c/Felipe IV, pick up a free leaflet at the entrance to find your way round.

Even in a full day you couldn't hope to do justice to everything in the Prado, and it's much more enjoyable to make short visits with a clear idea of what you want to see III the first rooms on the ground floor are early Spanish paintings, mostly religious subjects, then in a series of rooms to your left the early Flemish masters are displayed.

The great triptychs of Hieronymus Bosch-the early Hay Wain, the middle-period Garden of Earthly Delights and the late Adoration of the May - are familiar from countless reproductions, and there's much more of his work here, along with that of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Rogier van der Weyden, Memling, Bouts, Gerard David and Massys. Durer dominates the small German collection.

The museum's collection of over 160 works of later Flemish and Dutch art has been imaginatively rehoused in a new suite of twelve rooms off the main gallery on the first floor Rubens is extensively represented - by the beautifully restored Three Graces among others - as are van Dyck and Jan Brueghel.

The Thyssen-Bornemisza collection

The Collecion Thyssen-Bornemisza (Tues-Sun 10am-7pm) occupies the old Palacio de Villahermosa, diagonally opposite the Prado. In 1993, this prestigious site played a large part in Spain's acquisition of what was perhaps the world's greatest private art collection, with important works from every major period and movement. From Duccio and Holbein, through El Greco and Caravaggio, to Schiele and Rothko; from a strong showing of nineteenth-century Americans to some very early and very late Van Goghs, and side-by-side hangings of parallel Cubist studies by Picasso, Braque and Mondrian, the collection is both rich and extensive. There's a bar and cafe in the basement and re-entry is allowed, so long as you get your hand stamped at the exit desk.

Centro de Arte Reina Soffa

The Centro de Arte Reina Sofia (Моn & Wed-Sat 10am-llpm, Sun 10am-2.30pm; free Sat after 2.30pm & all Sun), facing Atocha station at the end of Paseo del Prado, keeps different opening hours and days from its neighbours, which is fortunate because this leading exhibition space, and permanent collection of modern Spanish art, is another essential stop on the Madrid art scene. The museum, a massive former convent and hospital, is a kind of Madrid response to the Pompidou centre in Paris. Transparent lifts shuttle visitors up the outside of the building, whose levels feature a cinema, excellent art and design bookshops, a print, music and photographic library, restaurant, bar and cafe, as well as the exhibition halls (top floor) and the collection of twentieth-century art (second floor).

It is for Picasso's Guernica that most visitors come to the Reina Sofia, and rightly so. Superbly displayed along with its preliminary studies, this icon of twentieth-century Spanish art and politics - a response to the fascist bombing of the Basque town of Guernica in the Spanish Civil War - carries a shock that defies all familiarity. Other halls are devoted to Dali and Surrealism, early-twentieth-century Spanish artists including Miro and post-World War II figurative art, mapping the beginning of abstraction through to Pop and avant-garde.

The Rastro

The area south of the Plaza Mayor and c/Atocha has traditionally been a tough, working-class district and in many places the old houses survive, huddled together in narrow streets. However, an influx of youthful, fashionable residents has changed the character of La Latina and Lavapies over the last decade, making it pleasantly hip. Partly responsible for this change is the Rastro (Metro La Latina), which is as much part of Madrid's weekend ritual as a Mass or a paseo. This gargantuan, thriving, thieving shambles of a street market sprawls south from Metro La Latina to the Ronda de Toledo, and is particularly busy along c/Kibera de Curtidores; crowds flood through between 10am and 3pm on Sundays and holidays. Don't expect to find fabulous bargains; the serious antiques trade has mostly moved off the streets and into the shops. It's definitely worth a visit, though, if only to see the locals out in their thousands and to do as they do - recover in a selection of traditional tapas bars - after the madness has subsided. Keep a tight grip on your bags, pockets, cameras and jewellery. Afterwards head over to the bars and terrazas around Puerta de Moros where half of Madrid congregates for an aperitive and to while away the afternoon.

Retiro and other parks

Madrid's many parks provide great places to escape the sightseeing for a few hours. The most central and most popular is the Parque del Buen Retiro behind the Prado, a stunning mix of formal gardens and wilder spaces. In its 1.3 sq km you can jog, row a boat, picnic, have your fortune told, and above all promenade - on Sunday afternoon half of Madrid turns out for the paseo. Travelling art exhibitions are frequently housed in the beautiful Palacio de Velazquez and the nearby Palacio de Cristal (times and prices vary according to exhibition). The nearby Jardines Botanicos (daily 10am-sunset; Metro Atocha), whose entrance faces the southern end of the Prado, are also delightful.

Eating and drinking

There can be few places in the world that can rival the area around Puerta del Sol in either quantity or variety of outlets. And the feasts continue in all directions, especially towards Plaza Santa Ana and along c/de las Huertas to Atocha, but also south in the neighbourhood haunts of La Latina and Lavapies, and north in the gay barrio Chueca and the alternative Malsana. The streets between Lope de Vega, Plaza Santa Ana and c/Echegary are especially pleasant for bar-hopping.

In summer, all areas of the city have pavement cafe/bars, where coffees are taken by day and drinks pretty much all night.

The prime area is Paseo Castellana, where many of the top discos can be found. Smaller scenes are in Plaza de Chueca, Paseo Resales del Pintor along the Parque del Oeste, the more relaxed and pleasant c/Argumosa in Lavapies/Atocha, Puerta de Moros in La Latina and Las Vistillas, on the south side of the viaduct on c/Bailen, due south of the royal palace.


The bars, clubs and discos of Malsana, and Huertas around Plaza Santa Ana or a little further south in Lavapies, could easily occupy your whole stay in Madrid, with the many clubs starting around lain and staying open until well beyond dawn.

The names and styles change constantly but even where a place has closed down a new alternative usually opens up at the same address. To supplement our listings, check out the English-language magazine En Madrid, or the quarterly Madrid Concept.

Music concerts - classical, flamenco, salsa, jazz and rock - are advertised posters around Sol and are also listed in the Guia del Odd and in the newspaper El Pais. In July and especially m August there's not too much happening inside, but the city council sponsors a Vcranos di la Villa programme of concerts and free cinema in some attractive, outside venues.

If you find that you've somehow stayed out all night and feel in need of early morning sustenance, a final station on the clubbers' circuit is the Chocolateria San Gines on c/de Coloreros, just off c/Mayor, for a chocolate con churros.

Live music

The music scene in Madrid sets the pattern for the rest of the country, and the best rock bands either come from here or make their name here. For young local groups try Taboo at c/San Vicente Ferrer 22, and Moby Dick Club, Avenida de Brasil 5; cool foreign independents often play at Gruta 77, c/Nicolas Morales, s/n c/Cucillo 6. Bigger rock concerts are usually held in one of the football stadiums or at La Riviera on Paseo Bajo de la Virgen del Puerto. A good array of jazz bars includes the topnotch Central Cafe, Plaza del Angel 10, near Sol, Clamons in c/Albuquerque 14, and Cafe Berlin at c/Jacometrezo 4. Fans of electronica might want to check out the quality names at Nasti, c/San Vicente Ferrer 23 or the smaller Siroco, e/San Dimas 3. South American music is on offer at various venues, especially during summer festivals, the best year-round club is the Cafe del Mercado in the Mercado Puerta de Toledo, which puts on live salsa more or less every night Flamenco can also be heard at its best in the summer festivals, especially at the noches de flamenco in the beautiful courtyard of the old barracks on c/de Conde Duque Promising year-round venues include Caracal, c/Bernardmo Obregon 18; Cafe de Chimtas, с/Тогца 7, La Solea, Cava Baja 34, Casa Patas, Camzares 10, and at S и т.д.................

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