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Курсовик The peculiarities of company activity in terms of oligopolistic market


Тип работы: Курсовик. Добавлен: 23.12.2013. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 37. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):

Chapter I (theoretical)
1.1 Description of notion “developing economics”
1.2 Role of G-20 in the economic policies of developing countries.

Chapter II (practical)
2.1 Greater voice of developing countries during WTO Doha Round.
2.2 Main economic indicators comparison and analysis of biggest developing economics with biggest developed economies
2.3 Integration processes of developing economics

Chapter III (conclusions)
3.1 Economic and social progress achieved by developing countries in last 10 years
3.2 Summing up and possible outcomes


1.1 Description of notion “developing economics”
Making research about developing countries or as they also called developing economics or less-developed economics firstly it should be clear what is developing country or developing economy. According to the Bell Clieve developing economy is a nation with a low living standard, underdeveloped industrial base, and low Human Development Index (HDI)[1] relative to other countries. There is no universal, agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as the size of a nations GDP compared to other nations[3]. In addition countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations but that has not yet demonstrated signs of a developed country are often categorized under the term newly industrialized countries[2].
Kofi Annan former Secretary General of the United Nations defined a developed country as follows:” F developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment.
According to certain authors as Walt Whitman Rostow, developing countries is countries in transition of the multiple traditional lifestyles towards the modern lifestyle from the industrial revolution in England in xviiie and xixe centuries.
As already seen a lot of famous economists tried to define the notion of developing country. Nevertheless all the definitions is quite inaccurate. That is why doing my research I also find a detentions of the international community. Such organizations as IMF or World Bank has their own division based on the GDP per capita and other economic indicators. In the other hand during research I realized that many international organizations have no any definition of developing countries. There is also a though that it is nonsense to divide countries on developed etc. According to United Nations Statistics Division, there is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. And it also notes that: “The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process”.
The UN also notes that: “in common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe, are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions[4].
However the above-mentioned is usually has no significant data based accuracy. For example Azerbaijan according to UN is neither developed country nor developing. But according to IMF Azerbaijan can be treated as upper-middle income country having in 10,624$ GDP per capita in 2012. Based on what written before there are first conclusions - division between developing and developed countries in many aspects based not on economic indicators but on historical, social and geographical aspects.
According to the classification from International Monetary Fund (IMF) before April 2004, all countries of Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belongs to the "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions) as well as the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included under either developed or developing regions, but rather were referred to as "countries in transition"; however they are now widely regarded (in the international reports) as "developing countries".
The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers per capita income level, export diversification-so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and degree of integration into the global financial system."
The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1. Economies were divided according to 2011 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income:
· Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,026 or less.
· Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,036.
· Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$4,036 and US$12,476.
· High income countries had GNI above US$12,476.
The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status."
Summering the data above conclusion made is that the country which has gross profit over 12,476 according to the World Bank is developing countries. According to the economics it is true, but very often it is not. A lot of oil and gas supplies countries has GDP per capita higher than 12, 476 $ but they did not recognized as developed countries. Whether it is right or not - it the hard question. Even if we try to understand the notion of developing countries threw international organization still questions are open.

1.2 Role of G-20 in the economic policies of developing countries
In the recent years there is a tendency among developing country to create unions. There are many of unions of developing countries around the world. In this research I would like to describe and analyse BRICS, MIKT and G-20. Actually, G-20 is not a union of developing countries nevertheless developing countries in this union has the same rights as developed countries which show the greater voice of developing economics in the world economy that is why I also choose this union to describe. BRICS is the largest union of the rapidly developing countries which are: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. All counties of BRICS is very valuable for world economy, nevertheless, countries such as India and China having giant GDP still consider as developing since GDP per capita in this countries is much lower than in developed world. MIKT - which is Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey is also union of very powerful developing economics. Actually, Mexico is the 11 world biggest economy, Indonesia is the 4-th population largest country in the world and 16 biggest economy in the world, Russia is the 8-th largest economy plus South Korea which is 12 largest economy in the world having 33,435$ GDP per capita which really proves that South Korea is developed country.
G-20 is a union which is represented of Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (also known as Group of Twenty) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies: 19 countries plus the European Union, which is represented by the President of the European Council and by the European Central Bank. The G-20 heads of government or heads of state have also periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008.[6] Collectively, the G-20 economies account for approximately 80 per cent of the gross world product (GWP), 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade), and two-thirds of the world population. They furthermore account for 84.1 per cent and 82.2 per cent of the worlds economic growth by nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) respectively from the years 2010 to 2016, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). According to the data it is clear that G-20 is most powerful economic union at the moment
The idea of G-20 was proposed by former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin as a forum for cooperation and consultation on matters pertaining to the international financial system[13]. The group was formally inaugurated in September 1999, and held its first meeting in December 1999. It studies, reviews, and promotes high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, and seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization. With the G-20 growing in stature after the 2008 Washington summit, its leaders announced on 25 September 2009, that the group would replace the as the main economic council of wealthy nations. Since its inception, the G-20s membership policies have been criticized by numerous intellectuals, and its summits have been a focus for major protests [7].
The heads of the G-20 nations met biannually at G-20 summits between 2008 and 2011. Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G-20 summits have been held annually. Russia currently holds the chair of the G-20, and will host the eighth G-20 summit in September 2013. If to compare G-20 with other unions it seen that probably G-20 is the most wide economic union according to the value of 20 biggest world economics.
So if to try define the aim and goals of G-20 there might be difficult to find a strict strategy. That is why G-20 is widely criticised, especially by anti-global organization. Such a criticism caused at first since huge importance of G-20 organization. People who rule world 20 biggest economics has chance to rule the world not asking anyone about anything[8]. Having no direct route map but annual everlasting meeting G-20 is more restraint organization. Probably the most important and foreseeable issue G-20 is dealing with is to control world economy and minimize crisis risks.
Another story with BRICS which is acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Main economic indicators of BRICS countries provide in the table below.
Country GDP GDP per capita Population HDI
Brazil $2,395.9 bn $11,875 193,946,886 730 (high)
Russia $2,021.9 bn $17,708 143,451,702 788 (high)
India $1,824.8 bn $3,829 1,210,193,422 554 (medium)
China $8,227.0 bn $9,161 1,354,040,000 699 (medium)
South Africa $384.3 bn $11,375 51,770,560 629 (medium)

The grouping was originally known as "BRIC" before the inclusion of South Africa in 2010. With the possible exception of Russia, the BRICS members are all developing or newly industrialised countries, but they are distinguished by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs; all five are G-20 members. As of 2013, the five BRICS countries represent almost 3 billion people, with a combined nominal GDP of US$14.8 trillion, and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves. Presently, South Africa holds the chair of the BRICS group. The BRICS have received both praise and criticism from numerous quarters.
The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City in September 2006, beginning a series of high-level meetings. A full-scale diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 May 2008.

The BRIC groupings first formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June 2009, with Luiz In?cio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attending. The summits focus was on means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions, and discussed how the four countries could better co-operate in the future. There was further discussion of ways that developing countries, such as the BRIC members, could become more involved in global affairs.
In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg summit, the BRIC nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be "diversified, stable and predictable". Although the statement that was released did not directly criticise the perceived "dominance" of the US dollar - something that Russia had criticised in the past - it did spark a fall in the value of the dollar against other major currencies.
Entry of South America In 2010, South Africa began efforts to join the BRIC grouping, and the process for its formal admission began in August of that year. South Africa officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010, after being formally invited by the BRIC countries to join the group. The group was renamed BRICS - with the "S" standing for South Africa - to reflect the groups expanded membership. ........

1. Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 471
2. Pawe? Bo?yk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd
3. Escobar, Arturo. 1980. Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World. Cultural Anthropology 3
4. Waugh, David (3rd edition 2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)
5. Mankiw, N. Gregory (4th Edition 2007). Principles of Economics.
6. Mahoney, Jill; Ann Hui (29 June 2010). "G20-related mass arrests unique in Canadian history". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved 21 July 2010.
7. "No Clear Accord on Stimulus by Top 20 Industrial Nations". The New York Times. 15 March 2009. p. A1
8. Bosco, David (19 April 2012). "Who would replace Argentina on the G20?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
9. Isard, Peter (2005). Globalization and the International Financial System: Whats Wrong and What Can be Done. New York: Cambridge University Press.
10. "World Economic Outlook data" IMF. 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
11. World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, April 2009, second paragraph, lines 9
12. Europe & Central Asia (developing only). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
13. "What is the G-20". G20.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
14. "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". IMF World Economic Outlook. April 2013 data. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
15. World Bank Institute. "About WBI". World Bank Group. Retrieved
16."G20 to replace the G8". SBS. 2009-09-26. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
17. International Monitory Found data page - < external/pubs/cat/wp1_sp.aspx>
18. World Bank data - < >

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