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Курсовик THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

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Тип работы: Курсовик. Добавлен: 23.12.2013. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 29. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

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Plan

Chapter 1. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
1.1. Basic approaches to the classification of countries.
1.2. The essence of economic system and its types.
Chapter 2 TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
2.1. Description of the administrative command system and its characteristics.
2.2. Estimation of the market system and its implementation by the countries of the world.
Chapter 3 POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY AS A MODERN ECONOMIC SYSTEM.
CONCLUSIONS.
LIST OF LITERATURE


Introduction.

The economic system is totality associate and certain by character of well-organized elements of economy, formative economic structure of society. Out of system character of economy economic relations and institutes would not be reproduced (constantly to recommence), would not could to exist economic conformities to law, would not be folded theoretical comprehension of the economic phenomena and processes, would not could to be the co-ordinated and effective economic politics. The use of concept of the system has long history going away to ancient epoch.
In translation from Greek " the system" means some unit being from the parts constrained inter se and formative integrity. For description of any system usually distinguish her elements, levels organizations, structure.
In the last decades widely an idea develops about an economy, as about the system, characterized by the presence of certain elements and connections between them. Out of system character of economy economic relations and institutes would not be reproduced(constantly to recommence), realized economic conformities to law, there would not be a theoretical comprehension of the economic phenomena and processes, and also there would not be the co-ordinated and effective economic politics.
The economic system is totality of all economic processes accomplished in society on the basis of the relations of property and economic mechanism folded in him. Understanding essence of the system, it is possible to understand many conformities to law of economic life.
Actuality of work consists in that the basic elements of the economic system are socio-economic relations being based on the patterns of ownership folded in every economic system on economic resources and results of economic activity; organizational forms of economic activity; economic mechanism.
In home economic science it is possible the main problem of modern period of forming of the scientific economic systems to count the problem of combination of universal, mine-out a world economic idea approaches, with the necessity of reflection of difficult picture of modern economic reality in Russia and traditions of home scientific school.
In economic science there were two going near the study of modern society : structure and civilization. Essence of structure approach consists of that as deep reason of development of human society the change of his productive basis and corresponding to her pattern of ownership is examined on economic resources, that determine all complex of economic, political, legal and other forms of human commonunication on the different stages of development of society.
It should be noted that the row of defects is inherent structure approach. It, in particular, behaves to the statement of passing in the development of entire countries and people through five structures: primitively-communal, slave-holding, feudal, capitalist and communist, and also to the excessive accent on antagonistic character of relations.
Initial positions of structure approach and modern world are here used examined as consisting of the economic different typing systems.
The aim of this work are classification and analysis of the economic systems and models, and also history of classification of international countries.
Аrticle of work are all economic systems in the different states on the whole.
Оbject of work development, classification of the economic systems, is in the countries of the world. Historical classification must include the systems of the past and future besides the modern systems.
Borders separating the economic systems from each other it is been is industrial-and scientific and technical to revolution. Into each of these systems more detailed typology is possible, that allows to set ways for a synthesis structure and civilization approaches.
The basic elements of the economic system are socio-economic relations being based on folded in every economic system patterns of ownership on economic resources and results economic to activity; organizational forms of economic activity; economic mechanism.
Classification of countries is related to dividing of world economy into the spheres of economic activity and determination of basic economic intercommunications between them allow not only to analyse progress of separate countries trends but also compare them inter se. However in the world on the whole approximately 200 countries that is very different on the level of economic development.
And knowledge of classifications is emergency it is important for a mutual study and exchange experience of economic development. The definition of country accepted in a world economy differs from the determination accepted in an international law or ordinary. Within the framework of world economy a country not only territorial units, being the state but also some territorial units that are not the states, are considered, however pursuing an independent and independent economic policy and conduct the separate statistical account of the economic development. It touches some island dependent territories of Great Britain, Netherlands and France, that, being not the independent states examined, nevertheless, by an international economy as separate countries.


CHAPTER 1. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
1.1. Basic approaches to the classification of countries.

When first considering the world economy looks like a conglomerate of about 230 countries and territories. They vary greatly in terms of territory, population, economic strength levels and technological development etc. on one side - such highly developed countries like the United States, Japan, Germany; on the opposite-underdeveloped poor countries like Afghanistan, Chad, Somalia and Bangladesh. There was no single and exhaustive classification of countries around the world. Most often they are classified according to the level of GDP or GNP per capita. But make it wrong. The distribution of income in society can occur in different ways. The same can be said about the food, access to education, health, working conditions, job security and so on, GDP or GNP per capita is not a measurement of technological development of the country, the complexity of the structure of its economy.
This is demonstrated, for example, the presence of the first threesome two monoculture (oil-producing) countries--Saudi Arabia, Kuwait.
This service is composed of three components:
1) life expectancy;
2) level of education;
3) real value average income of residents.
The educational attainment of the population is measured by a combination of two values: a) literacy rate among adults over 15 years (in%) and b) average length (number of years). Literacy rate in the calculation of the General level of education is a factor of 2/3, and the duration of the training-1/3. If there is no data on the average length of education, it is the combined share in the population of students in primary, secondary and higher education. Revised earnings are calculated by a complex program on the basis of per capita GNP, adjusted for PPP and the indicators reflecting the specific allocation of resources in society, in particular the ratio 20% revenue share for the poorest and the richest 20% and the ratio of national indicators with the world "threshold income" for normal living. As a result of the "real" GDP per capita as determined in this way and is used in the calculation of the HDI further, much less than the official original figure. Based on ranks countries on the HDI UN (human development index, united nations) experts divide the world into three groups:
1) countries with high human development;
2) countries with medium levels of human development;
3) countries with low human development.
The top ten countries in the world largest HDI are: Canada, France, Norway, United States, Iceland, Finland, Netherlands, Japan, New Zealand and Sweden. Russia, certified as a country with an average level of development, was 72-th place (between Oman and Venezuela).
In the world economy of the country can be divided into three large groups:
1. industrialized countries;
2. countries with economies in transition;
3. developing countries.

United States, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada,China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Thailand industrialized countries (industrial countries), or the developed Western countries-24 industrialized countries in North America, Europe and the Pacific rim with higher income. Leading role in the Group of industrial countries are States of the so-called "group of seven (G-7, or group)-United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom. Five of these States form the core of NATO, four of the six are the backbone of the EU. They formed three competing "Center force" of the world economy-North American, Japanese and Western European, which involve in its orbit and the other nations of the world.
Industrialized countries, with only 16% of the world population, 53 per cent of world GDP and 47 per cent of world industrial output (1997). They provide more than 70 per cent of world exports. It owns more than 90% of the accumulated value of foreign direct investment, here are the headquarters of the largest transnational corporations (TNCs) in the world. Standard of living in the developed capitalist countries is much higher than the global average, and their supremacy on this indicator on the least developed countries of the world is a gigantic amount (more than 60 times the market rate of exchange rates and more than 15 times PPP).
Developing countries (developing countries)-more than 130 States in Asia, Africa and Latin America, characterized by low-and middle-income countries. This group of countries is varied. The absolute magnitude of the economy among them stands out the so-called "group of seven" (peoples Republic of China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Republic o........


LIST OF LITERATURE.

1. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd»,№ 12 May 2008.
2. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 10 October 2019.
3. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 7 August 2010.
4. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 21 May 2011.
5. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 19 October 2010.
6. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 34 February 2011.
7. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 2 March 2010.
8. The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group (magazine), «The Economist Newspaper Ltd», № 17 June 2010
9. Friexas X._ Rochet J-C. Macroeconomics of banking. 2007.
10. Romer D. Advanced Macroeconomics. 2009.
11. Higgins_Analysis for Financial Management, 2011
12. Lindy Edwards «How to Argue with an Economist», 2010.
13. Farmer «Macroeconimics», 2009.
14. Mark N. «International Macroeconomics and Finance»,2010.
15. Mankiw «Macroeconomics», 2008.
16. Snowdon «Vane Modern Macroeconomics», 2006.
17. Straubт «The Agile Managers Guide to Understanding Financial Statements», 2011.
18. Wachtel P. «Macroeconomics», 2009.


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