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Реферат Biography of Pylyp Orlyk. Pacts and the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Army Zaporozhye, or so-called Pylyp Orlyk's Constitution. Many interesting and progressive ideas in the constitution. Original legal platform Mazepas movements.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: История. Добавлен: 26.09.2014. Сдан: 2010. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):

Department of History of Ukraine
“Pylyp Orlyk and his Constitution"
first-year student
group № 2
Vasyl Palyadnik
Scientific Advisor
associate professor Isakova N. P.

Kyiv - 2009
    I. Biography
      II. Family
      III. Constitution

I. Biography

Pylyp Orlyk was born in the village of Kosuta, Ashmyany county, (Vileyka district of modern day Belarus), in a family of Czech origin. [1]

Orlyk first studied at the Jesuit college in Vilnius and until 1694 at Kyiv Mohyla Academy. In 1698 he was appointed secretary of the consistory of Kyiv metropolia. In 1699 he became a senior member of Hetman Ivan Mazepa's General Military Chancellery and 1706 was appointed general chancellor and at that position he was Mazepa's closest aide to, facilitated Mazepa's secret correspondence with the Poles and Swedes, and assisted Mazepa in his efforts to form an anti-Russian coalition.

II. Family

Pylyp Orlyk married Hanna Hertsyk in the mid 1690s. She was a daughter of the colonel Pavlo Semenovych Hertsyk (a close ally of Mazepa) of the Poltava regiment. Pylyp and Hanna had eight children. They were: [5] [6]

Anastasiya. In 1723 she married the Swedish nobleman and officer Johan Stenflycht (1681-1758). They had two sons: Carl Gustaf (b.1724) who served as a captain in the French regiment Royal Pologne and Filip (b.1726) who died as a child. Anastasiya died in 1728.

Hryhor. He was born in 1702 in Baturyn, Ukraine. His godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa. He studied at Lund University 1717-1718. After leaving Sweden in 1720 he first lived with his mother in Krakуw, Poland. He later became a Lieutenant General in France where he called himself comte d'Orlik. Although he kept the contact with Sweden and in 1742 he also visited Stockholm. In 1747 he married a French noblemwoman, but they didn't have any children. He was killed in 1759 at the Battle of Minden in Germany where he also is buried.

Mykhailo. He was born in 1704 in Baturyn, Ukraine. His godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa.

Varvara. She was born in Baturyn, Ukraine. Her godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa.

Yakiv. He was born 1711 in Bender, Ottoman Empire. His godfather was king Charles XII of Sweden.

Marta. She was born 1713 in Bender, Ottoman Empire. Her godfather was king Stanisіaw Leszczyсski of Poland.

Maryna. She was born 1715 in Altefьhr, Rьgen, Swedish Pomerania. Her godmother was king Charles XII's sister Ulrika Eleonora and king Stanisіaw Leszczyсski of Poland.

Kateryna. She was born on November 5, 1718 in Kristianstad, Skеne, Sweden and probably died already in 1719.

III. Constitution

After Mazepa's death when a question of a choice of the new hetman in contrast to Ivan Skoropadsky, put in Ukraine by Peter the I, the choice had fallen to P. Orlyk, which have selected the hetman on April, 5th, 1710. In a day of elections the state Constitution, which was called a "Pacts and the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Zaporizhyan Army" has been proclaimed. Being till the end of a life in emigration, Phillip Orlik has concluded allied contracts with Sweden (1710), the Crimean khan (1711, 1712), entered negotiations with Turkey, trying to incline these countries to war with the Moscow state for the purpose of clearing of Ukraine. In 1711 together with koshevy Konstantin Gordienko has carried out a military campaign of Zaporozhians and allied Tatar armies to Right-bank Ukraine, has received White Church, has reached to Fastivbut through change of Tatars has receded to Bendery. In the summer of 1711 Turks, Tatars together with a Polish-Ukrainian army have inflicted defeat of the Russian army over the Prut. Since 1914 after Orlyk has not realised the plans of clearing of Ukraine, he together with Gertsyk, Voynarovsky and Mirovich moves to Sweden, in 1720 - to Austria, later - to Czechia. Since 1722 to 1734 he lives in Greece in the city of Saloniki. In 1740 war between Turkey and Russia to which Phillip Orlik assigns to hope has begun. But after the conclusion between both countries of Bilogorodsky peace his hopes were not justified. Phillip Orlik has died in May, 24th, 1742 in Jassy, Moldova.

Pylyp Orlyk, high-level educated, with thin national-political mind, the ardent both conscious patriot and the fighter for independent Ukraine, was allocated in the then environment Ukrainian Cossack starshyny. Even historians XIX century, in particular Nightingales, Kluchevsky, and Kostomarov, despite an uncooperative altitude to the Ukrainian emancipating ideas, should notice its sincerity and cleanliness of gaugings. Orlyk represented entirely new type of the patriot and the intellectual which in improbably heavy conditions of emigration did not leave thought on restoration of independence of the Ukrainian state. The most active conductor of the Mazepa's ideas, he has devoted the whole life to creation of the West European coalition which would help to release Ukraine. The exile, the hetman-emigrant, with small group of adherents - A. Vojnarovskim, colonel D. Gorlenkom, the general clerk І. Мaxymavych, general judge K. Dolgopolym, general osaulamy G. Gertsikom and F. Mirovichem - did a mad attempts to persuade the government of Sweden, Germany, Poland, France, Turkey on the general struggle against the tsar. He tried to take advantage of any possibility to interest the European states in the decision of destiny of Ukraine. Anybody is more for Pylyp Orlyk has not made at that time if only the Ukrainian question became a particle of the all-European policy of first half ХVIII century.

"Pacts and the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Army Zaporozhye", or so-called "Pylyp Orlyk's Constitution" which it has been proclaimed in day of its elections by the hetman, is the unique document which researchers not unreasonably name one of the first-ever democratic constitutions. Its main idea - full independence of Ukraine of Poland and Russia, and border with Poland were defined on the river Sluch, as for B. Khmelnitskiy. Except definition of territory of the Ukrainian state, this document defined the rights of all levels of population of Ukraine, independent position Zaporozhye from Poland and Russia. The hetman was appointed the head of the state, near to it should operate General syarshyna which limited to a certain measure the power of the hetman and regulated its relations with the people. Except the foreman to Rada representatives from each regiment should enter. The state treasure separated from hetman, strictly certain separate earths and means were allocated for deduction of the hetman. Colonels and сотники should be selected democratic - free voices of Cossacks or hundreds. The hetman was obliged to watch fair distribution and collecting of the state taxes which were paid Cossack sub-assistents, peasants, petty bourgeoises, merchant class.

The constitution of Ukraine on its acceptance recognised at once the governments of Sweden and Turkey. It and amazes today with the urgency and high legal level. Scientists and politicians nowadays not without the bases consider, that, having embodied ideas of its inspirer, hetman Ivan Mazepa, it as the state certificate of a republican direction for 80 years has outstripped ideas of the French revolution.

After Orlyk's death there was a literary inheritance in the form of correspondence, versatile persons, speeches, panegyrics and "Діаріуша the traveller", that is a diary. They testify, that Phillip Orlik was rather educated person and had uncommon publicistic abilities. Almost its writing differs extreme artistry, baroque eloquence, free possession in several languages, the frequent reference to historical examples and mythology. Such, for example, his letters to Charles XII, запорожцев and hetman Ivan Skoropadskogo in which it describes misadventures of the people during the Tatar attacks.

Its corres и т.д.................

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