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Реферат Family and the childhood of A. Ahmatova, her first steps in the poetry and the association of the poets-akmeist, marriage by N. Gumilev. The world of poetry Ahmatovoi - the world tragical, feeling of the native land, a pain about the native land.


Тип работы: Реферат. Предмет: Литература. Добавлен: 28.03.2009. Сдан: 2009. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: --.

Описание (план):


The Russian literature of 20 centuries developed roughly and is inconsistent. The Russian literature of 20 centuries is not only preservation and development of traditions of writers and poets of 19 centuries, it and the innovative approach to creation of new themes, images.
20 centuries in history of Russian poetry were unique time. At that time bright young poets at once have come to the literature many, talented and searching for new ways. The hobby for poetry was mass - approximately as now go on rock concerts. The poet, having got popularity, becomes a figure cult. It was meant, what exactly to it the God allowed to understand True - and to explain to its other. Each of poets felt itself as a few prophet, on it huge responsibility laid - to choose is unique a true way and to specify to its other.
Large poets united in groups on interests, then to them the set of imitators adjoined. Symbolists, acmeists, futurists, ishamanists - each of these currents found the ardent adherents and admirers and not less furious enemies.
In the beginning of 20 centuries there were many reprisals, many left in emigration. But the Russian literature of 20 centuries developed prompt rates. The contribution to development of the Russian literature have brought: Ivan Alekseevich Bunin, Anna Andreevna Ahmatova, Maxim Gorky, Vladimir Vladimirovich Majakovsky and others.
Now the most actual is the problem of theoretical judgement of the most complicated phenomenon, as the Russian literature of 20 centuries. In the abstract I have considered Anna Andreevny Ahmatovoj's poetry.
Terrestrial drink is too sweet,
Love networks are too dense.
Let sometime my name
Children will read in the textbook.
A.Ahmatova 1913г.
The future poetess was born on June, 23rd 1889 in suburb of Odessa the Big Fountain in a family of the retired engineer-captain of 2nd rank of Andrey Antonovicha Gorenko and Inna Erazmovny. In a family was six children. Great-grandmother Anna on a parent line conducted a sort from Tatar khan Ahmata; therefore the young writer in the further a beret to itself a surname of the great-grandmother as a pseudonym. On a parent line, obviously, has passed also literary gift: known poetess Anna Bunin (1794-1829) was the aunt of the mum's father.
In a year after Anna's birth the family moves to Tsarskoe Selo where it grew till sixteen years, every summer, spending under Sevastopol. Children's summer memoirs became a basis for its first poem «At the sea» in 1914, and motives of Imperial village and Pushkin were a creative basis, and frequently and a support throughout all life.
First poem Ahmatova has written, when to it was eleven years, and all in maidenly years has created them about two hundred. She studied in the Tsarskoselsky Mariinsky female grammar school: «I Studied at first badly, then much better, but always reluctantly». In Tsarskoe Selo in Christmas Eve 1903 Any Gorenko has got acquainted with grammar-school boy Nikolay Gumilev, and became the constant addressee of its poems.
After divorce of parents in 1905 Ahmatova together with mother moves to Evpatoria, and later to Kiev. A gymnasia course it passed in-home as it was threatened with a tuberculosis, but last class has ended in the Fundukleevsky grammar school in Kiev then has arrived on legal branch of the Kiev higher female courses.
At this time she corresponded with Gumilev who have left to Paris. In 1907 in Paris, in magazine "Sirius" published by Gumilev the poetess has published the first poem «On its hand many brilliant rings» under the initials «And. Г». Itself Ahmatova recollected it so: «To me therefore has occurred to take to itself a pseudonym, that the daddy, having learnt about my verses, has told:« do not shame my name "." And it is not necessary to me of your name! »- I have told...»
In the spring of 1910 after several refusals Ahmatova has agreed to become wife N.S.Gumileva. Spouses have got married on April, 25th in village church Nikolsky slobodka near Kiev. The honeymoon has passed in Paris where the poetess has got acquainted with artist Amadeo Modigliani who has embodied its shape in a pencil portrait. Leaving Paris, Ahmatova threw in a window of its workshop farewell red flowers.
In the autumn 1910 Ahmatova does attempt to be printed independently and sends verses to «Russian thought» to V.J. Bryusov, asking, whether it is necessary to it to be engaged in poetry. Having received a negative response, the young poetess gives verses to magazines "Gaudeamus", «General magazine», "Apollo" which publish them. At this time it also becomes Ahmatovoi, publishing under this pseudonym a poem «the Old portrait». Its debut with the verses has the same year taken place, and it has met with for the first time from the husband approval of the creativity. The next year Ahmatova has arrived on the Petersburg Female historico-literary courses.
Left in the spring of 1912 the first collection of verses "Evening", despite modest circulation in three hundred copies, has brought Ahmatovoi instant glory. The collection has been let out by "Shop of poets» - association of the poets-akmeistov which secretary have selected Ahmatova.
October, first, 1912 at a couple the son the Lion, the future historian and the geographer, the author of the ethnologic theory is born. The same year Ahmatova gets acquainted with Majakovsky. The poet of which is considered to be most "loud-voiced" in the Russian poetry, enthusiastically responded about the personal lyrics of the poetess: «Verses Ahmatovoi monolitn also will sustain pressure of any voice, not having cracked».
In 1913 on the Higher female Bestuzhevsky courses Ahmatova reads the verses before a populous audience right after performances of the Block already using glory of the known poet: «To us has approached курсистка with the list and has told, that my performance after blokovskogo. I have begged: « Alexander Aleksandrovich, I cannot read after you ». It - reproachfully - in the answer: « Anna Andreevna, we not the tenor ». Performance was shining. Popularity Ahmatovoi becomes dizzy. From it drew portraits, and poetic dedication to it A. Bloka, N. Gumilev, O. Mandelshtama, M. Lozinsky, V. Shilejko, N. Nedobrovo, V. Pjasta, B. Sadovsky and others have made in 1925 the anthology «the Image Ahmatovoi».
Despite popularity, Ahmatova cannot still believe, that its talent is recognised. July, seventeenth, 1914 she writes to the husband: «With bad feeling I wait July« Russian thought ». Most likely, there will make it is necessary me terrible execution Valery» (Valery Bruces meant). But the collection "are accurate" of 1914 brings Ahmatovoi the All-Russia glory and confirms in the literature concept «ahmatovskoi lines».
Gradually its relations with the husband come to naught. Ahmatova still lives at it in Imperial village, for the summer leaving in Gumilevyh Slepnevo's manor in the Tver province (later «the Tver poor earth» will receive reflexion in its creativity). In the autumn of 1914 Nikolay Gumilev leaves on front the volunteer. Anna Andreevna is treated at this time for a tuberculosis in Finland, later in Sevastopol. After divorce with Gumilev in 1918 Ahmatova marries for assiriologa and poet V.K. Shilejko.
During illness on the foreground there is an interest of the poetess to the Russian classics. Pushkin became one of sources of creative pleasure and inspiration for Ahmatovoi. To it belong literary articles - the analysis of its products, and also researches of its biography. In two decades, in days of hushing up of its creativity, Pushkin again becomes a spiritual and material support for . In September, 1917 there is a collection «White flight». According to the critic. M. Ejhenbauma, it is penetrated «by sensation of private life as lives national, historical», that well transferred mood of an epoch and the relation of the poetess to the present: she has not left the native land, feeling responsibility for its destiny.
1921 has passed a heavy gait on a life of the poetess. In February it presides over evening of memory of Pushkin where the Block with speech «About a high aspiration of a poet» acts and on which there is N.S. Gumilev. At night from the third Gumilev for August, fourth arrest, three days the Block later dies, in two weeks Gumilev shoot. Then leaves Ahmatova with Shileiko. In a counterbalance of tragedy of private life which it then still will mourn in "Requiem", this year the poetess lets out two collections, "Plantain" (in April, even before tragical events) and «Anno Domini» - in October; in October it comes back to the vigorous activity, participates in literary evenings, in work of the literary organisations, is published in the periodical press. In January 1922 Ahmatova gets acquainted with Pasternak, hardly later - with Bulgakov.
In the twentieth years there are two books about Ahmatovoi, behind V. Vinogradova and B. Ejhenbauma's authorship. The second book could play a fatal role in destiny of the poetess. The literary encyclopaedia of these years has given description Ahmatovoi in its own lines taken out of context: «not that the nun, not that the loose woman», - taken together with the deformed analysis from book Eihenbaum. In 1924 new verses Ahmatovoi are published last time before a break. It exclude from the Union of writers. New flash of a tuberculosis has resulted it in sanatorium of Tsarskoe Selo where it is treated together with wife Mandelshtama.
In the end of 1922 for one and a half decades Ahmatova links the life with critic N.N. Puninym. Having moved in 1926 in a garden wing of the Sheremetevsky palace - the Gushing House, it continues to happen in the Marble palace at Shileiko, caring about it and about its Pouninem. In the same apartment of the Gushing House together with P continued to live and its first wife Anna Arens with their small daughter Ирой. When Arens left for work, Ahmatova looked after the child. Atmosphere in the house was strained. These years Ahmatova helped Punin with its work in Academy of arts, translating aloud proceedings from French, English and Italian. Thanks to it Ahmatovoi it is possible to achieve that to the Lion, the son shot «the enemy of the people», have allowed to continue education in a grammar school, and then at university.
Not having possibility to print the verses, Ahmatova lost means of subsistence. Rubens's published in 1937 the translation of letters, has brought to it the earnings first for many years. At an abject poverty the main line of Ahmatovsky shape wonderfully remained: carstvennost, deprived of arrogance, but full of advantage. L.K. Chukovsky recollected: «Has come - in an old coat, in the faded flattened out hat, in rough stockings. Statnay, fine, as always». Remained both character, and desire to help people. So, in the late thirties in the neighbourhood with Ahmatovoi a vein the young woman with two little boys. In the afternoon when it was on work, Ahmatova looked after children.
In 1935 have been arrested son Ahmatovoj the Lion Gumilev and Punin, and shortly before they be its good friend poet Mandelshtam. After written reference Ahmatovoi to Stalin the son and Punina have released, but in 1938 of the Lion have again arrested and have sentenced to execution. Only the subsequent repressirovanie executioners has rescued it from sentence execution. Experiences of these painful years have made a cycle "Requiem" which Ahmatova two decades did not dare to write down. Verses were remembered fragments by friends and relatives. Chukovsky recollects, how Ahmatova in the Gushing house, silently having specified to eyes on a ceiling and walls and loudly speaking about trifles, wrote it on leaves new verses from "Requiem" and at once burnt them over an ashtray.
In 1939 after Stalin's semiinterested remark dare to publish its collection «From six books», acceptable selection including along with the past by old verses and new compositions. Pasternak wrote Ahmatovoi, once again laying in hospital, that turns behind its book were stretched on two streets. Soon the book has got under an interdiction and has been withdrawn from libraries.
To the first months и т.д.................

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