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Курсовик The best works of foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other grammarians. Introducing some of the newest and most challenging concepts of modern grammar. The theoretical signifies are in comparison with Russian and Uzbek languages.


Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 21.07.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

The goal work is dedicated to the English grammar I hope my work will the process of teaching and learning grammar fun and exciting for students, also want to make teaching grammar as easy as possible by providing you with all tools heeded to give students a rich and enjoyable experience.
Grammar becomes exciting and dynamic when you bring the real world into your classroom and bring your class out into the world. The aim of investigation.
1) To acquire a terminology for discussing sentence correctness and effectiveness
2) To look for subjects and verbs when puzzling out the meaning of difficult sentences.
3) To understand how structure clues help identify parts of speech
4) To recognize participles, gerunds, and infinitives and use them to improve sentences
To study the structure of the simple sentence, to make the process of learning grammar understandable.
One of the main tasks of qualification work is the saving private tasks of grammar, to show:
SV Patterns 1 Subject Verb
SVN Pattern 2 Subject Verb Predicate Nominative
SVA Pattern 3 Subject Verb Predicate adjective
SVO Pattern 4 Subject Verb Object
SVIO Pattern 5 Subject Verb Indirect object Direct object
SVOC Pattern 6 Subject Verb Direct object complement
The actually of the work. It is no doubt that student grow toward maturity and independence of thought, as they progress trough the grades.
Explains that, inspire of the great interest to a learning grammar, to the problem sentences structure, there are some difficulties in learning it. There is a great number of some foreign linguists.
In my work I tried to choose the best works of some foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other grammarians
The novelty of the work. Introduce some of the newest and most challenging concepts of modern grammar. It utilizes new terminology and shows how teachers may begin working new definitions new explanations, and new approaches into the regular language study. Yet the work is arranged so that we can concentrate upon traditional elements.
The theoretical signifies of the work is concluded in comparison with the nature languages Russian and Uzbek, the correlation between the principle parts of the sentences which based on practical application.
1. Practical significance

The practical works are given in the work and tests, what can be used in learning the structure of the sentences on the course of theoretical grammar and at the practical classes of learning English.
The main recourse from where I have taken the material of my qualification work are works done by Henry I Christ Modern English in Action work done by Francis B Connors «New voyages in English» Material from Internet and world encyclopedia.
1.1 The structure of the Simple Sentence

«Every sentence has a subject and a predicament».
Although you may not be like the school boy who wrote the preceding explanation, you will probably welcome a review of grammar. Knowing the names of eight parts of speech and about two dozen other terms will give you tools for improving your writing and speaking. This chapter will also provide a refresher course on fundamentals of sentence structure.
DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1.A Parts of the Simple Sentence.
Copy the italicized words in a column and number them 1 to25. Then, using the abbreviations given below, indicate the use in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.
s.s.-simple subject d.o.-direct object
v.-verb i.o.-indirect speech
p.a.-predicate adjective o.p.-object of preposition
p.n.-predicate noun ap.-appositive
p.pr.-predicate pronoun a.n.-adverbial noun
1. The Pharos of Alexandria, a tall lighthouse, was a wonder of the ancient world.
2. The next day the new neighbors brought us a dinner of spaghetti and delicious sauce.
3. The son of Mr. Oliver, the corner grocer, gave me a piece of apple pie with raisins in it.
4. In the morning the gypsies strung beads a round the neck of the donkey and tied her tail with a bright red ribbon a yard long.
5. What kind of minerals can you find in the old lead mine?
6. The Buddha of Kamakura, a huge bronze statue, is considered one of the most beautiful sights in Japan.
7. The imprint of the fossil shell in the rock was sharp and clear.
In the winter the rock garden looks lifeless and barren.
2. The main part

2.1 Subject, verb

A.1 SENTENCE A sentence expresses a complete thought. It contains a subject and a predicate (or verb) either expresses or understood.
The nation's largest herd of buffalo grazes in Custer State Park.
PREDICATE VERB The predicate verb makes a statement, asks a question, or gives a command.
Statement Custer State Park borders on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota.
Question Who was calamity Jane?
Command For an authentic view of the old West visit Custer State Park.
AUXILIARY VERB An auxiliary helps a verb to make a statement, ask a question, or give a command.
The auxiliaries are: (be group) be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being; (have group) has, have, had; (do group) do, does, did; (other) may, might; can, could; shall, should; would, must. With auxiliaries a complete verb can be two, or for words.
Have you ever eaten buffalo steak?
Income from the sale of buffalo meat has been partially paying for the upkeep of Custer State Park.
You should not have been amazed at the sight of buffalo burger stands.
SIMPLE SUBJECT The simple subject answer the question «Who?» or «What?» before the verb.
A simple subject is commonly a noun or a pronoun.
Winter temperatures in Alaska may fall to 60 degrees below zero.
(Temperatures answer the question «What my fall?»)
Fort Yukon has recorded temperatures of 100 degrees above zero in July. (Fort Yukon answer the question «What has recorded?»)
Write the Alaskan Visitors Association for information about vacations in Alaska. (You, understood, answer the question «Who write?»)
MODIFIER A modifier is a word or expression that makes clearer or limits the meaning of another word.
For further help see Teacher's Manual.
George Washington planned one of the first American canals. (the first American canals is more limited than canals. The, first, and American modify canals.)
Canalboats were drawn by sturdy mules. (Were drawn by sturdy mules is different from were drawn. By sturdy mules modifies were drawn.)
Complete Subject The complete subject is the simple subject with its modifiers.
A windmill on Nantucket still grinds cornmeal.
COMPLETE PREDIDICATE The complete predicate is the predicate verb its modifiers and the words that complete its meaning.
Words which complete the meaning of a verb are complements or completers. Ordinarily every word in a simple sentence belongs either to the complete subject or the complete predicate.
Windmills were once a common sights along the Massachusetts coasts (The vertical line separates the complete subject from the complete predicate. The complete subject is underline once and the predicate verb twice.)
The first copper coins in the colonies were minted by John Higley at Simsbury, Connecticut.
1. Find the verb.
2. Ask «Who?» or «What?» before the verb. Your answer is the simple subject.
3. Find all the words attached to the subject. This step gives you the complete subject.
4. Everything else is the complete predicate.
PRACTICE 1 Expanding Complete Subject and Complete predicates.
Expand each of the italicized subjects and predicates by adding colorful, exact modifiers.
Example: The rain came.
The prayed-for rain came with the crack of thunder and the persistent tattoo of raindrops as big as marbles.
INVERTED ORDER A sentence is inverted when the verb, or part of it, precedes the subject.
In most English sentences the subject precedes the verb.
Inverted order. Along the Hudson River are found reminders of our Dutch heritage.
Reminders of our Dutch heritage are found along the Hudson River.
Was the first elementary school in the United States on Staten Island?
Natural order. The first elementary school in the United States was on Staten Island.
THERE When there begins a sentence in invented order, it is not the subject and does not modify anything.
There is never the subject and doesn`t add anything to the meaning.
Inverted order. There were English settlers in New England before the Pilgrims.
Natural order English settlers were in New England before the Pilgrims.
OVERDOING THERE. Don't overuse there.
Too frequent use of there is monotonous.
OTHER WORDS BEFORE SUBJECT Frequently a portion of the complete predicate precedes the subject. Other words before subject In1889 the first movie. Film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison.
Natural order. The first movie film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison in 1889.
ARRANGEMENT FOR STILE Often a portion of the predicate verb can be placed before the complete subject for emphasis, for joining the sentence to the preceding sentence, or for improving the rhythm of the passage in which it occurs.
(Use this device for emphasis only sparingly.)
Emphasis That will never forget. (I will never forget that.)
Sentence rhythm: Suddenly and without warning, the panther leaped suddenly without warning upon the deer).
PRACTICE 2 Rearranging for stile
Rearrange each of the following sentences for increased emphasis or improvement in sentence rhythm.
SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence has one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.
Compound Subject: Seagoing cutthroats and thieves once hid along the Carolina coast.
Compound predicate: Blackbeard tarred and caulked his boats in Oracoke Inlet.
Compound Subject and Compound Predicate In 1718 Blackbeard and Srese Bonnet blockaded Charleston and captured five ships.
PRACTICE 3 Finding Subject and Verbs
Copy the following sentences, arranging inverted sentences in their natural order. Rearrange also those sentences that have any part of the predicate before the subject. Then draw one line the under the predicate verb. Separate the complete subject from the complete predicate with a vertical line. Place all modifiers of the verb after the vertical line.
Example: During the Twenties was born the luxurious movie place.
The luxurious movie place was born during the Twenties.
1. In city after city there arose some of the most lavish building of all time.
2. Can you visualize imitation Assyrian temples, Chinese pagodas, Italian palaces?
3. Really, words cannot do justice to the magnificence of these structures.
4. Highly ornamental and spacious were the colorful interiors.
5. In many theaters moonlit skies, twinkling stars, and drifting clouds soothed the air - conditioned customers and transported them to another world.
6. IN a few of these «atmospheric» paradises, special dawn and sunset effect delighted the moviegoers.
7. Unbelievable was the word for these giant buildings.
8. The Roxy Theater in New York had 6214 seats and room for 110 musicians in the pit of the orchestra.
9. A huge carpet covered the rotunda and required the services of many persons for maintenance.
10. Each evening the ushers had a changing-of-guard ceremony of considerable intricacy and split-second precision.
11. Have these elaborate showpieces survived changing tastes and habits?
12. Unfortunately, most have been demolished and have been replaced with supermarkets, garages, and parking lots.
A word becomes a part of speech when its used in a sentence.
NOUN: A noun is a name.
Nouns name:
a. Persons, animals, places, things.
Many Americans have come to know the Hudson River throught the stories of Washington Irving and the canvases of the Hudson River painters.
b. Collection or groups of persons, animals, or things (collective nouns)
The council named a safety committee.
c. Qualities conditions, actions, processes, and ideas (abstract nouns)
The declaration of Independence upheld the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
PRONOUN A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
Because a pronoun substitutes or stands in for a noun, it avoids tiresome repetition of the noun. The word the pronoun refers to is its antecedent.
In his tales Washington Irving peopled the Hudson valley with comic Dutchmen, headless horsemen, and bowling gnomes. (His is used instead of Washington Irving)
These are commonly used pronouns:
Speaker: I, me, mine, we, us, our, ours.
Person spoken to: you, your, yours.
Person or things spoken of: he, him, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs.
Other pronouns: who, whom.
Several pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to other pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, itself, himself, herself, themselves,
Some pronouns are formed by joining some, any, every, and no to body, one and thing: somebody, someone, something, anybody, nothing.
All, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, one, other, several, some, this, these, that, those, which, whose, and what are usually pronouns when they stand alone but are modifiers, not pronouns, when they modify nouns.
VERB Verbs make statement about persons, places, or things, ask questions, or give commands.
Statements: Some historians still question Captain John Smith's account of his adventures.
Question: Did Pocahontas actually rescue him?
Command: Read Marshall Fishwick`s article «Was John Smith a Liar?» in American Heritage.
ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word that describes or limits a noun or pronoun.
An adjective usually answers one of these questions: «Which?» «What kind of» «How many?» «How much?» A, an, and the, the most common adjectives, are also called «articles». Mountains are climbing, study book, Boston 2003
By 1700 there were 80,000 settlers in the low-lying areas along the New England coast and in the great central valley of Connecticut and Massachusetts.
The massive oak door opened.
The subject and predicate, placed on a straight line, are separated by a short vertical line. Adjectives are placed on slant lines under the words they modify.
ADVERB An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
Adverbs not only answer the questions «When?» «Where?» «How?' «Why?» «How much?» and «How often?» but also help to ask questions.
Where and when did Oliver Hazard Perry defeat the British navy?
Many adverbs and some adjectives end in ly.
To the tune of a lively polka the dancers whirled merrily about the hall.
(Lively is an adjective modifying polka. Merrily is an adverb modifying whirled.)
The extremely important meeting was quite poorly attended.
Adverbs are placed on slant lines under the words they modify. The adverb extremely modifies the adjective important. The adverb poorly modifies the verb was attended. The adverb quite modifies the adverb poorly.
If two or more words are used as a single unit, check the dictionary to see if the group is given as a separate entry. If so, diagram the group as though it were one word. Examples of such groups are Bay of Fundy, Siamese cat, and post office.
PREPOSITION A preposition shows the relation of the noun or pronoun following it to some other word in the sentence.
About seventy words may be used as prepositions: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, etc.
The story of Los Angeles begins with a Portuguese sea captain in the employ of Spain.
A preposition may be two or more words.
According to by means of in regard to on account of
Ahead of by way of in spite of out of
Because of in front of instead of up of
OBJECT OF PREPOSITION The noun or pronoun after a preposition is the object of the preposition.
In 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed up the west coast of Mexico to San Pedro Bay.
PHRASE A phrase is a group of related words not containing a subject and a predicate.
Phrases may be used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE consists of a preposition and its object, which may or may not have modifiers.
A prepositional phrase is ordinary used like an adjective or an adverb.
One of California's most prosperous missions was built near the present site of Los Angeles.
A preposition is placed on a slant line, and its object is put on a horizontal line joined to the slant line. Nouns and pronouns in the possessive case (see California's) are used like adjectives.
PRACTICE 4 Identifying Parts of speech.
Diagram the following sentences.
OR Copy the following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline the simple subject once and the predicate verb twice. Write adj. over every adjective and adv. Over every adverb. Enclose prepositional phrases in parentheses.
Example: Berea College is located in a beautiful town in central Kentucky.
1. Visitors at the college walk along tree-shaded lanes to the various workshops of the college.
2. Many college industries operate successfully.
3. Students work at various activities for ten hours during each weak.
4. The profitable enterprises help with college expenses.
5. A beautiful hotel in town is owned by the college.
6. Student waitresses serve in the cheerful dining room.
7. Other students work busily at administrative jobs in the hotel.
8. A dairy farm is operated by the students.
9. Excellent baked goods are distributed throughout a large area.
10. Clever toys are sold in local shops.
11. Furniture of superior quality is turned out by student craftsmen.
12. Cooperative education has prospered for a century at Berea College.
CONJUNCTION A connects words or groups of words.
Conjunction is from conjugate, a Latin word meaning «to join together»
Conjunctions, unlike prepositions, do not have objects.
A natural ice mine in Pennsylvania forms ice in the spring and summer but never in the winter months.) Mountains are climbing, study book, Boston 2003
Before the Revolutionary War, Kentucky and Tennessee were known to the Indians as the Middle Ground or the Dark and Bloody Ground. (And connects Kentucky with Tennessee. Or connects as the Middle Ground with the Dark and Bloody Ground. And connects dark with bloody.)
1. Shell heaps, village sites, and stone implements were left in the eastern United States by prehistoric Asiatic migrants.
The conjunction and is placed on a broken line between the words it connects. The x indicates that a conjunction is understood.
2. For several generations their descendants lived along the riverbanks and subsisted on fish, small game, roots, and nuts.
The conjunction and connects the verbs lived and subsisted. The prepositional phrases for several generations are attached to the single predicate line because it modifies both verbs. Notice the diagramming of the four objects of the same preposition.
Conjunctions used in pairs are called paired conjunctions, or correlatives: both… and; either… or; neither… nor; not only… but also.
Both archaeologists and anthropologists have speculated about these people.
Neither the wheel nor the horse was known to the prehistoric Indians.
Neither and nor are correlative conjunctions and are placed between the words they connect. Notice how neither is joined to nor.
INTERJECTION An interjection is a word or form of speech that expresses strong or sudden feeling.
An interjection has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence.
Look! This Indian pipe is made in the form of a man's figure. Oh, don't touch it!
A WORD AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH to find the part of speech of a word, always ask you the question «What does the word do in the sentence?»
Verb states, asks, commands
Noun, pronoun names
Adjective, adverb modifies, clarifies
Preposition introduces, shows-relationships
Conjunction connects
Interjection exclaims
Some words may be used as a number of different parts of speech.
Noun: There's a well in Uncle George's backyard.
Verb: Tears sometimes well up in Mrs. Simpson's eyes when she talks of her dead dog.
Adjective: Don't you feel well today?
Adverb: Stir the pudding well or it will scorch.
PRACTICE 5 Recognizing Words as Different Parts of Speech
Give orally the part of speech of each italicized word.
1. Bud waited within. 2. Bud waited within the house.
3. Oil your skates. 4. Put oil on your skates.
5. I'll take those. 6. I'll take those apples.
7. Birds eat insects. 8. Birds eat insect pests.
9. We walked across the ice. 10. We walked across.
11. We'll paper the kitchen next. 12. Mother chose a green paper.
13. We must sand the icy walks. 14. We used sand from the yard.
15. Marie likes her amethyst ring. 16. Her favorite stone is an amethyst.
17. I'll take that cantaloupe. 18. That's the one.
19. The story is sad but true. 20. No one knows the truth but me.
PRACTICE 6 Using a word as Different Parts of Speech.
Write sentences in which you use each of the following word as the different parts of speech named after it. Consult a dictionary if you need help.
1. flower-adjective, noun, verb.
2. on-adverb, preposition
3. tan-adjective, noun, verb
4. beyond - adverb, preposition
5. off - adverb, preposition
6. this-adjective, pronoun
7. neither-adjective, conjunction, pronoun
8. down-adverb, noun, preposition, verb
9. round - adjective, noun, preposition, verb
10. fair - adjective, adverb, noun
Three excellent clues to part of speech are (1) position in the sentence, (2) endings, and (3) signal words.
Verbs. The verb occurs in an important position in the structure of a sentence. What you already know about English sentence structure will help you identify verbs.
The basketball player-down the court.
Where did you - the camera?
Any word you supply is a verb: ran, dribbled; leave, put.
Of course many words that can be used as verb are also used as other parts of speech - for example, fall down (verb) a sudden fall (noun). Example the entire sentence before trying to determine part of speech.
Nouns. Most nouns make a meaningful pattern with is or are at the beginning of a sentence.
Desk is friends are
Nouns often precede verbs: trees grow, student read, Jim hopes.
Of course many words that can be used as nouns are used also as other parts of speech-for example, brown thread, (noun), thread the needle (verb). A word is probable a noun if it completes a pattern like one of these:
- cannot live in polluted waters.
Near the - we found a-with a-
Adjectives: Most adjectives readily fit into three common position in the sentence: the normal, the predicate, and the appositive positions. A word is probably an adjective if it completes one of the following patterns:
Normal position Two-boys caught a-fish in the - stream.
Predicate Susan is usually -.
Appositive position: The coach, - and-, spoke proudly to his winning team.
Adverbs. Most words that fit into more than one place in a sentence are adverbs. Emphasis frequently determines placement.
Cheerfully the hostess greeted her arriving guests.
The hostess greeted her arriving guests cheerfully.
The hostess cheerfully greeted her arriving guests.
Carl lifted his hand - and moved his rook.
Or: Carl-lifted his hand and moved his rook.
Certain suffixes and other endings provide additional help in indicating part of speech. A suffix is an addition to a word that helps create a new word. It doesn`t guarantee that a word will be a certain part of speech, but it does provide a clue.
Verbs. Common verb suffixes are ate, en, fy, ize, and ish: pollinate, strengthen, magnify, realize, admonish.
Common verb endings, which may occur with the preceding suffixes, are ing, ed, d, and t: was trying, hoped, told, and slept.
Nouns. Most nouns have a plural form, usually ending in`s and a possessive form ending in`s or s`
Singular desk Singular possessive desk's
Friend friend's
Plural desks Plural possessive desks`
Friends friends`
Certain suffixes are frequently used for nouns.
- ance (ence) reliance, audience - ion action
- ation nomination - ling weakling
- craft handicraft - ment abridgment
- dom freedom - ness politeness
- ee absentee - or creditor
- er officer - ry rivalry
- ess waitress - ship friendship
- ette launderette - th length
- ics ethics - tude fortitude
Adjectives. Certain suffixes are frequently used for adjectives.
- able (ible) portable - fic terrific
- ac (ic) aquatic - ful careful
- al (ical) inimical - ile infantile
- an (ian) Bostonian - ish boyish
- ant (ent) evident - ive passive
- ary military - less careless
- ed wicked - like homelike
- en oaken - ous generous
- ern northern - some loathsome
- esque grotesque - y cheery
Adverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to an adjective: free, freely; strict, strictly; certain, certainly. (Ly, however, is not a sure sign, for many adjectives are formed by adding ly to a noun: king, kingly; time, timely. The final test of part of speech is use in a sentence.)
Common adverb suffixes are wise, ward, and long: likewise, home-ward, and sidelong. (But what part of speech is sidelong in a sidelong glance?) The suffix is no guarantee of part of speech. Always test use in the sentence.
Signal words
Certain words signal that particular parts of speech will follow.
Words That Signal Verbs. Auxiliaries like may, can, will, could signal verbs. Words like he, it, or they also signal verbs. Read the word aloud, placing he, it, or they before it, and if the expression makes sense, the word can be used as a verb.
prep. n. adj. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n. conj. v.
In 1811 the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi and inaugurated
adj. adj. n. prep. n.
a new era in navigation.
A.1. The New Orleans left an enthusiastic crowd in Pittsburgh and headed into the Ohio River.
2. The boat stopped frequently along the way and received the congratulations of settlers along the river.
3. Most people still doubted the practicality of the steamboat.
4. After a suspenseful delay the boat successfully sailed through the dangerous rapids in the river at Louisville.
5. After this success the crew endured severe earthquakes and pursuit by warlike Indians.
6. Roots, stumps, and channels shifted during the turbulent quakes.
7. A fire destroyed part of the forward cabin.
8. Despite the setbacks, the New Orleans finally reached Natchez.
B. 1. The New Orleans later foundered on a stump.
2. Other steamboats soon appeared and dominated river traffic.
3. Great expense was lavished on cabins and fittings.
4. Captains took pride in the speed of their vessels.
5. Steamboat races were officially discouraged but were unofficially encouraged.
6. Boiler explosions plagued operations from the earliest days.
7. In early years the boats were constructed without plans.
8. The famous Robert E. Lee was built by this rule-of-thumb method.
SPECIFIC NOUNS Use vigorous, specific nouns.
We surprised a bird and an animal near the pond.
2. Avoid lazy, vague, «thingy» substitutes for clear thinking.
Indefinite: in the old trunk we discovered three things.
Definite: In the old trunk we discovered a bettered canteen, a letter from a Georgia lieutenant, and a Confederate bank note.
POWERFUL VERBS Seek colorful, exact verbs.
Nouns and verbs provide the sinews of the sentence.
Freddie made a face when he tasted the cough medicine.
CONTROLLED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Use adjectives and adverbs for specific effects. Do not pile unnecessary detail upon detail by overusing these helpful words.
Ordinarily use a colorful noun (miser) instead of a weak adjective plus a general noun (greedy person). Ordinarily use a vigorous verb (scamper) instead of a weak adverb plus general verb (run hastily).
WORD FOR PHRASE Use a phrase only when the single word will add neither additional information nor desired emphasis
Ordinarily say speedily, not with great speed; the red-brick house, not the house of red brick.
PRACTICE 8 Improving sentences.
A. For each general underlined noun substitute a more specific noun.
1. For dessert we had fruit and cake.
2. In the drawer there were four things
3. At the nursery Dad bought a tree, a shrub, and a flower
4. My brother has three unusual pets.
5. During gym one squad played one game; the second squad played an other
B. Using the suggestions for improving style, make the following sentences more vigorous and concise.
1. The puppy with the brown fur walked unsteadily along the hall
2. During our vacation in Arizona we enjoyed skies of blue and days with sun.
3. Mel was not a cowardly person, but he was very much afraid of injections.
4. In Holland the shoes of wood protect against the fields of mud
5. Modern very tall buildings often look like peaks of glass.
WORD WITH DOUBLE ROLES Some words perform two jobs at the same time.
Have you ever seen my cousin's collection of seashells?
Cousin's plays a double role. It modifies collection like an adjective. It is modified by my like a noun. It performs both jobs at the same time. There are six common groups of words that play double roles.
1. The possessive noun acts like a noun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective.
My young brother's laughter is a happy sound in our house. (Brother `s modifies laughter: my and young modify brother's.).
2. The possessive pronoun acts like a pronoun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective. These are common possessive pronouns: my, our, ours, his-before a noun-her, its, and their.
The old soldiers took off their hats as the flag went by. (Their modifies hats like an adjective; it has an antecedent, soldiers, like a pronoun)
3. The adverbial noun acts like a noun and an adverb. It is a diagramed like an adverbial prepositional phrase.
4. The participle acts like a verb and an adjective.
5. The gerund acts like a verb and a noun.
6. The infinitive acts like a verb and a noun, a verb and an adjective, or a verb and an adverb.
PRACTICE 9 Studying words of Double Function.
Which words in the following sentences play a double role? Explain.
1. My dad waited two years for his present job.
2. An old dog's loyalty is a priceless gift.
3. His father worked in a manufacturing plant.
4. On a quiet Saturday Mr. Parker can match two average days' output of work.
5. Ted fell seven feet from the top of the ladder but was unhurt.
Every sentence has a back a backbone-the simple subject and the predicate verb. It may also have, as part of the backbone, a complement or completer of the verb. Five complements are the predicate adjective, the predicate noun, the predicate pronoun, the direct object, and the indirect object.
2.2 Subject Verb, Predicate Nominative

PREDICATE NOUN AND PREDICATE PRONOUN A predicate noun or predicate pronoun answer the question «Who?» or «What?» after a linking verb.
The predicate noun or predicate pronoun, except after a negative, means the same as the subject. (Predicate nouns and predicate pronouns are also called «predicate nominatives.»)
The area within five hundred miles of Kansas City is the tornado incubator of the United States. (Area=incubator)
A fishing rod is a stick with a hook at one end and a fool at the other. - Samuel Johnson (fishing rod=stick)
Four of our first five Presidents were Virginians.
Virginians, the predicate noun, answers the question «What?» after the verb and means the same as the subject. The line slants toward the subject.
Certain verbs in the passive voice become linking verbs and may take predicate nouns or predicate pronouns.
Examples: are appoint, call, choose, consider, elect, name, and vote.
The Spanish colonies have been called the head quarters for a treasure hunt.
2.3 Subject, Verb, Predicate Adjective

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE A predicate adjective completes a linking verb and describes the subject.
Predicate adjectives are frequently used after forms of the verb be, become, grow, taste, seem, appear, look, feel, smell and sound.
The Zuni Indians of the New Mexico are famous for their rain dances. Because of the Indian drums the settlers grew more and more uneasy.
The predicate adjective uneasy completes the predicate and describes the subject. The conjunction and joins the two adverbs more and more.
Not every adjective in the predicate is a predicate adjective.
Our coach is a keen student of baseball (Keen modifies the predicate noun student and is not a predicate adjective.)
ADJECTIVE POSITION Most adjectives readily fit into three common positions in the sentence.
Normal position: An English chemist provided the first funds for the Smithsonian Institution. (The italicized adjectives precede the nouns they modify.)
Predicate position: The Smithsonian Institution is unique in the diversity of its collections (the italicized adjective follows the linking verb see)
Appositive position: Its American gold-coin collection, outstanding for its completeness, fascinates many visitors.
PRACTICE 10 Using Complements in Sentences.
Put each of the following verbs into a sentence with a predicate adjective, a predicate noun, or a predicate pronoun, Label each complement p.a., p.n., or p.pr.
am и т.д.................

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