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Работа № 86212


Курсовик Football in Russia and Great Britain


Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 31.3.2015. Сдан: 2010. Страниц: 29. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):


Introduction 2
Chapter 1 Football
1.1 What is football? 3
1.2 Game rules and regulations 4
Chapter 2 History
2.1 History of football 6
2.2 Oldest football clubs 10
2.3 Oldest football competitions 11
2.4 The Football Associations History 12
2.5 History of FIFA 14
Chapter 3 Football in Russia and Great Britain
3.1 Football in Russia and Great Britain 15
3.2 Leagues in Russian and Great Britain 20
3.3 Cup competitions in both the countries 23
Conclusion 26


Modern football began its journey in the XII century medieval England. Then the football played in the market places and even on the crooked, narrow streets. They played from morning till night. The number of players exceeds 100, with almost no restrictions existed.
Now, football in England - the sport of national significance, which plays an important role in English culture and English way of life.
In this work we also consider the development of football in Russia and its place in the lives of citizens.
In this work we are going to describe one of the favorite plays in the world. It is football. At first we give some information about this game, rules and regulations for the game in order to give you some sense of understanding of play features. Then we describe the position of this play in two countries - Russia and England. From the third point of our work we compare football features, football efforts, league system and system of cup competitions in both the countries. And in the conclusion we resume my conclusions about football position in both these countries.
Relevance of this work stems from the fact that football is the most popular kind of sport worldwide.
Research of this problem allows better understanding basic principles of football by comparing this game in different countries, the example of England and Russia. The aim of this work to investigate and compare football in Russia and England considered all aspects of the game.

Chapter 1 Football

1.1 What is football?
Football may refer to one of a number of team sports < wiki/Team_sport> which all involve, to varying degrees, kicking < wiki/Kick_%28football%29> a ball with the foot to score a goal < wiki/Goal_%28sport%29>. The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football < wiki/Association_football>, more commonly known as just "football" or "soccer". Unqualified, the word football < wiki/Football_%28word%29> applies to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears, including American football < wiki/American_football>, Australian rules football < wiki/Australian_rules_football>, Canadian football < wiki/Canadian_football>, Gaelic football < wiki/Gaelic_football>, rugby league < wiki/Rugby_league>, rugby union < wiki/Rugby_union> and other related games. These variations of football are known as football "codes".
Football as a game involving “kicking a ball” has been around for more than 100 years. Many of the previous games in the past were said to be played differently from the football people know today. A football-like game emerged in China in the 2nd or 3rd centuries wherein a leather ball was used for kicking into a small net made of bamboo. A similar game was also played in Japan by Kemaris. This Japanese version is not played competitively and the players just pass the ball to each other hoping that it will not touch the ground.
Today, football is a global sport governed by FIFA. Many countries around the world have their own leagues and football clubs that follow international rules on the sport. Every 4 years, FIFA organizes the biggest prize in football which is the “World Cup”. This particular tournament is participated by many countries from all continents to gain football supremacy.

1.2 Game rules and regulations

Size and marks of a football field under regulations. Matches can be conducted both in the fields of natural and in fields with artificial turf. According to the official rules of the game of football artificial turf should be green. The field of play is rectangular in shape. The lateral line has to be longer than the goal line. On each side of the field is marked goal area - an area beyond the borders of which the goal kick. On each side of the field is marked penalty area - an area in which the goalkeeper can play with his hands, and the gates of the team that committed in his own penalty area violation, punishable by a direct free kick will be assigned to the 11-meter kick. The gate should be placed in the center of each of the lines of the gate. They consist of two upright posts equidistant from the corner flag poles and connected at the top horizontal crossbar.
In football teams consist of 11. The match may not start if either team consisting of fewer than seven players. Maximum number of reserve players, who may take part in the match, set rules of competitions, but must lie in the range from three to seven. Team consists of goalkeeper, forwards and backs.
Goal of the game is to get the ball into the opponent’s gate by legs or other parts of the body (except hands) more times than the opposing team. Match consists of two halves of 45 minutes. Pause between the first and second halves of 15 minutes, during which teams of rest, and at its end change gates.
In football, players are prohibited to enter the field with different types of chains, bracelets and rings. Football players wear T-shirts on the backs of which are numbers proxy authentication. Besides T-shirts, numbers are usually posted on the shorts. Names or nicknames of the players are on the back of the shirts, above the number. Equipment required elements are: shirt or t-shirt that has sleeves, shorts, socks, pads and boots.
Pads shall be completely covered socks. They should be made of suitable material (plastic, rubber) and shall provide sufficient protection.
The form of the goalkeeper must be different by the color of the form of other players and referees.

Chapter 2 History

2.1 History of football

The contemporary history of the worlds favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sports first governing body.
Both codes stemmed from a common root and both have a long and intricately branched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals at least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to which the historical development of football has been traced back. Whether this can be justified in some instances is disputable. Nevertheless, the fact remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of years and there is absolutely no reason to consider it an aberration of the more natural form of playing a ball with the hands.
On the contrary, apart from the need to employ the legs and feet in tough tussles for the ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognised right at the outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and, as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China.
This Han Dynasty forebear of football was called Tsu Chu and it consisted of kicking a leather ball filled with feathers and hair through an opening, measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes. According to one variation of this exercise, the player was not permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest, back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his opponents. Use of the hands was not permitted.

Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began some 500-600 years later and is still played today. This is a sport lacking the competitive element of Tsu Chu with no struggle for possession involved. Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each other, in a relatively small space, trying not to let it touch the ground.
The Greek Episkyros - of which few concrete details survive - was much livelier, as was the Roman Harpastum. The latter was played out with a smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundary lines and a centre line. The objective was to get the ball over the oppositions boundary lines and as players passed it between themselves, trickery was the order of the day. The game remained popular for 700-800 years, but, although the Romans took it to Britain with them, the use of feet was so small as to scarcely be of consequence.
The Middle Ages < wiki/Middle_Ages> saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football < wiki/Shrovetide_football> matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation < wiki/Roman_Britain>, but the only pre-Norman reference is to boys playing "ball games" in the 9th century Historia Brittonum < wiki/Historia_Brittonum>. Reports of a game played in Brittany,Normandy < wiki/Normandy>, and Picardy < wiki/Picardy>, known as La Soule < wiki/La_Soule> or Choule, suggest that some of these football games could hav........


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