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Курсовик Methodological characteristics of the adaptation process nowadays. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process. Elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the Publishing House.

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Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 02.04.2008. Сдан: 2008. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):


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3

Subject: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

“PROBLEM OF STAFF (PERSONELL) ADAPTATION”
Authors: Chek Cherk Lyah
Abstract
23 pages, 2 tables, 17 sources.
The definition of the problem is the adaptation of personal in the Publishing House “Prapor”.
Object of research-the process of adaptation of personal in the Publishing House “Prapor”.
The purpose of work - to analyse a industrial-economic activities, a control system and a condition of processes of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor” and developing the project on perfection of process of adaptation.
The method of research - qualitative analysis of the adaptation of personal.
The main idea of the report is the analysis of the plan of preparation of the personnel for leading in the project of adaptation. In this course paper is talked about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, about main aspects and stages of adaptation. Here are analysed the industrial-economic activity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process on the publishing house “Prapor”. Also here is uncovered problems of adaptation, problems of the hiring and selection the staff.

Contents

Introduction

1.Methodological characteristics of the adaptation process nowadays

1.1. Essence and main Aspects of Adaptation

1.2. STAGES of Adaptation

2. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of

management and the condition of adaptation process

2.1. Brief characteristics of the Publishing House “Prapor

2.2. Analysis of the hiring and selecting the Staff and Adaptation

Process in the Publishing House “Prapor

2.3. Inference of the Results after the Analysis of the hiring and

selecting the Staff

2.4. The Project of increasing the corporate Attention to Problems

of the Staff Adaptation

3. Elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the

Publishing House “Prapor”

3.1. Standard of the Staff Adaptation

3.2. The functionary Regulations of the Expert on Adaptation of the Personnel

3.3 The Plan and the Schedule of Introduction of the Project

3.4. The Plan of Preparation of the Personnel for Introduction of the Project

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

Adaptation is a dynamic process owing to which mobile systems of alive organisms, despite of variability of conditions, support the stability necessary for existence, development and continuation of a sort. The mechanism of staff adaptation developed as a result of long evolution, provides an opportunity of existence of an organism in constantly varying conditions of environment. Owing to process of adaptation preservation of a homeostasis is reached at interaction of an organism with an external world. In this connection processes of adaptation include not only optimization of functioning of an organism, but also maintenance of equation in system "organism-environment". Process of adaptation is realized every time when in system "organism-environment" there are significant changes, and provides formation new гомеостатического a condition which allows to reach peak efficiency of physiological functions and behavioural reactions. As the organism and environment are not in static, and in dynamic balance, their parities vary constantly and consequently, also constantly should process of adaptation is carried out.
The definition of the problem is the adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”.
In our course paper we try to analise the plan of preparation of the personnel for introduction of the project of adaptation. In this work we will tell about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, about main aspects and stages of adaptation. We tried to analise the industrial-economic activity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process on the publishing house “Prapor”. Also here we uncovere problems of adaptation, problems of the hiring and selection the staff.
For 15 years of work the Publishing House "Prapor" faces a problem of adaptation and a problem of management of the personnel repeatedly. Management of the personnel of the organization for a long time is recognized by one of "whales" of efficient control the managing subject irrespective of scales of business and its organizational-legal forms, efficient control the personnel becomes the mortgage of durability and success of any commercial undertaking. In management of the personnel one of priority directions - creation and development of systems of adaptation of the personnel in the organization. The decision of this problem with application of modern scientifically-practical methods allows to level the majority of negative factors of the internal environment of the organization in the field of group dynamics of collective, labour productivity, turnover of staff and other defining parameters of activity of firm.
Nevertheless in modern Ukraine not enough attention is given these problems noticeably. Unlike world experience, in Ukraine of the organizations with the solved problems of corporate culture and, as its components, systems of adaptation of the personnel, no. Same concerns also to branch of a press in which carries out the activity the Publishing House "Prapor".
1.Methodological characteristics of the adaptation process nowadays
In this chapter will be described the adaptation with its essence, main aspects, stages and methods. It will be uncovered the essence of the process of the mutual adaptation or labour adaptation between employee and organization, and employee with collective. In this chapter will be turned our attention to the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation as key condition of its successful realization and to an importance of a problem of management of innovations.
1.1. Essence and main aspects of adaptation

The modern organizations in which business of management is well put, consider, that the engaging of suitable people is only the beginning. For the blessing of the organisation the management should work constantly above the increase of potential of the staff. Development of the staff, increase of potential leads to growth of labour productivity and profitableness of the enterprise.
For development of potential of a labour use following methods:
- professional orientation and social adaptation in collective;
- an estimation of industrial activity;
- system of compensation;
- professional training, instruction, improvement of professional skill;
- - promotion;
- management of career.
One of problems of work with the personnel in the organization at attraction of the staff is management of labour adaptation. There is their mutual adaptation during interaction of the worker and the organisation which basis is made with gradual occurrence of workers in new professional and social - economic working conditions.
Adaptation is a mutual adaptation of the worker and the organization, based on gradual work-in the employee in new professional, social and organizational-economic working conditions.[1;32] Again gone to work simultaneously employee joins inside in the system of organizational attitudes, borrowing in it several positions simultaneously. To each position corresponds to set of requirements, norms, the rules of behaviour defining a social role of the person in collective as the worker, the colleague, The subordinate, the head, a member of collective controls, a public organisation, etc. From the person borrowing each named positions, the behaviour corresponding it is expected. Acting for work in this or that organization, the person has definite purposes, needs, norms of behaviour. According to them the employee makes the certain demands to the organization: to working conditions and its motivation. The process of the mutual adaptation or labour adaptation of the employee and the organization by that will be more successful, than in a greater degree of norm and value of collective are or become norms and values of the separate employee, than more quickly and better it accepts, acquires the social roles in collective.
Two directions of adaptation are allocated:[2;114-116]
- primary, i.e. the adaptation of the young employees who are not having experience of professional work (as a rule, it is a question in this case of graduates of a various level);
- secondary, i.e. the adaptation of the employees having experience of professional work (as a rule, changing object of activity or the professional role, for example, passing in a rank of the head).
It is necessary to note, that the role of secondary adaptation increases in conditions of formation and functioning of a labour market. On the other hand, it is necessary for domestic personnel services to address to experience of foreign firms which give traditionally enhanced attention of primary adaptation of young employees. This category of workers requires special care of them from administration.
In the theoretical and practical plan some aspects of adaptation are allocated:[3;35-36]
- psycho-physiological is the adaptation to the new physical and psychological loadings and physiological working conditions;
- socially-psychological is the adaptation to rather new society, norms of behaviour and mutual relations in new collective;
- professional is the gradual completion of labour abilities (professional skills, additional knowledge, skills of cooperation, etc.);
- organizational is the mastering of a role and the organizational status of a workplace and division in the general organizational structure, and also understanding of features of the organizational and economic mechanism of management of firm.
There is a development of set of all conditions during psycho-physiological adaptations which rendered various psycho-physiological influence on the worker during work. It is necessary to carry to these conditions: physical and mental loadings, a level of monotony of work, sanitary-and-hygienic norms of industrial conditions, a rhythm of work, convenience of a workplace, external factors of influence (noise, light exposure, vibration, etc.). During social adaptation-psychological there is an inclusion of the worker in system of relations of collective to its traditions, norms of a life, valuable orientations. During such adaptation the employee receives the information on system of business and personal mutual relations in collective and separate formal and informal groups about social positions of separate members of group. It perceives this information actively, correlating it with the last social experience and with the valuable orientations. There is a process of identification of the person or to collective as a whole at acceptance by the employee of group norms or with any formal or informal group Professional adaptation is characterized by additional development of professional opportunities (knowledge and skills), and also formation of professionally necessary qualities of the person, the positive attitude to the work. As a rule, satisfaction work comes at achievement of the certain results, and the last come in process of development by the employee of specificity of work on a concrete workplace.
During organizational adaptation the employee gets acquainted with features of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of firm, a place of the division and a post in the general system of the purposes and in organisational to structure. At the given adaptation at the employee the understanding of own role in the general production should be generated. It is necessary to allocate one more important and specific party of organizational adaptation. This is readiness of the employee to perception and realisations of innovations (technical or organisational-economic character). Despite of distinction between aspects of adaptation, all of them are in constant interaction, therefore managerial process demands presence of uniform system of tools of the influence providing speed and success of adaptation.
Success of adaptation depends on the whole row of conditions. The main things from which are:
- a qualitative level of work on professional orientation of potential employees;
- objectivity of a business estimation of the personnel (both at selection, and during of the labour adaptation of workers);
- work of the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation;
- prestige and appeal of a trade, work on the certain speciality in the given organisation;
- features of the organisation of the work which realising a motivational installations of the employee;
- presence of the fulfilled system of introduction of innovations;
- flexibility of system of training of the personnel which operated inside of the organization;
- features of the socially-psychological climate which has developed in collective;
- the personal properties of the adapted employee connected with its psychological features, age, the marital status, etc.
Especially it is necessary to stop on a question of the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation as key condition of its successful realization. Non-work of the given mechanism for the domestic organisations is one of the main reasons of pretentiousness of management of adaptation and slogan declaration of its necessity.
Management of labour adaptation demands the study, first of all, of three organizational elements:
- structural fastening function of management of adaptation;
- technology of managerial process of adaptation;
- a supply with information of this process.
As possible organizational decisions of a problem of structural fastening functions of management by adaptation the following can be offered:
1) Allocation of corresponding division (a group, a department) in structure of control systems of the personnel. More often functions on management of adaptation are a part of division on training the personnel.
2) Distribution of the experts who engaged in management of adaptation, on divisions (to shops, departments) or to groups of divisions. In this case the expert on the personnel becomes the curator of the certain divisions. It is necessary to notice, that the expert on management of adaptation can be as the employee of one of divisions of a control system of the personnel, and the employee of other functional division prepared for this role.
3) ) Development of preceptor ship which is forgotten in the domestic organizations last years. Foreign firms consider the preceptor ship as actively application of the form of trust to the skilled employee, and also as the certain stage in its service promotion. Thus preceptor ship is supported by material stimulus. . As instructors can heads, and the young employees who worked of some years and have positively proved can act as skilled workers with the experience. This experience originating in Japan, successfully develops in last years in the European firms.
4) Development of structural interrelations of a control system by the personnel (in particular, divisions of management of adaptation) with service of the organization of management. In many foreign firms this service is structurally included in system of controlling. A subject of functional interrelations between divisions of management of adaptation and the organizations of management are mainly questions of forms and principles of the organisation of work, system of introduction of innovations, etc.[4;68-69]
It is necessary to pay attention to importance of a problem of management of innovations. The thought over realisation of the given function becomes the factor of successful adaptation of workers to new conditions. As possible organizational decisions on technology of managerial process by adaptation the following can be offered:
- the organisation of seminars, rates, etc. on various aspects of adaptation;
- carrying out of individual conversations of the head, the instructor with the new employee;
- intensive short-term rates for the heads for the first time entering this post;
- carrying out organizational-spadework at introduction of innovations;
- special rates of preparation of instructors;
- use of a method of gradual complication of the tasks which are carried out by the new worker. The control over the constructive analysis of the mistakes admitted at performance of tasks is simultaneously necessary. Expediently thus to think over system of additional encouragement of the employee for the successful decision of tasks in view;
- performance of single public assignments for an establishment of contacts of the new worker with collective;
- performance of single assignments on the organization of work of controls (a production meeting, board of directors, etc.);
- preparation of replacement of the staff at their rotation;
- carrying out in collective of division of special role games on rallying employees and development of group dynamics.
Besides this, it is necessary to pay attention to realization of principles of the organisation of the work which are rendered motivational influence on the personnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees. It is possible to carry to such principles of the organization of work:
- creation of target problem groups, creative brigades, a variation of their structure, time and a problematic of work;
- definition of a rational degree of freedom of a mode of work, wide use of an accord principle of work;
- optimum duplication of problems of divisions, introduction of competitive divisions, projects, etc.;
- publicity of results of work (both group, and individual);
- participation of workers in management (use of methods of group development of decisions, collective participation in development of strategic programs, delegation of powers and the responsibility, etc.);
- carrying out of meetings with rational periodicity and duration;
- rational use of the arising referential groups;
- use of creative methods of development of decisions;
- maintenance of a feedback with administration and colleagues concerning the reached results of work and adequacy of their estimation.[5;83]
The centre of gravity of a supply with information of process of adaptation lays on gathering and an estimation of parameters of its level and duration. These parameters conditionally share on objective and subjective. To objective what characterise efficiency of labour activity concern, activity of participation of employees in its various spheres.
Besides this, parameters of adaptation are subdivided on an accessory to one of its aspects, for example, to professional aspect (conformity of qualifying skills to requirements of a workplace); to socially-psychological (a degree of conformity of behaviour of the person to the norms which have developed in given collective); to psycho-physiological (a degree of fatigue, a level of a nervous overload).
Subjective parameters characterise satisfaction of the employee work as a whole or its separate displays. They are subdivided similarly objective on an accessory to one of aspects of adaptation and define own estimation the worker. Exactly, the attitude to a trade and qualification; attitudes with collective of employees, with a management; state of health, conditions and weight of work; understanding of a role of individual problems in the decision of the general problems of the organization. Gathering and processing of the information on a level and duration of adaptation is expedient for spending within the limits of procedure of a current business estimation of the personnel. Here difference consists that in relation to new employees procedure of a business estimation should have higher periodicity within the limits of term of adaptation. For the domestic organizations the main problem of a supply with information of adaptation consists in necessity of accumulation of normative parameters of a level and duration of adaptation. The conclusion about its successful carrying out is done on the basis of comparison of actual and normative parameters.
1.2. Stages of adaptation.

Each enterprise or its collective possesses specific, only to it inherent features on which account successful or less successful work of collective as a whole depends. Procedures of adaptation of the personnel are called to facilitate occurrence of new employees during a life of the organization. Practice shows that 90 % of the people discharged from office within the first year have made this decision already in the first day of the stay in the new organisation . As a rule, the beginner in the organization collides from greater quantity of difficulties which great bulk is generated by absence of the information on the operating procedure, the location, features of colleagues, etc. That is special procedure of introduction of the new employee in the organization can promote removal of a lot of the problems arising in the beginning of work. Conditionally process of adaptation can be divided into four stages:
Stage 1.
The estimation of a level of readiness of the beginner is necessary for development of the most effective program of adaptation.
If the employee has not only special preparation, but also an operational experience in similar divisions of other companies, the period of its adaptation will be minimal. However it is necessary to remember that even in these cases in the organisation variants of the decision of problems already known to it are possible unusual for it. As the organizational structure depends on some parameters such as technology of activity, an external infrastructure and of the personnel. The beginner inevitably gets to some extent in a situation unfamiliar to it. Adaptation should assume both acquaintance to industrial features of the organization, and inclusion in communicative networks, acquaintance to the personnel, corporate features of the communications, etc.
Table 1.1. Distribution of duties on orientation [6;76-78].
Functions and actions of the organization
Duties
Of the direct head
Of the manager of the personnel
Drawing up of the program of the orientation
Carries out
assists
Acquaintance of beginners with firm and its history
Carries out
Carries out
the Explanation of problems and requirements which are shown to work
Carries out
Functions and actions of the organization
Duties
Of the direct head
Of the manager of the personnel
Put beginner in the work group
Carries out
Stimulation the help to beginners from the experienced employees
Carries out
Stage 2. Orientation.
Orientation is the practical acquaintance of the new employee with its duties and requirements which are presented by organization. To this work are attracted not only direct heads but also managers of personnel. As usually the duties are distributed like we see in the table 0.1. Usually the program of orientation consists of the row of not big lectures, excursions, practices (the work on the some work places or with some equipment).
Stage 3. Actually adaptation.
This stage consists in the adaptation of the recruit to its status and in the inclusion of the recruit in relation with collective. In limits of this stage necessary to give the recruit a opportunity to be active in different shares, to check in itself the given knowledge about organization. It is important, in this stage, to give a maximum help to recruit, regularly to conduct the appraisal of effectiveness of activity and peculiarities interactions with colleges.
Stage 4. Functionality.
This is the last process of adaptation. It is characterized by gradual decision of productive and interpersonal problems. It also characterized by crossing to the stable work. As a rule, this process of adaptation comes after 1-1.5 years of the work . If it process is regular, it will be more effective in few months of work.
In this chapter we considered methods for development of potential of a labour power. Also it were noted two directions of adaptation and some aspects of adaptation. We showed the success of adaptation depends on the row of conditions. It were offered organizational decisions of problem of structural fastening functions of management of adaptation. Also it were offered possible decisions on technology of managerial process of adaptation. Besides this, we paid attention to realization of principles of the organization of the work which are rendered motivational influence on the personnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees. On example table 1.1., we showed distribution of duties on dentition.
2. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of
management and the condition of adaptation process

In this chapter we will give the inormation about the Publishing Hause “Prapor”. The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” - satisfaction of needs of the market in release of the various book and periodic literature, and also in manufacture of other kinds of the printed matter corresponding a structure of a printing house. After the brief characteristics of the PH “Prapor” will be given the analysis oh hiring and selection staff. Planning of the personnel in the organization actually is absent. The list of staff and funds of a payment affirm annually. On selection of the personnel the Publishing House does not resort to services of specialized firms.
The Adaptation sutuation in the PH“Prapor” will be described. Such a difficuld situation will show that the process of adaptation has to be improved. Purpose of development of the project which character can be defined as mainly social, is increase of corporate attention to problems of adaptation of again staying personnel, decrease in turnover of staff, growth of satisfaction by work.

2.1. Brief characteristics of the Publishing House “Prapor”

The Publishing House "Prapor" is opened joint-stock company, the polygraphic enterprise created in 1991. Its history totals 11 years in the market of polygraphic works in Ukraine, and the organization continues development and expansion of activity, rendering any more only polygraphic services to publishing houses, but also making own editions, the consumer goods.
The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” - satisfaction of needs of the market in release of the various book and periodic literature, and also in manufacture of other kinds of the printed matter corresponding a structure of a printing house.
The open joint-stock company the society which actions are distributed among its founders or other, in advance certain circle of persons admits. Such society has the right to spend the open subscription to actions let out by it or to offer them for purchase to a unlimited circle of persons. The Publishing House "Prapor" specializes basically on release of the art, study of local lore literature, dictionaries, directories. [7; interview]
2.2. Analysis of the hiring and selecting the staff and adaptation process in the Publishing House “Prapor”
Planning of the personnel in the organization actually is absent. The list of staff and funds of a payment affirm annually. On selection of the personnel the Publishing House does not resort to services of specialized firms. Each post (trade) of the list of staff has the corresponding duty regulations corresponding ETKS. The competition of candidates at selection of the staff on vacant posts practically is not present. Exception is made with a trade "printer" owing to the highest wages. Selection is made according to a work-record card of the candidate. The requirement of recommendations, characteristics from the previous place of work, gathering of the information on candidates does not practise. With employed the typical labour contract consists.
The basic directions of perfection of selection and hiring of workers can be development of an individual approach to the candidate, carrying out of testing at employment, application of a trial period, an individualization of the labour contract regarding granting guarantees and indemnifications, payments of the most valuable employees. Process of adaptation of the personnel in the Publishing House "Prapor" is ignored. So, there is no technology of adaptation, the documentation on process of adaptation, there is no expert which official duties would include functions on adaptation of new workers. The institute of preceptorship is not developed. Thus, process of adaptation should be constructed from the basis.
The estimation of candidates at employment actually is not made by ways others, rather than documentary acknowledgement of qualification. During work periodic certification of the personnel to which surcharges for harmful working conditions (printers, type-setters, programmers, etc.) are appointed is spent, And also certification with a view of:
- planning and carrying out of actions on protection and working conditions according to operating normative legal documents;
- certifications of industrial objects on conformity to requirements on a labour safety;
- decisions of a question on communication of disease with a trade at suspicion on occupational disease, establishments of the diagnosis of an occupational disease, including at the decision of disputes, disagreements in the judicial order;
- considerations of a question on the termination (stay) of operation of shop, a site, the industrial equipment, change of the technologies representing direct threat for a life and (or) health of workers;
- inclusions in the labour contract (contract) of working conditions of workers;
- acquaintance working with working conditions on workplaces;
- applications of is administrative-economic sanctions (measures of influence) to guilty officials in connection with infringement of the legislation on a labour safety.
To an estimation of the personnel it is possible to consider the approach traditionally limited and demanding perfection with a view of optimization of an estimation at a stage of selection of the personnel. [8;48-51]
2.3. Inference of the results after the analysis of the hiring and selecting
the staff

The publishing House "Prapor" has set while not used opportunities of improvement of the financial, economic and social condit и т.д.................


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