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Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 23.04.2012. Сдан: 2010. Страниц: 23. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):

Introduction. 2
1 Assessment system of children in schools. 4
1.1 Identify of assessment. 4
1.2 Types of assessment system. 7
1.3 Standards of quality 9
2 Assessment today 13
2.1 Use of assessment 18
2.2 Assess children’s learning 19
Conclusion 21
References 22
Appendix 23


Theme of my work is ‘Making strides to create an assessment culture in schools’.
Everything in our life based on assessment. Starting from childhood we depend on people’s opinion. Humans need approval, promotions, punishments for best analyzing their work, actions, life. For children there is assessment system in schools. They need motives to study. And their motivation is to have good marks.
Debates between teachers and parents are usual in schools. It has place because of different views on success of children. This theme is actual always because schools don’t stop their work. In our work we will describe situation in schools, condition of assessment system. We will analyze problems in this sphere, and try to find more suitable ways for improvement assessment system in schools.
Educational assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. According to the Academic Exchange Quarterly: "Studies of a theoretical or empirical nature (including case studies, portfolio studies, exploratory, or experimental work) addressing the assessment of learner aptitude and preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning out comes in achievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts are all welcome, as are studies addressing issues of measurable standards and benchmarks".
It is important to notice that the final purposes and assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of human mind, the origin of knowledge and the process of learning.
The object of our work is assessment system in schools.
The aim is to make strides to create assessment culture in schools.
In this work we start with learning and assessment as they occur in everyday action, which is, we argue, their “natural” home. We then discuss how social groups lift assessment out of everyday action in order to formalize it as a way of mentoring and policing newcomers. Then we take up the issue of the yet more formalized forms of assessment we use in our schools and other institutions, we argue that this latter enterprise has much to learn (including ethically) from the previous two settings. We will also discuss the role new forms of digital learning can play in making learning and assessment deeper in school and society.
In this work we attempt to show the importance of such a thing as a assessment. Well start with her presence in our daily lives. We show how it affects our actions and what determines the self-esteem. How to obtain the approval of society. We will then move to a specific area of evaluation - in the school. How to use assessments to identify the level of student performance in various aspects of the study. As a system of evaluation will help establish the relationship pupil and teacher, parents and administration. How to help me correct choice of species to extract the maximum information about the level of student knowledge. We will tell you about the state assessment system to date and how best to assess children.


1.1 Identify of Assessment.

In any classroom and school is indeed a challenging venture, but one that must be engaged in routinely and with precision. The evidence focused teaching approach is advocated in which teachers use real-time, multiple assessments of their students and plan targeted interventions that address students’ learning gaps.
The idea of aiming at learning and viewing assessment as the critical link to learning resounded clearly with me as an educational leader. Pearlman’s paper raises new and interesting questions about assessment and learning.
Pearlman states, “...the imposition of unrealistic goals through Adequate Yearly Progress, the culture of punishment of schools and teachers that such target shooting creates, and the persistent refusal to recognize the disparity of expectations, standards, and test rigor across different states have led to perverse results that have weakened the links between assessment and learning.” We know about the dramatic shift to a focus on testing and accountability and the simultaneous weakening of links between assessment and learning. Principals and teachers have been inundated with mounds and mounds of student achievement data from testing, but are often unsure of what to do with it all. We’ve all been immersed in professional development on how to review and understand the data, how to analyze the data and even how to identify and use instructional interventions with students who are struggling. However, we have not yet witnessed a strong shift to the practice and culture of evidence-focused teaching which Pearlman advocates.
She says, Changing the order of steps in instructional design, so that designing the actual activities that will take place during the lesson or sequence of lessons comes last is the single most powerful change that can be made to transform teaching. Control over what to do in class comes from analysis of why you are doing it and what you want to be able to say about its results (Pearlman, Section 4.4).
Making this type of shift in the thinking and practices of teachers is, in part, the
work of everyone in a school or district collectively, but also it is critical that the leadership in schools and districts have a deep understanding of the need for this change in the order of thinking and working. A deep understanding involves school leaders possessing a working knowledge of both instructional strategies and student progress monitoring to help guide teachers in making this shift in professional practice. Strong instructional leadership coupled with what Pearlman describes as ongoing professional development of practicing teachers (and principals), would most certainly begin to transform instructional practice as well as what teachers believe and know about student learning.............................

Assessment can be defined as a sample taken from a larger domain of content and process skills that allows one to infer student understanding of a part of the larger domain being explored. The sample may include behaviors, products, knowledge, and performances. Assessment is a continuous, ongoing process that involves examining and observing childrens behaviors, listening to their ideas, and developing questions to promote conceptual understanding. The term authentic assessment is often referred to in any discussion of assessment and can be thought of as an examination of student performance and understanding on significant tasks that have relevancy to the students life inside and outside of the classroom.
The increasing focus on the development of conceptual understanding and the ability to apply science process skills is closely aligned with the emerging research on the theory of constructivism. This theory has significant implications for both instruction and assessment, which are considered by some to be two sides of the same coin. Constructivism is a key underpinning of the National Science Education Standards
Constructivism is the idea that learning is an active process of building meaning for oneself. Thus, students fit new ideas into their already existing conceptual frameworks. Constructivists believe that the learners preconceptions and ideas about science are critical in shaping new understanding of scientific concepts. Assessment based on constructivist theory must link the three related issues of student prior knowledge (and misconceptions), student learning styles (and multiple abilities), and teaching for depth of understanding rather than for breadth of coverage. Meaningful assessment involves examining the learners entire conceptual network, not just focusing on discreet facts and principles.
In our work we considered that such an assessment. Not only in terms of school but in life. As it begins with the motivation for further action and how to use it to find out what we cultured enough to correctly perform the actions and obtain approval of society. We reviewed the types of assessment and identified with the help of what can be defined as performance in various aspects of student learning. Estimates are the means of the relationship the teachers practice and students, parents and administration. We have learned how to use the standards for. We have defined the state assessment system to date. We have shown the most affordable ways to assess children. We have shown the importance of assessments in their lives.

1 Valerie J. Shute • Betsy Jane Becker. Innovative Assessment for the 21st Century
2 Habermas, J. (1981). The theory of communicative action. London: Beacon Press.
3 Latour, B. (2004). Politics of nature: How to bring the sciences into democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
4 Engestrom, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding. An activity theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta Konsultit.
5 Callon, M., & Latour, B. (1992). Don’t throw the baby out with the bath school! A reply to Collins and yearly. In A. Pickering (Ed.), Science as practice and culture (pp. 343–368). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
6 schools.nsw.edu.au/learning/k-6assessments/principles.php
7 britannica.com/Peer-Assessment-System-for-Modern-Learning-Settings-Towards-a-Flexible-EAssessment-System
8 .scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=946
9 edfacilities.org/pubs/sanoffassess.pdf
10 Valerie J. Shute • Betsy Jane Becker. Innovative Assessment for the 21st Century
11 Gee, J. P. (2003/2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave/Macmillan; Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
12 Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Orlando, FL: Harvest Books.
13 Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling. London: Routledge.
14 Gee, J. P. (1990/2007). Sociolinguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (3rd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis.
15 Gee, J. P., & Hayes, E. R. (2010). Women and gaming: The Sims and 21st century learning. New York: Palgrave/Macmillan; Callon, M., & Latour, B. (1992). Don’t throw the baby out with the bath school! A reply to Collins and yearly. In A. Pickering (Ed.), Science as practice and culture (pp. 343–368). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
18 Hickey, D. T., Kindfield A. C. H., Horwitz, P., & Christie, M. A. (2003). Integrating curriculum, instruction, assessment, and evaluation in a technology-supported genetics environment; American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 495–538.
19 Kirst, M. W., & Mazzeo, C. (1996). The rise, fall, and rise of state assessment in California: 1993–96. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(4), 319–323.
20 tlrp.org/pub/documents/assessment.pdf
21.Kan. E. R. Comparing teaching aid of the advanced level: which one to use. Ekaterinburg 2010.
22. Саржанова А.М. Term of the conceptual element of English language for special purposes.

Assessment Methods

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