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Реферат CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND

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Тип работы: Реферат. Добавлен: 20.08.2013. Страниц: 11. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

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Content

INTODUCTION 3
CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND 4
CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM 4
CHAPTER 3 COURT SYSTEM 5
3.1. Structure of state court system 5
3.2. Court administration 6
CHAPTER 4 ARTS OF LAWYERS 7
4.1. Judges 7
4.2 Prosecutor 8
4.3. Lawyers 9
CONCLUSION 10
LIST OF LITERATURE 11


INTODUCTION

The United States legal system is the full interconnected system of judicial, regulatory and governmental authorities who together administer and enforce the laws of the United States, operate the judicial system, and resolve judicial disputes and appeals. It consists of various official bodies at the federal, state and local levels.
In the United States, laws are made at the federal and state levels. Laws adopted by legislative bodies - Congress and state legislatures - are called "statutes."
The federal and state courts enforce statutes. They also create law.
The aim of the work is to study the legal system of the US
To do it, we need to cope with some tasks:
1. to study the background of the legal system in USA
2. to study the structure of the federal court system
3. to study the court system and its part
4. to study the types of lawyers
Object of our work is also the legal system
Subject is the legal system of USA
According to tasks of the work this work contains 4 chapters. Introduction, conclusion and list of used literature are also included in the work.


CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND

The U.S. Constitution establishes a federal system of government. The constitution gives specific powers to the federal (national) government. All power not delegated to the federal government remains with the states. Each of the 50 states has its own state constitution, governmental structure, legal codes, and judiciary.
The U.S. Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government and specifies the authority of the federal courts. Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction only over certain types of cases, such as cases involving federal laws, controversies between states, and cases involving foreign governments. In certain other areas federal courts share jurisdiction with state courts. For example, both federal and state courts may decide cases involving parties who live in different states. State courts have exclusive jurisdiction over the vast majority of cases.
Parties have a right to trial by jury in all criminal and most civil cases. A jury usually consists of a panel of 12 citizens who hear the evidence and apply the law stated by the judge to reach a decision based on the facts as the jury has determined them from the evidence at trial. However, most legal disputes in the United States are resolved before a case reaches a jury. They are resolved by legal motion or settlement, not by trial.


CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM

The U.S. Constitution establishes the U.S. Supreme Court and gives Congress the authority to establish the lower federal courts. Congress has established two levels of federal courts below the Supreme Court: the U.S. district courts and the U.S. circuit courts of appeals.
U.S. district courts are the courts of first instance in the federal system. There are 94 such district courts throughout the nation. At least one district court is located in each district judges sit individually to hear cases. In addition to district judges, bankruptcy judges (who hear only bankruptcy cases) and magistrate judges (who perform many judicial duties under the general supervision of district judges) are located within the district courts. U.S. circuit courts of appeals are on the next level. There are 12 of these regional intermediate appellate courts located in different parts of the country. Panels of three judges hear appeals from the district courts. A party to a case may appeal as a matter of right to the circuit court of appeals (except that the government has no right of appeal in a criminal case if the verdict is “not guilty.”) These regional circuit courts also hear appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies. One non-regional circuit court (the Federal Circuit) hears appeals in specialized cases such as cases involving patent laws and claims against the federal government.
At the top of the federal court system is the U.S. Supreme Court, made up of nine justices who sit together to hear cases. At its discretion, the U.S. Supreme Court may hear appeals from the federal circuit courts of appeals as well as the highest state courts if the appeal involves the U.S. Constitution or federal law.


CHAPTER 3 COURT SYSTEM

3.1. Structure of state court system

The structure of state court systems varies from state to state. Each state court system has unique features; however, some generalizations can be made. Most states have courts of limited jurisdiction presided over by a single judge who hears minor civil and criminal cases. States also have general jurisdiction trial courts that are presided over by a single judge. These trial courts are usually called circuit courts or superior courts and hear major civil and criminal cases. Some states have specialized courts that hear only certain kinds of cases such as traffic or family law cases.
All states have a highest court, usually called a state supreme court, that serves as an appellate court. Many states also have an intermediate appellate court called a court of appeals that hears appeals from the trial court. A party in a case generally has one right of appeal.

3.2. Court administration

The judicial branches of the federal and state governments are separate from the legislative and executive branches. To insure judicial independence, the judicial branches of the federal and state governments control the administrati......



LIST OF LITERATURE

1. William Burnham, Introduction to the Law and Legal System of the United States, 4th ed. (St. Paul, MN: Thomson West, 2006), 41.
2. Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry, Judgment Calls: Principle and Politics in Constitutional Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 70-71.
3. Graham Hughes, "Common Law Systems," in Fundamentals of American Law, ed. Alan B. Morisson, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 33.
4. Norbert Reich, Understanding EU Law: Objectives, Principles and Methods of Community Law (Antwerp: Intersentia, 2005), 337.
5. Mark A. Kinzie & Christine F. Hart, Product Liability Litigation (Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2002), 100-101.



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