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Реферат Political system of Great Britain

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Тип работы: Реферат. Добавлен: 07.11.2012. Страниц: 18. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):


CONTENTS:

Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 3
1. Monarchy in Britain…………………………………………………….. 4
2. British Parliament……………………………………………………….. 7
3. Government (the Cabinet of Ministers)………………………………… 13
4. The Civil Service………………………………………………………... 14
Summary.…………………………………………………………………. 17
Sources…………………………………………………………………….. 18

INTRODUCTION

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional (or parliamentary) monarchy. Legislative power belongs to the Queen (formally) and the Parliament. Officially the head of the state is the Queen (from 1952 – Elizabeth II). The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of parliament.
The monarch, be it king or queen, is the head of the executive body, an integral part of the legisla¬ture, the head of the judicial body, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the crown, the head of the Established Curch of England and the head of the British Commonwealth of Nations.
Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The United Kingdom has no a written constitution. The British con-stitution is based on Acts of Parliament (also called “laws” or “statutes”) and “conventions”, which are commonly ac¬cepted assumptions about the way things should be done.
Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and de¬bated. The House of Lords has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political sys¬tem began over 200 years ago.
The object of our report is to consider all the branches of political system in Great Britain.

1. Monarchy in Britain

The United Kingdom is one of six constitutional monarchies within Europe (the other five being Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain). Britain’s monarchy is the oldest, dating back to the 9th century. It existed four centuries before the Parliament and three centuries before the law courts. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is directly descended from Saxon king Egbert, who united England under his rule in 829.
The full royal title in Britain is: “Elizabeth the Second, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Comm....

SUMMARY

As we can conclude, The British Political System is based on the interaction between different branches of power: Monarchy, Parliament, the Cabinet of Ministers and the Civil Service.
One of the main functions of the Queen (or King) are opening and closing Parliament and approving of the appointment of the Prime Minister. The Queen summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament.
Parliament of the United Kindom is the supreme legislative authority and consists of three separate elements: the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons. The Sovereign’s throne is in the House of Lords, and the Queen sits on it once a year to make her speech. Normally she opens the new session with a speech from the throne which outlines her Government’s programme.
The Cabinet of Ministers controls the process of lawmaking in Parliament, and dominates the House of Commons. It decides what subjects shall be debated in the House, drafts and proposes all important legislation.
The Civil Service is a permanent body of officials that keeps the wheels of government turning. The constitutional and political role of the Civil Service is to help the Government of the United Kingdom and the administrations formulate the policies, carry out decisions and administer public services for which they are responsible.

SOURCES:

1. Голицынский Ю.Б. Great Britain. – СПб.: КАРО, 2001. – С. 24 -32.
2. Левашова В.А. Britain today: life and institutions. – М.: ИНФРА-М, 2001. – С. 74 – 132.
3. Нестерова Н.М. Страноведение: Великобритания. – Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2005. – С. 197 – 199.
4. Павлоцкий В.М. British Studies. – СПб: КАРО, 2002. – С. 11 – 27.
5. Тимановская Н.А. Sportling on English-Speaking Countries- Тула: Автограф, 1999. – С. 66 – 73.



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