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Курсовик Роль заимствований в пополнении словарного состава английского языка.

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Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 16.04.2012. Сдан: 2011. Страниц: 36. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

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Содержание:
Введение…………………………………………………………………………3
Глава 1. Заимствования в английском языке
1.1 Причины и источники заимствования слов в английском языке………..5
1.2 Влияние латинского и французского языков на словарный состав английского языка…………………………………………..…………...11
Глава 2. Этимологический анализ произведения У.Теккерея «Ярмарка Тщеславия»……………………………………………………………………21
Заключение……………………………………………………………….…..24
Список литературы……………………………………………………….…25
Приложение……………………………………………………………….…26


Введение
Заимствованная лексика есть во всех языках. В некоторых языках процент заимствования невелик, в других языках, как, например, в английском, заимствованные слова составляют большую часть словарного состава языка. Процесс заимствования лексики непрерывный и постоянный. В язык постоянно приходит что-то новое, исчезает ненужное, лишнее. Проблему заимствований изучали многие ученые. Раньше подход к теме был односторонним и формальным. Исследователей интересовали в основном источники и даты заимствования. При всей необходимости этих данных, ограничиваться ими было нельзя. Сейчас ученых интересует не только откуда пришло заимствованное слово, но и как оно ассимилировалось в языке, как подчинилось его грамматическому строю и фонетическим нормам, как изменило свое значение и какие изменения вызвало его появление в словарном составе принявшего его языка. Собственно говоря, на необходимость именно такого подхода к заимствованиям отдельные русские ученые указывали уже давно. В частности, крупнейший русский лингвист XIX века А. А. Потебня считал, что спрашивать нужно не что от кого заимствовано, а нужно спрашивать о том, что прибавлено, что создано в результате этого заимствования. Но эта точка зрения не получила распространения в свое время и не нашла отклика. Проблемой заимствования слов в английском языке занимались В.Д.Аракин, Б.А. Ильиш, А.И.Смирницкий и другие авторы. Они рассмотрели заимствования с различных точек зрения и предложили их различные классификации: по источнику заимствования, по тому, какой аспект слова заимствован, по степени ассимиляции, по способу заимствования). Некоторые ученые преувеличивают роль заимствований в развитии английского языка. Несмотря на то, что заимствования, несомненно, оказали значительное влияние на язык, в английском языке много исконных слов, среди которых самые употребительные предлоги, союзы, вспомогательные глаголы, почти все местоимения, числительные.
В данной курсовой работе мы рассмотрим важнейшие источники, исторические причины, условия и пути проникновения заимствований в английский язык, а также то, как повлияли французский и латинский языки на словарный состав английского языка. В практической части работы проведем этимологический анализ произведения «Ярмарка Тщеславия» английского писателя У. Теккерея.


Глава 1. Заимствования в английском языке
1.1 Причины и источники заимствований слов в английском языке
Все слова с этимологической точки зрения подразделяются на исконные и заимствованные. Как известно, заимствованная лексика - это слова, пришедшие в язык из других языков на разных этапах его развития.
То или иное влияние одного языка на другой всегда объясняется историческими причинами: войны, завоевания, путешествие, освоения новых земель, торговля – все эти события приводят к более или менее тесному взаимодействию различных языков. Количество новых слов, приходящих в язык в разные периоды различно. Число заимствованных слов то увеличивается, то уменьшается. Это зависит от конкретных исторических условий. Степень влияния одного языка на другой зависит в значительной мере от языкового фактора, а именно от степени близости взаимодействующих языков, то есть от того являются ли эти языки родственными или нет.
В большинстве случаев заимствованные слова попадают в язык как средство называния новых вещей и выражение ранее неизвестных понятий. Также заимствованные слова могут использоваться для вторичного наименования уже известных предметов и явлений. Это происходит в том случае, если заимствованное слово используется для несколько иной характеристики предмета, если оно является общепринятым интернациональным термином или если иностранные слова насильственно внедряются в язык, например при военной оккупации.
Заимствования в разных языках по-разному влияли на обогащение словарного состава. В некоторых языках они не оказали значительного влияния. В других языках заимствования в разные исторические эпохи значительно отразились на словарном составе языка, что даже служебные слова, как, например, местоимения, предлоги, заимствованные из других языков, вытесняли служебные слова. Так, например, в английском языке заимствования сильно повлияли на словарный состав языка. В нем процент заимствований значительно выше, чем во многих других языках. Примерно 70% словарного состава английского языка составляют заимствованные слова и только 30% - исконные слова.
В развитии словарного состава английского языка большую роль сыграли заимствования из французского, латинского и скандинавского языков.
Влияние скандинавских языков связано с завоеванием Англии скандинавами в течении IX-XI веков. Заимствования из скандинавских языков представляли собой обычные повседневные, широко употребительные слова, связанные с понятиями, уже имевшими в английском языке синонимическое выражение. Это означает, что те или иные слова проникали из скандинавских говоров в английские не из-за того, что они были связаны с какими-либо новыми понятиями для англичан, а из-за того, что в процессе регулярного общения между англичанами и скандинавами данные слова оказывались более удобными для адекватного выражения мыслей. Вот некоторые примеры таких слов: they, no, from, whole, low, fellow, husband, ill, happy, ugly.
Первые французские заимствования появились в английском языке еще до нормандского завоевания, однако в наибольшей степени французское влияние на английскую лексику сказывается в XIV веке, о чем упоминается в книге Аракина В.Д. «Очерки по истории английского языка». Французские слова заимствовались для наименования новых предметов и явлений, и происходило это в основном среди высших слоев общества. Среди этих слов встречаются слова, обозначающие феодальные титулы; слова из сфер государственного управления, юстиции, судопроизводства, военного дела, жизни и быта феодального двора; слова, относящиеся к музыке, литературе, изобразительному искусству; слова из области городских ремесел; слова, связанные с религией. Вот некоторые из них: emperor, baron, duke, government, court, battle, leisure, beef, mutton, tailor, religion, charity, prayer, saint…
В словарном составе английского языка имеется значительное количество слов, заимствованных из немецкого языка. Вместе с тем, собственно немецких словарных единиц, вошедших в состав английской лексики, не так уж много. Это объясняется тем, что большое количество слов, заимствованных из немецкого языка, являются образованьями от латинских и греческих корней. К заимствованиям из немецкого языка, в первую очередь относятся слова, выражающие понятия общественно-политического и философского характера. Первые заимствования из немецкого языка относятся к 16 веку. В этот период были заимствованы слова, относящиеся к торговле, военному делу. Например halt (стой), junker (юнкер). В 17 веке заимствуются термины горнорудной промышленности (zinc, nickel, wolfram), которая активно развивается в то время. В XVII веке появились новые заимствования из области торговли и военного дела. Например, groschen (гроши); drillinq (тренировка); plunder (грабеж); staff (штаб); fieldmarshal (фельдмаршал) и другие. В XIX веке сфера заимствований значительно расширяется. Появляется ряд заимствований из области гуманитарных наук, общественной жизни и политики. Заимствуется много терминов из области химии и физики, филологии и искусства. Многие из этих заимствований представляют собой кальку или являются интернациональными словами. ...............


Заключение:
Рассмотрев исторические причины, источники и пути проникновения заимствований, можно сказать, что заимствования значительно повлияли на словарный состав английского языка. Он пополнился большим количеством слов, заимствованных из других языков. Лингвисты, занимающиеся изучением проблем заимствований, утверждают, что около 70% слов в английском языке относятся к заимствованной лексике. Проведя этимологический анализ отрывка из произведения У. Теккерея «Ярмарка Тщеславия» мы убедились в этом. На английский язык оказали влияние многие языки, но особую роль сыграли латинский и французский. Из этих языков было заимствованно большое количество слов на протяжении практически всей истории развития английского языка. Исследуя отрывок, мы подсчитали, что в нем больше всего французских и латинских заимствований. Заимствования эти описывают различные сферы жизнедеятельности человека: моду, религию, быт, а также человеческие отношения и эмоции. Наличие в современном английском языке такого большого количества французских и латинских заимствований объясняет ту большую роль, которую они сыграли в обогащении словарного состава и в становлении лексических норм английского языка.


Список литературы:
1) Шевченко В.Д. Основы теории английского языка: Учебное пособие. - Самара: СамГАПС, 2004. - 72 с.

2) Смирницкий А.И. Лексикология английского языка.— М., 1949.
3) Аракин В.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка.- М.,Просвещение, 1955.-348 с.
4) Аракин В.Д. История английского языка.- М.,Высшая школа, 1968.- 42с.
5) Хлебникова И.Б. Введение в германскую филологию и историю английского языка. – М., ЧеРо, 2001.- 162c.
6) Маковский М.М. “Английская этимология”, М., Высшая школа, 1986
7) Заботкина В.И. “Новая лексика современного английского языка”, М., Высшая школа,1989
8) Ивашева В. И. Теккерей- гуманист и сатирик. М., Худож.лит., 1974.- 740 с.
9) Хауген.Э. Процесс заимствования. Новое в лингвистике. М.Прогресс, 1985. – 359с.
10) Богословский В.Н., Дмитриев А.С., Соловьева Н.А. История зарубежной литературы. Учебник для филолог.спец.вузов.-М.,1991.-637 с.
11) Арнольд И.В. Основы научных исследований в лингвистике. Учебное пособие. - М.,1991.-140 с.
12) Медведев Я. История английского языка. – М.,1999 – 345с.
13) Сапелкин А. Языки мира. – М.,1999. – 564 с.
14) Иванова И.А. Этимология английских слов. – М.,2000. – 268 с.
15) Секирин В.П. Заимствования в английском языке. – М.,1999 – 342 с.


Приложение.
BEFORE THE CURTAIN
As the manager of the Performance sits before the curtain on the boards and looks into the Fair, a feeling of profound melancholy comes over him in his survey of the bustling place. There is a great quantity of eating and drinking, making love and jilting, laughing and the contrary, smoking, cheating, fighting, dancing and fiddling; there are bullies pushing about, bucks ogling the women, knaves picking pockets, policemen on the look-out, quacks (OTHER quacks, plague take them!) bawling in front of their booths, and yokels looking up at the tinselled dancers and poor old rouged tumblers, while the light-fingered folk are operating upon their pockets behind. Yes, this is VANITY FAIR; not a moral place certainly; nor a merry one, though very noisy. Look at the faces of the actors and buffoons when they come off from their business; and Tom Fool washing the paint off his cheeks before he sits down to dinner with his wife and the little Jack Puddings behind the canvas. The curtain will be up presently, and he will be turning over head and heels, and crying, "How are you?"
A man with a reflective turn of mind, walking through an exhibition of this sort, will not be oppressed, I take it, by his own or other peoples hilarity. An episode of humour or kindness touches and amuses him here and there--a pretty child looking at a gingerbread stall; a pretty girl blushing whilst her lover talks to her and chooses her fairing; poor Tom Fool, yonder behind the waggon, mumbling his bone with the honest family which lives by his tumbling; but the general impression is one more melancholy than mirthful. When you come home you sit down in a sober, contemplative, not uncharitable frame of mind, and apply yourself to your books or your business.
I have no other moral than this to tag to the present story of "Vanity Fair." Some people consider Fairs immoral altogether, and eschew such, with their servants and families: very likely they are right. But persons who think otherwise, and are of a lazy, or a benevolent, or a sarcastic mood, may perhaps like to step in for half an hour, and look at the performances. There are scenes of all sorts; some dreadful combats, some grand and lofty horse-riding, some scenes of high life, and some of very middling indeed; some love-making for the sentimental, and some light comic business; the whole accompanied by appropriate scenery and brilliantly illuminated with the Authors own candles.

What more has the Manager of the Performance to say? To acknowledge the kindness with which it has been received in all the principal towns of England through which the Show has passed, and where it has been most favourably noticed by the respected conductors of the public Press, and by the Nobility and Gentry. He is proud to think that his Puppets have given satisfaction to the very best company in this empire. The famous little Becky Puppet has been pronounced to be uncommonly flexible in the joints, and lively on the wire; the Amelia Doll, though it has had a smaller circle of admirers, has yet been carved and dressed with the greatest care by the artist; the Dobbin Figure, though apparently clumsy, yet dances in a very amusing and natural manner; the Little Boys Dance has been liked by some; and please to remark the richly dressed figure of the Wicked Nobleman, on which no expense has been spared, and which Old Nick will fetch away at the end of this singular performance.
And with this, and a profound bow to his patrons, the Manager retires, and the curtain rises.

LONDON, June 28, 1848
Chapter 1
Chiswick Mall
While the present century was in its teens, and on one sunshiny morning in June, there drove up to the great iron gate of Miss Pinkertons academy for young ladies, on Chiswick Mall, a large family coach, with two fat horses in blazing harness, driven by a fat coachman in a three-cornered hat and wig, at the rate of four miles an hour. A black servant, who reposed on the box beside the fat coachman, uncurled his bandy legs as soon as the equipage drew up opposite Miss Pinkertons shining brass plate, and as he pulled the bell at least a score of young heads were seen peering out of the narrow windows of the stately old brick house. Nay, the acute observer might have recognized the little red nose of good-natured Miss Jemima Pinkerton herself, rising over some geranium pots in the window of that ladys own drawing-room.
"It is Mrs. Sedleys coach, sister," said Miss Jemima. "Sambo, the black servant, has just rung the bell; and the coachman has a new red waistcoat."
"Have you completed all the necessary preparations incident to Miss Sedleys departure, Miss Jemima?" asked Miss Pinkerton herself, that majestic lady; the Semiramis of Hammersmith, the friend of Doctor Johnson, the correspondent of Mrs. Chapone herself.
"The girls were up at four this morning, packing her trunks, sister," replied Miss Jemima; "we have made her a bow-pot."
"Say a bouquet, sister Jemima, tis more genteel."
"Well, a booky as big almost as a haystack; I have put up two bottles of the gillyflower water for Mrs. Sedley, and the receipt for making it, in Amelias box."
"And I trust, Miss Jemima, you have made a copy of Miss Sedleys account. This is it, is it? Very good--ninety- three pounds, four shillings. Be kind enough to address it to John Sedley, Esquire, and to seal this billet which I have written to his lady."
In Miss Jemimas eyes an autograph letter of her sister, Miss Pinkerton, was an object of as deep veneration as would have been a letter from a sovereign. Only when her pupils quitted the establishment, or when they were about to be married, and once, when poor Miss Birch died of the scarlet fever, was Miss Pinkerton known to write personally to the parents of her pupils; and it was Jemimas opinion that if anything could console Mrs. Birch for her daughters loss, it would be that pious and eloquent composition in which Miss Pinkerton announced the event.
In the present instance Miss Pinkertons "billet" was to the following effect:
The Mall, Chiswick, June 15, 18
MADAM,--After her six years residence at the Mall, I have the honour and happiness of presenting Miss Amelia Sedley to her parents, as a young lady not unworthy to occupy a fitting position in their polished and refined circle. Those virtues which characterize the young English gentlewoman, those accomplishments which become her birth and station, will not be found wanting in the amiable Miss Sedley, whose INDUSTRY and OBEDIENCE have endeared her to her instructors, and whose delightful sweetness of temper has charmed her AGED and her YOUTHFUL companions. In music, in dancing, in orthography, in every variety of embroidery and needlework, she will be found to have realized her friends fondest wishes. In geography there is still much to be desired; and a careful and undeviating use of the backboard, for four hours daily during the next three years, is recommended as necessary to the acquirement of that dignified DEPORTMENT AND CARRIAGE, so requisite for every young lady of fashion. In the principles of religion and morality, Miss Sedley will be found worthy of an establishment which has been honoured by the presence of THE GREAT LEXICOGRAPHER, and the patronage of the admirable Mrs. Chapone. In leaving the Mall, Miss Amelia carries with her the hearts of her companions, and the affectionate regards of her mistress, who has the honour to subscribe herself,
Madam,
Your most obliged humble servant,
BARBARA PINKERTON
P.S.--Miss Sharp accompanies Miss Sedley. It is particularly requested that Miss Sharps stay in Russell Square may not exceed ten days. The family of distinction with whom she is engaged, desire to avail themselves of her services as soon as possible.
This letter completed, Miss Pinkerton proceeded to write her own name, and Miss Sedleys, in the fly-leaf of a Johnsons Dictionary--the interesting work which she invariably presented to her scholars, on their departure from the Mall. On the cover was inserted a copy of "Lines addressed to a young lady on quitting Miss Pinkertons school, at the Mall; by the late revered Doctor Samuel Johnson." In fact, the Lexicographers name was always on the lips of this majestic woman, and a visit he had paid to her was the cause of her reputation and her fortune.
Being commanded by her elder sister to get "the Dictionary" from the cupboard, Miss Jemima had extracted two copies of the book from the receptacle in question. When Miss Pinkerton had finished the inscription in the first, Jemima, with rather a dubious and timid air, handed her the second.
"For whom is this, Miss Jemima?" said Miss Pinkerton, with awful coldness.
"For Becky Sharp," answered Jemima, trembling very much, and blushing over her withered face and neck, as she turned her back on her sister. "For Becky Sharp: shes going too."
"MISS JEMIMA!" exclaimed Miss Pinkerton, in the largest capitals. "Are you in your senses? Replace the Dixonary in the closet, and never venture to take such a liberty in future."
"Well, sister, its only two-and-ninepence, and poor Becky will be miserable if she dont get one."
"Send Miss Sedley instantly to me," said Miss Pinkerton. And so venturing not to say another word, poor Jemima trotted off, exceedingly flurried and nervous. Miss Sedleys papa was a merchant in London, and a man of some wealth; whereas Miss Sharp was an articled pupil, for whom Miss Pinkerton had done, as she thought, quite enough, without conferring upon her at parting the high honour of the Dixonary.
Although schoolmistresses letters are to be trusted no more nor less than churchyard epitaphs; yet, as it sometimes happens that a person departs this life who is really deserving of all the praises the stone cutter carves over his bones; who IS a good Christian, a good parent, child, wife, or husband; who actually DOES leave a disconsolate family to mourn his loss; so in academies of the male and female sex it occurs every now and then that the pupil is fully worthy of the praises bestowed by the disinterested instructor. Now, Miss Amelia Sedley was a young lady of this singular species; and deserved not only all that Miss Pinkerton said in her praise, but had many charming qualities which that pompous old Minerva of a woman could not see, from the differences of rank and age between her pupil and herself.
For she could not only sing like a lark, or a Mrs. Billington, and dance like Hillisberg or Parisot; and embroider beautifully; and spell as well as a Dixonary itself; but she had such a kindly, smiling, tender, gentle, generous heart of her own, as won the love of everybody who came near her, from Minerva herself down to the poor girl in the scullery, and the one-eyed tart-womans daughter, who was permitted to vend her wares once a week to the young ladies in the Mall. She had twelve intimate and bosom friends out of the twenty-four young ladies. Even envious Miss Briggs never spoke ill of her; high and mighty Miss Saltire (Lord Dexters granddaughter) allowed that her figure was genteel; and as for Miss Swartz, the rich woolly-haired mulatto from St. Kitts, on the day Amelia went away, she was in such a passion of tears that they were obliged to send for Dr. Floss, and halftipsify her with salvolatile. Miss Pinkertons attachment was, as may be supposed from the high position and eminent virtues of that lady, calm and dignified; but Miss Jemima had already whimpered several times at the idea of Amelias departure; and, but for fear of her sister, would have gone off in downright hysterics, like the heiress (who paid double) of St. Kitts. Such luxury of grief, however, is only allowed to parlour-boarders. Honest Jemima had all the bills, and the washing, and the mending, and the puddings, and the plate and crockery, and the servants to superintend. But why speak about her? It is probable that we shall not hear of her again from this moment to the end of time, and that when the great filigree iron gates are once closed on her, she and her awful sister will never issue therefrom into this little world of history. But as we are to see a great deal of Amelia, there is no harm in saying, at the outset of our acquaintance, that she was a dear little creature; and a great mercy it is, both in life and in novels, which (and the latter especially) abound in villains of the most sombre sort, that we are to have for a constant companion so guileless and good-natured a person. As she is not a heroine, there is no need to describe her person; indeed I am afraid that her nose was rather short than otherwise, and her cheeks a great deal too round and red for a heroine; but her face blushed with rosy health, and her lips with the freshest of smiles, and she had a pair of eyes which sparkled with the brightest and honestest good-humour, except indeed when they filled with tears, and that was a great deal too often; for the silly thing would cry over a dead canary-bird; or over a mouse, that the cat haply had seized upon; or over the end of a novel, were it ever so stupid; and as for saying an unkind word to her, were any persons hard-hearted enough to do so--why, so much the worse for them. Even Miss Pinkerton, that austere and godlike woman, ceased scolding her after the first time, and though she no more comprehended sensibility than she did Algebra, gave all masters and teachers particular orders to treat Miss Sedley with the utmost gentleness, as harsh treatment was injurious to her.
So that when the day of departure came, between her two customs of laughing and crying, Miss Sedley was greatly puzzled how to act. She was glad to go home, and yet most woefully sad at leaving school. For three days before, little Laura Martin, the orphan, followed her about like a little dog. She had to make and receive at least fourteen presents--to make fourteen solemn promises of writing every week: "Send my letters under cover to my grandpapa, the Earl of Dexter," said Miss Saltire (who, by the way, was rather shabby). "Never mind the postage, but write every day, you dear darling," said the impetuous and woolly-headed, but generous and affectionate Miss Swartz; and the orphan little Laura Martin (who was just in round-hand), took her friends hand and said, looking up in her face wistfully, "Amelia, when I write to you I shall call you Mamma." All which details, I have no doubt, JONES, who reads this book at his Club, will pronounce to be excessively foolish, trivial, twaddling, and ultra-sentimental. Yes; I can see Jones at this minute (rather flushed with his joint of mutton and half pint of wine), taking out his pencil and scoring under the words "foolish, twaddling," &c., and adding to them his own remark of "QUITE TRUE." Well, he is a lofty man of genius, and admires the great and heroic in life and novels; and so had better take warning and go elsewhere. Well, then. The flowers, and the presents, and the trunks, and bonnet-boxes of Miss Sedley having been arranged by Mr. Sambo in the carriage, together with a very small and weather-beaten old cows-skin trunk with Miss Sharps card neatly nailed upon it, which was delivered by Sambo with a grin, and packed by the coachman with a corresponding sneer--the hour for parting came; and the grief of that moment was considerably lessened by the admirable discourse which Miss Pinkerton addressed to her pupil. Not that the parting speech caused Amelia to philosophise, or that it armed her in any way with a calmness, the result of argument; but it was intolerably dull, pompous, and tedious; and having the fear of her schoolmistress greatly before her eyes, Miss Sedley did not venture, in her presence, to give way to any ebullitions of private grief. A seed-cake and a bottle of wine were produced in the drawing-room, as on the solemn occasions of the visits of parents, and these refreshments being partaken of, Miss Sedley was at liberty to depart.
"Youll go in and say good-by to Miss Pinkerton, Becky!" said Miss Jemima to a young lady of whom nobody took any notice, and who was coming downstairs with her own bandbox.
"I suppose I must," said Miss Sharp calmly, and much to the wonder of Miss Jemima; and the latter having knocked at the door, and receiving permission to come in, Miss Sharp advanced in a very unconcerned manner, and said in French, and with a perfect accent, "Mademoiselle, je viens vous faire mes adieux."
Miss Pinkerton did not understand French; she only directed those who did: but biting her lips and throwing up her venerable and Roman-nosed head (on the top of which figured a large and solemn turban), she said, "Miss Sharp, I wish you a good morning." As the Hammersmith Semiramis spoke, she waved one hand, both by way of adieu, and to give Miss Sharp an opportunity of shaking one of the fingers of the hand which was left out for that purpose.
Miss Sharp only folded her own hands with a very frigid smile and bow, and quite declined to accept the proffered honour; on which Semiramis tossed up her turban more indignantly than ever. In fact, it was a little battle between the young lady and the old one, and the latter was worsted. "Heaven bless you, my child," said she, embracing Amelia, and scowling the while over the girls shoulder at Miss Sharp. "Come away, Becky," said Miss Jemima, pulling the young woman away in great alarm, and the drawing-room door closed upon them forever.
Then came the struggle and parting below. Words refuse to tell it. All the servants were there in the hall all the dear friend--all the young ladies--the dancing- master who had just arrived; and there was such a scuffling, and hugging, and kissing, and crying, with the hysterical YOOPS of Miss Swartz, the parlour-boarder, from her room, as no pen can depict, and as the tender heart would fain pass over. The embracing was over; they parted--that is, Miss Sedley parted from her friends. Miss
Sharp had demurely entered the carriage some minutes before. Nobody cried for leaving HER.
Sambo of the bandy legs slammed the carriage door on his young weeping mistress. He sprang up behind the carriage. "Stop!" cried Miss Jemima, rushing to the gate with a parcel.
"Its some sandwiches, my dear," said she to Amelia.
"You may be hungry, you know; and Becky, Becky Sharp, heres a book for you that my sister--that is, I Johnsons Dixonary, you know; you mustnt leave us without that. Good-by. Drive on, coachman. God bless you!"
And the kind creature retreated into the garden, overcome with emotion. But, lo! and just as the coach drove off, Miss Sharp put her pale face out of the window and actually flung the book back into the garden.
This almost caused Jemima to faint with terror. "Well, I never"--said she--"what an audacious"—Emotion prevented her from completing either sentence. The carriage rolled away; the great gates were closed; the bell rang for the dancing lesson. The world is before the two young ladies; and so, farewell to Chiswick Mall.


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