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Реферат According to the constitutions of the USA, according to the British law as well, all citizens of both sexes over 18 years of age have a right of voting. Political apathy among the youth. Participation in presidential and parliamentary elections.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 24.09.2008. Сдан: 2008. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

Essay in Cultural Studies
The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
Minsk 2008

1. Introduction 3
2. Political apathy among the youth 4
3. Participation in presidential and parliamentary elections 7
4. Conclusion 15
5. References 16

Politics is an integral part of our life. And it really doesn't matter whether you are a politician by profession or a plumber who is far from world of politics. Actually you may not be interested in politics but politics still will be interested in you. The fact is that every person above 18 years old both in our country and in Great Britain and the USA from the politician's point of view is regarded as a voter, his potential supporter. That's why the participation of all the people of the country is so essential and of great importance for politicians.
Unfortunately for them the latest public opinion polls showed political apathy among the young people. The sociologists say that the youth is simply not interested in political life of their country. The aim of my work was to find out the reasons for such apathetic attitude. Besides that I tried to compare the situation in Great Britain and the USA in order to find out whether this tendency is general for all modern young people.
While working on this topic I've analysed the results of several public opinion polls made in Britain and the USA, a lot of newspaper articles, news articles on the web-sites of BBC and CNN and the comments of the young people judging this problem.
I've found out that the situation is not so simple and not so definite as it seemed to me in the very beginning.
Political apathy among the youth

During the election campaign politicians mobilize all their forces and possibilities. They are really fighting for voters. According to the constitutions of the USA, according to the British law as well, all citizens of both sexes over 18 years of age have a right of voting. But in reality not all the people exercise this lawful right. The surveys show that the major part of those who don't vote is the people from 18 to 25. That's why it's so important for politicians to provoke interest to politics among the youth.
The recent research confirms political apathy or a sense of political alienation among the young, it says that they are not interested in politics, don't want to participate in political life and don't bother about any political problems of their country. To modern youths, politics and statesmanship are things best left to the generation ahead or behind, or to professional politicians and the newspapers.
Conventional media wisdom insists young people are simply not interested in politics. Popular images of youth -- causing mayhem, lacking discipline, escaping responsibilities -- suggest young people are far too busy to engage with politics.
One of the surveys analyzed the major interests and leisure activities of today's American youth. [1] These are the results:
99%: Television
98% Music
89% Computers
4%: Politics
Taking into consideration these facts we can't but agree that the youth don't treat politics seriously. The lack of interest is rather obvious, but it's not as simple as it seems to be. The "apathetic youth of today" headlines are a dominant media frame used to explain widespread political disengagement and declining levels of voting.
Tony Breslin, head of the Citizenship Foundation which promotes participation in British life, tried to comment on these results. He has a different point of view than the above mentioned. He said the survey dealt with one of the most frequent false assumptions about the young - that they don't care.
"We take this lack of interest in politics as a lack of interest in society," said Mr Breslin.
"But what we tend to find is that young people lack an interest in a group of political institutions because they can't see their relevance.
"Research shows there's a real deficit in knowledge among the young of the political system - but there's a real interest in single issues. This doesn't always work through to traditional political channels." [1]
Mr Breslin said government ambitions to reconnect youth to institutions needed far more than the lip service of the past - but the recent introduction of citizenship to the national curriculum was a good start.
You have to understand the system to be able to understand the news in the first place. A person can find out a fair amount from what his parents, but what about the people whose parents don't understand it, because their parents didn't either?
The Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme has published the results of its nationwide survey of youth opinion to help find out what our future adults do, say, think and want.
The results suggest there is a level of frustration among many of the young and a degree of fear for their own security in a world where all too often they are the ones blamed when things go wrong.
One of the major themes emerging from the research is frustration with political institutions and authorities.
More than half recognised the way the country runs affects the quality of their lives - but 68% believed the government does not listen to young people.
Three quarters said it was difficult to make their views known.
Only half of those in the survey said they understood how the country is run, the figure falling further among those from poorer backgrounds.
“You have to understand the system to be able to understand the news in the first place. Perhaps a regular article or a tutorial-like website with 'beginners politics' is what we need?” (Helen Hogg, 17, England) [1]
"What we see among young people is that if they get involved locally in an issue and if they are listened to and share in taking decisions, then that sense of involvement grows from the local to the national," said Steve Sharp.
"But we have to remember that the government can't tell people to be more interested in politics, it doesn't work that way." [1]
Participation in presidential and parliamentary elections

If we want to find out the rate of activity of people in political life of a country we can look at the number of voters who take part in parliamentary and presidential elections. It will be the right indicator of activity.
According to the British Election Survey, only 52% of the under 24s voted at the 2001 General Election - some 2.2m people. [1] That came a year after research warned the televising of Parliament was turning off an entire generation of new voters.
In 2006 in the USA, 650 people aged 18-30 were surveyed. 80 percent said they were registered to vote, but the pollsters think some of them were lying. Mr. Goeas, a consultant with the Republican Tarrance Group predicted that only 35 percent of those surveyed would actually vote. Almost a quarter of the respondents have little to no interest in the election, and a gender gap is evident, with men generally expressing greater interest than women. [6]
Well, the figures speak by themselves.
Another indicator of political activity is the attitude of a person to political parties, whether he attaches himself to any party or not and why.
There was a public opinion poll made in the Manchester and London area the aim of which was to find out how the young people felt about party politics. These are some of the comments:
“To be honest I'm not too bothered. I don't keep up with developments at Westminster [the site of UK government]. These days my job, my cash flow and socialising are more important!”(Tom, 28, from Manchester)
“I can't relate to any of the politicians. They all seem fairly similar and rarely listen to young people.” (Fiona, 25, from London) [6]
Of course these two comments can't represent the opinion of all the youth, but unfortunately they represent the opinion of the majority of both British and American youth.
“Young people today aren't interested in politics because we think it doesn't affect us. In my opinion politicians don't ask our views on issues or consider our futures.” (Kate, 17, UK) [2]
“Young people lack an interest in a group of political institutions because they can't see their relevance” (Joseph, 20, UK) [1]
Of course it's true that many young people take no notice of the government or the countrys' leaders, but I'd say that some find it thought provoking and genuinely fascinating.
Well, in my opinion the above situation envisages us the problem of lack of information. The majority of the young people have no idea how they can make their suggestion and problems be heard. Though there is a solution and some of the young people participate actively in resolving some very topical for youth questions. For example, in the Midlands there are loads of things that can help involve young people in politics and help them voice their concerns. The Young People's Parliament, based at Millennium Point aims to get young people involved in politics. It provides a meeting place where young people can discuss issues, which affect the youth of Birmingham.
The YPP also works to bring more people into politics through projects such as the Spirit of Birmingham II. This is a project aimed to give school children the chance to debate ethical issues.
The YPP organises national and international events to allow young people the chance to get involved in politics. Also new technology has enabled the YPP to join a `global voice' for young people from all over the world. This means that young people here in the Midlands can campaign along side people from all over the world.
This scheme has meant the young peoples concerns over homelessness, drugs, bullying, transport and leisure can be discussed with politicians or other decision makers. There is also the United Kingdoms Youth Parliament (UKYP), which involves young people in politics.
The UKYP's elections have just taken place to choose five Members of the Youth Parliament (MYPs) to represent Birmingham. The MYP's will now meet with young people to find out their concerns before discussing with campaigns they will be working on.
Once they have decided on this they have to produce a manifesto, which will be presented to the regional MYP's. After this a national manifesto is produced which is presented to the Houses of Parliament.
This really involves young people in politics and it does mean that politicians take our views seriously and listen to us. Last year's national manifesto received a 32 page response from parliament.
Unfortunately these programmes are not openly advertised which does prevent some people getting involved. Politicians aim everything at the older generation; even things that matter to young people are not discussed with them. [2]
There is also the British Youth Council (BYC) which is led by young people for young people, aged 26 and under, across the UK. This year BYC is celebrating 60 years of empowering young people to have a say and be heard.
The majority of studies suggest that the young people are just not interested in politics but a closer study is more revealing. If we look more attentively we'll notice that the youth is not as disinterested as the media says.
The point is that for many young people politics is not about Westminster. Issues like the US-UK led Iraq war have sparked debate and action in recent years. In 2003 over a million people marched through London, many of them young and passionate.
Of course technology played a huge role in organising this protest on a global scale. It has become a factor in providing many young people across the world with a chance to interact and discuss without the и т.д.................

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