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Курсовик Антикризисное управление (Crisis Management)

Информация:

Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Менеджмент. Добавлен: 23.5.2013. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 18. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):



1. The Art of Crisis Management……..………………..…………………………………...……....….3
2. Introduction………………………………...…………………………………….…………………..……....3
3. Planning..………………………………………………..…………………………………….....................4
4. Creating a Crisis Team………………………………………………….…………………..….....….…..7
5. Business Continuity ……………………………………….…………………………….....…………......9
6. 10 rules of crisis management …….………………………………………….………….……......10
7. Crisis Management Model………………………………………………………………………………13
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….………..…………….15


Reference…………………………………………………………...………………………………………….....17


CRISIS MANAGEMENT
The Art of Crisis Management
While we do not propose a formal definition of the word crisis in this manual, we treat any event that can, within a short period of time, harm your institution’s constituents, its facilities, its finances or its reputation as a crisis.
Crisis management is the art of making decisions to head off or mitigate the effects of such an event, often while the event itself is unfolding. This often means making decisions about your institution’s future while you are under stress and while you lack key pieces of information.
Consistent with the overall philosophy of this manual, the key to being able to manage a crisis is doing as much planning as practical before a crisis starts in order to best position you and your institution to respond to and mitigate such a situation.
The Crisis Management Continuum:
Introduction
What is usually called “crisis management” should be best understood as part of a broad continuum of activities as follows:
• Planning. Planning relates to getting your institution in the best position to react to, and recover from, an emergency.
• Incident Response. Incident responses are the processes that you have put into place to ensure that your institution reacts properly and orderly to an incident as it occurs. Examples of incident response include:
a. Evacuation after a called-in bomb threat
b. Denial of entry to suspicious persons
c. Calling for medical help when a child is injured in your school
• Crisis Management. Crisis Management is the management and coordination of your institution’s responses to an incident that threatens to harm, or has harmed, your institution’s people, structures, ability to operate, valuables and/or reputation. It takes into account your planning and automatic incident response, but must also dynamically deal with situations as they unfold, often in unpredictable ways.
• Business Continuity. Business continuity relates to those steps necessary to restore your institution to normal functioning.
As will be discussed in detail below, a great deal of crisis management occurs before a crisis begins: it is about planning and preparing.
The Crisis Management Continuum:
Planning
Introduction
As mentioned above, planning relates to getting your institution in the best position to react to, and recover from, a crisis. Planning for a crisis is discussed in some detail throughout this manual. For example, the chapter on explosive threats helps you consider what is necessary to plan to respond to an explosive threat-related crisis at your institution. The chapter on armed intruders seeks to do the same.
However, there are two elements of planning that are unique to managing a crisis:
• Creating escalation rules for your employees and
• Creating a crisis team.
In short, the goal is to have employees who know when to report problems and a team of senior employees who are ready to react to them. Each will be discussed in turn.
Creating Escalation Rules for Your Employees:
- Preventing, Detecting and Controlling a Crisis
Creating escalation rules for your employees is an essential element in crisis prevention, detection, and control. This means that you train your employees to bring matters to the attention of more senior personnel for their analysis and handling as soon as possible, preferably before they become critical. It means not only setting clear rules for when an employee must notify senior staff of a problem (for example, whenever a caller or letter writer mentions suing your institution), but also empowering staff to feel comfortable reporting concerns to senior staff (for example, ensuring that junior staff do not feel at risk of ridicule or a negative job review if they in good faith report what they inaccurately believe is a problem).
Without such rules, a developing crisis may go unnoticed by senior management until it develops, appears in the press, and/or turns into a calamity.
• Choosing to Act - or Not
Creating escalation rules is important because when and how a manager becomes aware of a crisis can often determine how an institution responds - and how successful it can be in its response. Consider these two scenarios:
1. A synagogue employee receives a phone call that, while not overtly threatening, is a rambling speech that contains some very anti-Semitic remarks. The employee doesn’t inform the director of the call. (Institutional discussion of situation ends)
2. A synagogue employee receives a phone call that, while not overtly threatening, is a rambling speech that contains some very anti-Semitic remarks. After the call, the employee makes a note of all the information relating to the call, informs his/her supervisor (the synagogue director), who in turn calls the police to file a report.
Afterwards, after consulting with the synagogue President, he/she decides that the situation warrants extra security during the upcoming high holidays and briefs security personnel accordingly.
Clearly, the two institutional responses are very different. In the first case, because the clerk did nothing at all, management was simply cut out of the decision making process. Had the employee escalated because, say, the synagogue’s management had instructed its employees t........


Reference

Ambraseys, N. N. and Jackson, J. A. (2000) Seismicity of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) since 1500. Geophysical Journal International. Vol. 141. Issue 3. pp. F1-F6.

APEC International Centre for Sustainable Tourism (AICST), (2003) Tourism Risk Management for the Asia Pacific Region: an authoritative guide for managing crises and disasters. pp. 1-110. Australia.

Barton, L. (1994) Crisis Management: Preparing for Managing Disasters. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. Vol. 35. No. 2. pp. 59-65. Cornell University.

Beirman, D. (2003) Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach. CABI Publication. UK.

Dilley, M., Chen, R. S., Deichmann, U., Lerner-Lam, A. L. and Arnold, M. (2005) Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. Disaster Risk Management Series. No. 5. The World Bank. Washington, D. C. USA.
Faulkner, B. (2001) Towards a framework for tourism disaster management.
Tourism Management. Vol. 22. pp. 135-147. Elsevier Science Ltd.
Faulkner, B. and Russell, R. (2000) Turbulence, Chaos and Complexity. Tourism in the Twenty First Century. Continuum. London. UK.

Glaesser, D. (2006) Crisis Management in the Tourism Industry. 2nd
Edition. Butterworth-Heinemann. UK.

Henderson, J. C. (2007) Tourism Crises: Causes, Consequences & Management.
Butterworth-Heinemann. USA.
Hystad, P. W. and Keller, P. C. (2008) Towards a destination tourism disaster management framework: Long-term lessons from a forest fire disaster.
Tourism Management. Vol. 29. pp. 151-162. Kash, T. J. and Darling, J. (1998) Crisis management: Prevention, diagnosis and intervention. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Vol. 19. No. 4. pp. 179-186.
?zerdem, A. (1999) Tiles, taps and earthquake-proofing: lessons for disaster management in Turkey.
Environment and Urbanization. Vol. 11. No. 2. pp. 177-179. Issue October. Parsons, W. (1996) Crisis management. Career Development International. Vol. 1. No. 5. pp. 26-28. MCB University Press.
S?nmez, S. F., Apostolopoulos, Y. and Tarlow, P. (1999) Tourism in Crisis: Managing the Effects of Terrorism. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 38, Issue August. pp. 13-18. Sage Publications, Inc.
Tsai, C.-H. and Chen, C.-W. (2009) An earthquake disaster management mechanism based on risk assessment information for the tourism industry-a case study from the island of Taiwan. Tourism Management. pp. 1-12. Elsevier Ltd.
Tse, T. S. M.(2006) Crisis Management in Tourism. Tourism Management
Dynamics: Trends, Management and Tools. Chapter - 4. pp. 28-38. Edited by Buhalis, Dimitrios and Costa, Carlos. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crisis_management


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