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Курсовая Modern non-verbal communnication (gender aspect)


Тип работы: Курсовая. Добавлен: 16.07.2012. Страниц: 18. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):


1. Common features of non-verbal means
2. Peculiarities of masculine non-verbal means of communication.
3. Peculiarities of feminine non-verbal means of communication.


There is a great deal of books, works, essays etc. devoted to peoples’ interaction and communication where verbal activity definitely plays a very important role. With the help of many verbal means a person can express his thoughts and emotions, emphasize main ideas and create the exact atmosphere. But all this would be of no value and practically impossible to study without the means of non-verbal communication.
With the help of facial gestures and getures only many people can impart information and ones emotions and moods as well. It is worth mentioning a perfomance of the balley-dancers who would use only motions and gestures to provide the spectators with information, atmosphere, feelings and characters and not a sound uttered.
Only a century ago the body language meant a lot for people all over the world. There were no Television and films broadcasting any sound. Silent movies demanded any actor to be able to make people laugh and sympathize, cry and be affraid of using only non-verbal means.
Modern society has a great deal of communication facilities such as telephone, pager, cell-phone, internet, telegraph and many others. Thus, gestures of different kinds are becoming to be less important, as well as studying the meaning of them. Although many books, works and articles are written to signify the advantages of gestures, their decodation, many people are unanaware of the most non-verbal means and this very often leads to confrontation between them. Moreover the serious studying of non-verbal communication began only in 60-es of ХХ century.
Researchings of humans’ behavior stated that verbal communication takes still only 7% and non-verbal communication – 55% of all everyday communication. Gestures are very important form the very beginning of a conversation to know if the person is interested or not, sincere or pretender.
It is considered that women have a better sence of deciphering non-verbal signals, noting details that men might not observe. Besides, there is a great gap between men and women in their communication and very often misunderstanding and misinterpretation can ruin the act of interaction.
Thus, this course paper focuses on the gender aspect of non-verbal communication, mens’ and womens’ particular types of non-verbal means of interaction and the problem of communication. The actuality of this topic can be seen in the fact of a growing number of works, researchings that are devoted to bridging the gap not only between different cultures but men and women as well.

Chapter 1. Characteristic of modern non-verbal communnication (gender aspect)

§1. Common features of non-verbal means.

Non-verbal communication is a silent infiltrator, having broad influence over our social environment. It provides us with a mode for conveying messages without the use of verbal language. It may enhance or detract from a verbal communication. It regulates relationships by affecting the likelihood of introduction and continued interaction. We are able to infer emotion through nonverbal communication and influence others perception of our competence, power and vulnerability. It also plays a role in the perception of the actual message we are trying to convey. It affects our lives in a myriad of ways from childhood throughout adulthood, and as long as we intend to communicate with others.
There are scores of definitions that researchers and scolars use to define non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication is usually understood as the process of sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gestures; body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact.
According to such scolar as Ahmed A. Khan “non-verbal communication means communication which is independent of a formal language, communication whereby ideas and concepts can be expressed without the use of coherent labels”
Professor Kreidlin G.E. in his book “Men and women in non-verbal communication” (2005) considered it as: “... a real and not an illusive contact between people”. In his another book “Non-verbal Semiotics” he states that: “non-verbal communication is one of the most important field of signs functioning and information, it plays a significant role in a man’s life”.
Miller G.A. gives the following definitions of it:”non-verbal communication consists of all the messages other than words that are used in communication. In oral communication, these symbolic messages are transferred by means of intonation, tone of voice, vocally produced noises, body posture, facial expressions or pauses.
Leathers D. in his book “Successful Nonverbal Communication: Principles and Applications.” (1997) defines non-verbal communication “as the process by which nonverbal behaviors are used, either singly or in combination with verbal behaviors, in the exchange and interpretation of messages within a given situation or context.”
He views the communication as a type of some matrix and distincts between verbal and non-verbal behaviors that can be divided into vocal and non-vocal behaviors.
Such researchers of non-verbal communication as Wiener M., Devoe S., and Geller J. view it as “the most basic form of communication”. According to their studies, non-verbal communication differs from verbal in fundamental ways – “it is less structured and thus it makes it more difficult to study”. And what is worth mentioning is that the researchers stated the main difference of non-verbal communication – “it differs in terms of intent and spontaneity”. Indeed when we say: “please open the door”, we have a conciuos purpose. We think about the message, if only for a moment. But when we communicate non-verbaly, we sometimes do so unconsciously. We do not mean to raise an eyebrow or blush. “Those actions come naturally; without our consent, our emotions arewritten on our faces.”
The first scientific study of non-verbal communication was Charles Darwin’s book “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals” (1872). He argued that all ...

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