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Курсовик The oldest words borrowed from French. Unique domination of widespread languages in a certain epoch. French-English bilinguism. English is now the most widespread of the word's languages. The French Language in England. Influence on English phrasing.

Информация:

Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 05.09.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

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11
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ
Учреждение образования
"Гомельский государственный университет
имени Франциска Скорины"
Факультет иностранных языков
Кафедра теории и практики английского языка
French Borrowings in the Modern English Language
Курсовая работа
Исполнитель:
студент группы Векшин П.А.
Научный руководитель: Лобанкова Т.А.
Гомель 2006
Contents
    Introduction
      French borrowings in the modern english language
      Conclusion
      Biblography

Introduction

A foreign language is not just a

subject learnt in the classroom…

it is something which is used for

communication by real people

in real situations.

We live in Belarus and our native language is Belarusian. Almost all the words are native in our language. But some of them are borrowed from other languages, though they got their meanings, spelling, according to the Belarusian language. I have been learning English since the first form, so English is the third language in which I can communicate a little. Since the sixth form I began to study German, comparing pronunciations of the words, grammar rules, spelling it became easier for me to learn these languages. And I am sure that it is easier to learn several languages comparing them.

Last year I took part in the research work and I got a deeper knowledge of borrowings in English language. And this year I decided to deepen my knowledge in this theme too. So today we would like to present you more information about borrowings in English language. This theme sounds interesting for us and we guess you will be interested in it too.

An international vocabulary in any language changes due to the development of economy, science, education etc. Everything depends on time. The same is in English.

The purpose of our research work is to study French borrowings in the modern English language.

The purpose has defined the following tasks:

try to highlight the oldest words borrowed from French;

compare unique domination of widespread languages in a certain epoch;

show that English is now the most widespread of the word's languages;

discern the influence of the French language in the early modern period;

compare the sound of "Norman English" of the middle ages and the modern variant.

French borrowings in the modern english language

English is a Germanic Language of the Indo-European Family. It is the second most spoken language in the world.

It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status.

This domination is unique in history. English is on its way to becoming the world's unofficial international language. Mandarin (Chinese) is spoken by more people, but English is now the most widespread of the world's languages.

Half of all business deals are conducted in English. Two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English. Over 70% of all post / mail is written and addressed in English. Most international tourism, aviation and diplomacy are conducted in English.

English contains many words from Norman French, brought to England during the 11th century Norman Conquest.

In 1066 the Normans conquered Britain. French became the language of the Norman aristocracy and added more vocabulary to English. More pairs of similar words arose.

Table 1. French-English bilinguism

French
English
close
shut
reply
answer
odour
smell
annual
yearly
demand
ask
chamber
room
desire
wish
power
might
ire
wrath / anger
Because the English underclass cooked for the Norman upper class, the words for most domestic animals are English (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, deer) while the words for the meats derived from them are French (beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, venison).
The Germanic form of plurals (house, housen; shoe, shoen) was eventually displaced by the French method of making plurals: adding an s (house, houses; shoe, shoes). Only a few words have retained their Germanic plurals: men, oxen, feet, teeth, children.
It wasn't till the 14th Century that English became dominant in Britain again. In 1399, King Henry IV became the first king of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English. By the end of the 14th Century, the dialect of London had emerged as the standard dialect of what we now call Middle English. Chaucer wrote in this language.
Modern English began around the 16th Century and, like all languages, is still changing. One change occurred when the suffix of some verb forms became s (loveth, loves; hath, has). Auxiliary verbs also changed (he is risen, he has risen).
Norman French is the 11th century language of France and England. It is an Indo-European language.
In 1066, the Norman king, William the Conqueror, invaded England. Many Norman French words entered the language after this. In general, the Normans were the nobility, while the native English were their servants. The names of domestic animals and their meats show this relationship. The animal name is English ("cow", "sheep", "pig") while the names of the meats derived from these animals is French ("beef", "mutton", "pork").
Table 2. English - A Historical Summary
Many words have been borrowed from Norman French. These can be grouped into several types:
legal terms ("adultery", "slander"),
military words ("surrender", "occupy"),
names of meats ("bacon", "venison"),
words from the royal court ("chivalry", "majesty").
the non-metric unit of volume (the "gallon") is Norman French. There are many other words.
The Normans introduced the QU spelling for words containing KW ("question").
Table 3. French borrowings


Word
Meaning
Notes
accuse
One of many legal words from Norman French.
adultery
archer
One of several military words from Norman French.
arson
Crime of deliberate burning.
assault
asset
enough
bacon
Cured pig's meat. One of many names for meats from Norman French.
bail
to take charge
Security for a prisoner's appearance.
bailiff
carrier
Officer who executes writs.
beef
Meat of ox or cow.
butcher
seller of goat flesh
A dealer in meat.
button
chivalry
horseman
One of many words used in royal life from Norman French.
comfort
strengthen
courtesy
cricket
A ball game played in the UK, Caribbean, parts of Africa and Asia, Australia, New Zealand.
crime
judgment
curfew
cover fire
Period to be off the streets.
custard
Baked mixture of eggs and milk.
defeat
dungeon
Underground prison.
duty
eagle
Large bird of prey.
elope
run away
embezzle
ravage
enemy
non friend
error
evidence
exchequer
A national treasury.
fashion
make
felony
A serious crime.
fraud
gallon
jug
A unit of liquid volume (= 4.546 Ч 10-3 m3 in UK; = 3.785 Ч 10-3 m3 in USA)
goblin
gourd
grammar
art of letters
grease
fat
grief
grocer
Food dealer. Originally "one who deals in the gross".
gutter
drop
Track for water.
haddock
A type of fish.
havoc
hogmanay
Now a Scottish festival at New Year.
honour
injury
wrong
Wrongful action or damage.
jettison
throw overboard
joy
judge
right speaking
jury
swear
justice
larceny
The crime of theft.
lavender
Perfumed shrub.
launch
hurl
lease
leave
leisure
allowed
Free time.
lever
to raise
liable
may be bound
libel
little book
liberty
free
liquorice
sweet root
Originally from a Greek root, "glico riza".
mackerel
A type of fish.
majesty
mangle
manor
remain
marriage

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