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Работа № 83186
Курсовик American westward expansion
Тип работы: Курсовик.
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CHAPTER 1. american Exploration of mexico, louisiana and northwest territories 5
1.1. Treaty of Paris 5
1.2. Mexican-American War 19
CHAPTER 2. northwest ordinance and AMERICAN EXPANSION IN new territories 27
2.1. Monroe Doctrine 27
2.2. Indian reservation 30
The westward expansion of the United States is one of the defining themes of 19th-century American history, but it is not just the story of Jefferson’s expanding “empire of liberty.” On the contrary, as one historian writes, in the six decades after the Louisiana Purchase, westward expansion “very nearly destroyed the republic.”
In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson purchased the territory of Louisiana from the French government for $15 million. The Louisiana Purchase stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to New Orleans, and it doubled the size of the United States. To Jefferson, westward expansion was the key to the nation’s health: He believed that a republic depended on an independent, virtuous citizenry for its survival, and that independence and virtue went hand in hand with land ownership, especially the ownership of small farms. (“Those who labor in the earth,” he wrote, “are the chosen people of God.”) In order to provide enough land to sustain this ideal population of virtuous yeomen, the United States would have to continue to expand.
The subject of the course paper is American westward expansion.
The object of the course paper is American’s acquisition of colonies.
The purpose of this course paper is to explore American westward expansion
To achieve this purpose we set the following tasks:
1) to explore the Treaty of Paris;
2) to study the Mexican-American War: its causes and outcome;
3) to analyze the Monroe Doctrine;
4) to consider the Indian reservation.
The theoretical importance of the course paper lies in the analysis of American westward expansion.
The practical significance of our work is to discover and provide more information for those who are interested in the history of American westward expansion.
Materials illustrating the given period have been collected from books on the history of America.
Our course paper consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and bibliography.
The first chapter deals with the Treaty of Paris, the Northwest Ordinance, the Louisiana Purchase, the Missouri Compromise, the Acquisition of Florida, Mexican-American War, the Compromise of 1850 and Great American Desert.
In chapter two we learn about the Monroe Doctrine, the Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis and the Indian reservation.
CHAPTER 1. american Exploration of mexico, louisiana and northwest territories
1.1. Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was signed by U.S. and British Representatives on September 3, 1783, ending the War of the American Revolution. Based on a1782 preliminary treaty, the agreement recognized U.S. independence and granted the U.S. significant western territory. The 1783 Treaty was one of a series of treaties signed at Paris in 1783 that also established peace between Great Britain and the allied nations of France, Spain, and the Netherlands.
The 1781 U.S. victory at the Battle of Yorktown made peace talks where British negotiators were willing to consider U.S. independence a possibility. Eighteenth-century British parliamentary governments tended to be unstable and depended on both a majority in the House of Commons and the good favor of the King. Thus, when news of Yorktown reached London, the parliamentary opposition succeeded in overthrowing the embattled government led by Frederick North, Lord North. [3, p. 18]
However, the new government, led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham, was not much more stable than the previous one. The strong personalities of its ministers led to internal conflicts between them and King George III. Rockingham died in July of 1782, and he was succeeded by William Petty Fitzmaurice, Earl of Shelburne. Lord Shelburne’s government wanted to seek peace, but hoped to avoid recognizing U.S. independence. However, the war had been expensive, and Britain faced a formidable alliance, fighting the combined forces of France, Spain, and the Netherlands, in addition to the rebellious colonists.
Shelburne and other British diplomats had pursued a strategy of trying to drive the alliance apart by entering negotiations for a separate peace with France’s allies. Although such efforts failed with the Netherlands, U.S. negotiators were receptive to the idea of separate negotiations, because they saw in such negotiations the clearest path to ensuring recognition of U.S. independence in a final peace settlement. The French Foreign Minister, Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes, approved of separate negotiations, though not of a separate peace.
In the meantime, Anglo-American negotiations had been stalled, owing to internal conflicts in the British government and British refusal to recognize U.S. independence as part of the peace settlement. In July of 1782, Lord Shelburne gave in on the issue of independence, hoping that a generous peace settlement with the United States would bring peace with France, the Netherlands, and Spain. However, John Jay objected to British refusal to acknowledge the United States as already independent during peace negotiations, so the negotiations halted until the fall. [5, p. 51]
Anglo-American negotiations entered their final stage in October and November of 1782. The United States succeeded in obtaining Newfoundland fishing rights, a western border that extended to the Mississippi with rights of navigation (which the Spanish government would later prevent) and, most importantly, British acknowledgement of U.S. independence along with the peaceful withdrawal of British forces. In return for these concessions, the agreement contained provisions requiring the U.S. to honor private debts and ensure an end to the seizure of Loyalist property. U.S. negotiators John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Henry Laurens signed a preliminary agreement with British representative Richard Oswald on November 30, 1782. The agreement would remain informal until the conclusion of a peace agreement between Britain and France.
Franklin disclosed the Anglo-American agreement to Vergennes, who had objections to the manner in which it was obtained, but was willing to accept the agreement as a part of broader peace negotiations, and agreed to supply the United States with another loan < r/pa/ho/time/ar/14312.htm> that Franklin had requested. When Spanish forces failed to capture Gibraltar, Vergennes was able to persuade the Spanish government to agree to peace as well. Negotiators abandoned an earlier complicated plan to redistribute each others’ unconquered colonies to one which largely preserved existing Spanish and French territorial gains. In North America, Spain received Florida, which it had lost in the ’Seven Years War < r/pa/ho/time/cp/90614.htm>. Spanish, French, British, and American representatives signed a provisional peace treaty on January 20, 1783, proclaiming an end to hostilities. The formal agreement was signed at Paris on September 3, 1783. The U.S. Confederation Congress < r/pa/ho/time/nr/91861.htm> ratified the treaty on January 14.
Although the treaty secured U.S. independence, it left several border regions undefined or in dispute, and certain provisions also remained unenforced. These issues would be resolved over the years, though not always without controversy, by a series of U.S. agreements with Spain and Britain, including the ’Jays Treaty < r/pa/ho/time/nr/14318.htm>, the Treaty of San Lorenzo < r/pa/ho/time/nr/90612.htm>, the Convention of 1818 < r/pa/ho/time/jd/91716.htm>, and the Webster-Ashburton Treaty < r/pa/ho/time/dwe/14323.htm> of 1842. [1, p. 81]
Despite the unresolved border issues, the U.S. benefited most among the treaty’s signatories, firmly securing recognition of its independence from European powers. Although Britain lost its American colonies, British global power continued to increase, driven by the economic growth of the early industrial revolution. For France, victory came at an enormous financial cost, and attempts to resolve the financial crisis would ultimately trigger the French Revolution. < r/pa/ho/time/nr/88108.htm>
Northwest Ordinance: The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance or "The Ordinance of 1787") was an act of the Congress of the Confederation < wiki/Congress_of_the_Confederation> of the United States < wiki/United_States>, passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory < wiki/Northwest_Territory>, the first organized of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes < wiki/Great_Lakes>, north and west of the Ohio River < wiki/Ohio_River>, and east of the Mississippi River < wiki/Mississippi_River>.
On August 7, 1789, President George Washington < wiki/George_Washington> signed the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 into law after the newly created U.S. Congress < wiki/Congress_of_the_United_States> reaffirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution < wiki/U.S._Constitution>. The Ordinance purported to be not merely legislation that could later be amended by Congress, but rather "the following articles shall be considered as Articles of compact between the original States and the people and states in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent...."
Arguably the single most important piece of legislation passed by members of the earlier Continental Congresses other than the Declaration of Independence < wiki/Declaration_of_Independence_(United_States)>, it established the precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America < wiki/North_America> with the admission of new states < wiki/U.S._state>, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under theArticles of Confederation < wiki/Articles_of_Confederation>. It is the most important legislation that Congress has passed with regard to American public domain lands < wiki/Public_domain_(land)>. < wiki/Northwest_Ordinance> The U.S. Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 within the applicable Northwest Territory < wiki/Northwest_Territory> as constitutional in Strader v. Graham < wiki/Strader_v._Graham>, but did not extend the Ordinance to cover the respective states once they were admitted to the Union. [8, p. 28]
The prohibition of slavery < wiki/Slavery> in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains < wiki/Appalachian_Mountains> and the Mississippi River < wiki/Mississippi_River>. This division helped set the stage for national competition over admitting free < wiki/Free_state_(United_States)> and slave states < wiki/Slave_state>, the basis of a critical question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War < wiki/American_Civil_War>.
Context and history: Since earliest times, rivers have been the arteries of inland travel, and the history of exploration in North America has been based in its waterways. Having been excluded from known sea routes to the orient, which were based in European trade, the early French and British explorers in the area searched for the mythic water route known as the Northwest Passage < wiki/Northwest_Passage> through North America to the Pacific Ocean. English settlement was concentrated along the Atlantic coast; the French established dominance over the inland areas around the Great Lakes and major rivers, with the help of native Indian knowledge. From 1660 to 1670, French Jesuit missionaries extended into the new territory, with establishments at Sault Ste. Marie and Green Bay. In 1673, Fathers Marquette < wiki/Jacques_Marquette> and Joliet < wiki/Louis_Jolliet> traveled south on Lake Michigan to Green Bay, crossed the divide of the Fox < wiki/Fox_River_(Wisconsin)> into the Wisconsin and reached the Mississippi River, from where they continued southward passing the confluence of the Pakistani < wiki/Pekistanoui> from the west, the Ohio from the east, and until noting signs of Spanish influence from the south. This exploration largely defined the known limits of the Northwest Territories.
Between 1673 and 1689 La Salle < wiki/Ren%C3%A9-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle> opened another water route from the St. Lawrence River, through the Niagara and the Great Lakes and across the Chicago portage < wiki/Portage> to the Mississippi. In what became known as Illinois Country < wiki/Illinois_Country>, he founded forts on the St. Joseph River in Michigan, and on the Illinois River and farther south. LaSalle understood the meaning of the crossing paths of French and Spanish exploration from opposite directions, and outlined the main lines of future French strategy in North America; he recognized the Mississippi as the key to control of the vast continental heartland, and the Ohio River became the line beyond which they would attempt to bar British expansion from the east. This lasted for nearly a hundred years under French colonial rule and another twenty under the British. During this time, the waterways were the transportation and trading routes which yielded the inlands vast riches; they were both a source of European rivalry and the object of future American developmental desire. He territory was acquired by Great Britain < wiki/Great_Britain> from France < wiki/France> following victory in the Seven Years War < wiki/Seven_Years_War> and the 1763 Treaty of Paris < wiki/1763_Treaty_of_Paris>. Great Britain took over the Ohio Country < wiki/Ohio_Country>, as its eastern portion was known, but a few months later closed it to new European settlement by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 < wiki/Royal_Proclamation_of_1763>. The Crown tried to restrict settlement of the thirteen colonies between the Appalachians and the Atlantic, which raised colonial tensions among those who wanted to move west. With the colonials victory in the American Revolutionary War < wiki/American_Revolutionary_War> and signing of the 1783 Treaty of Paris < wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1783)>, the United States claimed the territory, as well as the areas south of the Ohio. The territories were subject to overlapping and conflicting claims of the states < wiki/State_cessions> of Massachusetts < wiki/Massachusetts>, Connecticut < wiki/Connecticut>, New York < wiki/New_York>, and Virginia < wiki/Virginia> dating from their colonial past. The British were active in some of the border area until after the Louisiana Purchase < wiki/Louisiana_Purchase> and the War of 1812 < wiki/War_of_1812>. [14, p. 105]
The region had long been desired for expansion by colonists. The states were encouraged to settle their claims by the US governments de facto opening of the area to settlement following the defeat of Great Britain. In 1784, Thomas Jefferson < wiki/Thomas_Jefferson>, a delegate from Virginia, proposed that the states should relinquish their particular claims to all the territory west of the Appalachians, and the area should be divided into new states of the Union. Jeffersons proposal to create a federal domain through state cessions of western lands was derived from earlier proposals dating back to 1776 and debates about the Articles of Confederation < wiki/Articles_of_Confederation>.
Jefferson proposed creating seventeen roughly rectangular states from the territory, and suggested names for the new states, including Chersonesus, Sylvania, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Polypotamia, Pelisipia, Saratoga, Washington, Michigania and Illinoia.
The Congress of the Confederation modified the proposal, passing it as the Land Ordinance of 1784 < wiki/Land_Ordinance_of_1784>. This ordinance established the example that would become the basis for the Northwest Ordinance three years later. Michigan < wiki/Michigan>, Illinois < wiki/Illinois>, and Washington < wiki/Washington_(U.S._state)> were eventually adopted as new state names.
The 1784 ordinance was criticized by George Washington < wiki/George_Washington> in 1785 and James Monroe < wiki/James_Monroe> in 1786. Monroe convinced Congress to reconsider the proposed state boundaries; a review committee recommended repealing that part of the ord........
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