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Реферат A. Tolstoj was born on September, 5th 1817 in St.-Petersburg. His writer career began in 1907 the publication of collection of poems. n the Second world war Tolstoj gave many forces journalism. His Peter I is the best historical novel of soviet period.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 26.09.2014. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

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Alexey Konstantinovich Tolstoj was born on September, 5th (on old style on August, 24th) 1817 in St.-Petersburg. Its father occured from an ancient and known sort Thick (the Lion Thick on this line is necessary Alexey the second cousin). Its mother, a beauty Anna Alekseevna Perovskaya, studying A.K. Razumovsky's column, has left in 1816 in marriage for elderly Konstantin Petrovicha Tolstogo's column. Marriage was unhappy; between spouses there was an open break. After a birth of the son spouses dispatch, mother has taken away it in Malorossiu to the brother A.A. Perovskomu known in the literature under a name of Antoniya Pogorelsky. Here, in manors Pogorelcs and the Red Horn, has passed the childhood Thick. The uncle was engaged in education of the future poet, it in every possible way encouraged its art propensities and specially for it has composed a known fairy tale « the Black hen, or Underground inhabitants ». Per 1826 Thick with mother and the uncle has gone to Germany; in its memory visiting in Weimar Goethe and that it sat at the great old man in a lap was especially sharply embodied. The extreme impression was made on it by Italy, with its works of art. "We have begun ", it writes to curriculum vitaes, " from Venice where my uncle has made significant purchases in old palace Grimani. From Venice we have gone to Milan, Florence, Rome and Naples, - and in each of these cities my enthusiasm and love to art so after returning to Russia I have run in present " homesickness ", in any despair owing to which I in the afternoon nothing wished to eat grew in me, and at night sobed, when dreams carried away me in my lost paradise ".
Then the boy have transported to Petersburg. At means Zhukovskogo it has been presented to the successor of a throne, the future emperor Alexander II, and it has appeared among children come to cesarevitch on Sundays for games (subsequently between them the warmest attitudes were kept). Perovsky on a regular basis went with the nephew abroad, acquainting it with local sights, once has presented its Goethe. To the most death in 1836 the uncle remained the main adviser in literary experiences of the pupil. It also showed products of young man Zhukovskomu and to Pushkin with which consisted in friendly attitudes, - and there are certificates, that they have been approved. All significant enough condition Perovsky bequeathed to the nephew.
Having received good house preparation, Thick in 1834 acts in number so-called « archival young men », consisting at Moskovsk the main archive of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. In 1835 it has passed the examinations on a grade at Moskovsk university. Per 1837-1840 was registered at Russian diplomatic mission in Frankfurt am Main, but it is very fast after purpose has obtained holiday and time spent partly to Russia, partly on new foreign travel. Having returned to Petersburg, with 1840 was registered at II branch of imperial office. In 1843 has received a court grade of chambers-unkera, in 1851 - the master of ceremony.
In 1840th Thick conducted a life of the brilliant secular person, affording risky jokes and the leprosies, descended to it from hands owing to protection of cesarevitch. However also its serious literary activity then begins. The first publication - the fantastic story «Vampire» (1841, under pseudonym Krasnogorsky) has noted been by Belinsky.
With 1854 in "Contemporary" there are verses Kozm Prutkova. This mask of the stupid and vainglorious bureaucrat has been thought up in the beginning of 50th Thick and its cousins Alexey, Alexander and Vladimir Zhemchuzhnikovymi. Then thick has started to publish the lyrics. In the end of 50th it cooperates in Slavophile to " Russian conversation », then in « the Russian bulletin » and « the Bulletin of the Europe ».
In the winter 1850-1851 Thick has met on ball Sofia Andreevnu Miller, the wife the colonel. The rough novel, marked by its fast leaving from the husband was fastened. The husband, however, long did not give divorce, against this novel also mother Thick sharply objected. Therefore marriage Thick with Sofia Andreevnoj has been concluded only in 1863 Practically all its love lyrics addressed to it - including, the poem devoted to their first meeting « Among noisy ball, is casual …».
In 1855, during the Crimean war, Thick tries to organize a special voluntary home guard, but it is not possible to it, and it acts in number of hunters so-called « shooting a shelf of the Imperial surname ». Participations in military actions to it and should not be accepted, but it hardly does not die of the severe typhus which has carried away about Odessa a significant part a shelf.
In 1856, in day of crowning of Alexander II, Thick has been appointed a wing-aide-de-camp. Soon, because of unwillingness to remain in military service, has been put егермейстером (the chief of huntsmen of imperial hunting). In this rank, not bearing any service, it remained to the death; only short time was it a member of committee about dissenters. Career Thick developed successfully; thus it was able to keep internal independence, to follow own principles. Thick has helped to release from the reference to Central Asia and from soldier's duty Tarasa Shevchenko; has made everything that Turgeneva have released from the reference for the necrologue of memory of Gogol. Tell, that when Alexander II has asked once Alexey Konstantinovicha: « That is done in the Russian literature? », that has answered: « the Russian literature has put on mourning in occasion of unfair condemnation Cherneshevskogo ».
However career court and the politician was Thick not on a shower. Overcoming resistance of the people baked about its future (in particular, the emperor), it in 1859 has achieved indefinite leave, and in 1861 - full resignation (this everyday collision has found expression in a poem "John Damaskin"). Now it lives mostly abroad, in the summer on different resorts, in the winter in Italy and Southern France, but long happens also in the Russian manors - Pustenke (near Petersburg) and the Red Horn. Is engaged almost exclusively in literary creativity. Thus it gave a facilities not enough attention, and was gradually ruined. In private life Thick represents a rare example of the person which not only in every possible way evaded from honours gone to it towards, but still should maintain the burdensomest for it struggle against the people, with all the heart wished to it of goods and given to it an opportunity to be put forward and reach visible position. Thick wished to be "only" the artist. When in the first large product - to a poem devoted of a sincere life imperial court - poet John Damaskina - Thick spoke about the hero: " we Love a caliph John, to it, that day, honour and caress " are there were features autobiographical. In a poem John Damaskin addresses to a caliph with such entreaty: " simple I have been born by the singer, with a verb free the God to glorify... About, release me, a caliph, permit to breathe and sing on will ". Unusually soft and gentle, it should collect all stock of the energy to refuse affinity to Sovereign to which when it was ill near Odessa, on some times in day cabled about a condition of its health. One time Thick has hesitated for a time was: it seemed to it attractive to be at Sovereign as it was expressed in the letter to it, " the Fearless storyteller of the truth " - but simply court Thick did not wish to be in any case. In its correspondence the is surprising-noble and pure soul of the poet was clearly reflected; but from it it is visible, that its graceful person has been deprived force and alarm, the world of strong sensations and flours of doubt was alien to it. It has stamped its all creativity. Thick has started to write and print very much early. Already in 1841, under pseudonym Krasnogorsky, there was its book " Vampire " (St.-Petersburg). Thick subsequently did not give to it any value and did not include in assembly of the compositions; it only in 1900 переиздал To publish the personal friend to its family, Vladimir Solovev. It is the fantastic story in Hoffmann and Pogorelsky-Perovskogo style. Belinsky has met it very affably. The long time interval separates the first, fleeting occurrence Thick in a press from the valid beginning of its literary career. In 1854 it has acted in "Contemporary" with a number of poems (" my Handbells ", " Oh stogi ", etc.), at once paid on it attention. Its literary communications concern to the fortieth years. It was well familiar with Gogol, Aksakov, Annenkov, Nekrasov, Panaevem and especially with Turgenevem which have been released from comprehended it in 1852 of the reference in village owing to efforts Thick. Having adjoined for a short while to a circle of "Contemporary", Thick has taken part in drawing up of a cycle of the comic poems which have appeared in "Contemporary" in 1854 - 55 years under Kuzma Prutkova's known pseudonym. It is rather difficult to define, what exactly here belongs Thick, but is doubtless, that its contribution was not from unimportant: the humorous vein was very strong in it. It possessed gift rather thin, though also a good-natured sneer; many of the best and its most known poems are obliged by the success of irony, in them poured (for example "Arrogance", " At orderes a gate "). Comically-satirical tricks Thick against currents of 60th years (" At times cheerful May ", " Then a bogatyr ", etc.) have much affected the bad attitude to it of a known part of criticism.
The visible place is borrowed with comic passages and in a cycle tolstovskih processings of epic plots. Never hesitating in the comic tricks extraneous reasons, this, in opinion of many of the literary opponents, the "conservative" poet has written some the comic poems which are till now not included in assembly of its compositions and (not including foreign editions) got in a press only in the eightieth years. In a number of these poems two use especial popularity: " the Sketch of Russian history from Gostomesla up to Timashev " (" Russian Olden time ", 1878, т. 40) and " Dream Popova" (ib., 1882, No. 12). First of them represents a comic review almost all main events of history of Russia, with a constant refrain: " the Order only is not present ". The poem is written in intentionally-vulgar tone that does not prevent to be to some characteristics very neat (for example about Ekaterina II: " Madame, at you splendidly the order prospers, - wrote to it politely Volter and Diderot, - it is only necessary for people which you mother, more likely to give freedom, more soon freedom to give ". It has objected them: " Messieurs, vous me comblez ", also has immediately attached ukraincev to the ground "). " A dream of councillor of state Popova " even more komichen.-the poems Written by national style with which debuted Thick, have especially liked the Moscow Slavophile circle; in its body, " Russian Conversation ", there were two poems Thick: "Sinner" (1858) and "John Damaskin" (1859).
With the termination of " Russian Conversation " Thick there is active employee Katkovskogo of " the Russian Bulletin " where have been printed a drama poem "Don-Zhuan" (1862), a historical novel " Prince Silver " (1863) and a number of archaically satirical poems ridiculing materialism of 60th years. In " Domestic Notes " 1866 the first part of the drama trilogy Thick - " John Groznogo's Death " which in 1867 has been staged Aliksandrinskogo theatre in St.-Petersburg has been printed and made the big success in spite of the fact that rivalry of actors deprived a drama of the good executor of a title role. In following year this tragedy, in fine translation of Carolina Pavlovoi, too with greater success, has been put on court theatre personally friends with Thick great duke Weimar.
With transformation per 1868 of " the Bulletin of the Europe " in common-literary magazine, Thick becomes its active employee. Here, except for of some bylinas and other poems, other two parts of the trilogy - "Tsar Feodor Ioannovich" (1868, 5) and "Tsar Boris" (1870, 3), the poetic autobiographical story "Portrait" (1874, 9) and written in Dantovskon style the story in verses "Dragon" have been placed. After death Thick not ended historical drama "Posadnik" and different fine poems have been printed.
Least the is extreme-popular novel Thick " Prince Silver " though it, undoubtedly, is suitable as reading for youth and for people stands out art advantages. It has served also as a plot for set of plays of national repertoir and basten stories. The reason of such popularity - availability of effects and external entertaining; but the novel meets the requirements of serious psychological development a little. Persons are put in it too schematically and monophonically, at the first occurrence on a stage at once receive known illumination and with it remain without the further development not only on all extent of the novel, but even in the separated 20 years an epilogue. An intrigue is entered it is very artificial, in almost fantastic style; all is made by magic. The protagonist, on a recognition of the Thickest - the person absolutely colorless. Other persons, except for Terrible, are worked on that is conditional-historical cliche which was established since "Jury Miloslavskogo's" times for the image of an old russian life. Thick though studied olden time, but mostly not under primary sources, and under grants. Influence of national songs, bylinas and лермонтовской " Songs about a merchant Kalashnikov " was most strongly reflected in its novel. Is better the figure Terrible has gone right to the author. That boundless indignation which each time when it speaks about Terrible seizes Thick, has allowed it force to tear with conditional affection before an old russian life. In comparison with novels Lazhechnikova and Zagoskin, even less cared real reproduction of olden time, " Prince Silver ", represents, however, a step forward. Incomparably it is more interesting Thick as the poet and the playwright. The external form of poems Thick not always costs at identical height. Besides archaisms to which even such judge of its talent as Turgenev, concerned v и т.д.................

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