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Работа № 88269


Курсовик Precedent Text in the Titles of the Articles


Тип работы: Курсовик. Предмет: Ин. языки. Добавлен: 12.5.2015. Сдан: 2012. Страниц: 31. Уникальность по antiplagiat.ru: < 30%

Описание (план):

1. Text as an object of linguistic research……………………5
1.1. Functional approaches to the study of the text…………….9
1.2. Pragmatic approaches to the study of the text………….….12
2. Precedent text: conception and classification…….……….14
2.1. The titles of the newspaper articles and its features………17
2.2. The titles of the British and American articles and its linguistic features……………………………………………………….21
2.3. Examples of the titles of the Russian articles and its linguistic features……………………………………………………….26

The theme of the current paper work is “Precedent text in the titles of the articles”. The article considers the peculiarities of the readers perception of the precedent phenomena from different spheres of cultural knowledge: literature, religion, history, etc.
The precedent phenomena (precedent text, precedent statement, precedent name and precedent situation) mean units of language, known to the most members of the national lingvocultural community and entering into mentality in the form of invariant perception, which has certain characteristics inherent to a particular phenomenon and most clearly expressed in it. Precedent phenomenon, as a unit of discourse, represents the cultural and mental values of a nation and linguistic identity, serves as means of education, actualization of a new meaning and enhancement of its expressiveness in a journalistic text. Precedent phenomena, as part of the cultural memory of the people, are widely used in journalism and replenish the body of expressive language of mass media.
A way to learn about the features of these units’ perception is a survey that allowed determining the frequency of precedent phenomena among people from different social groups. The used material was the precedent phenomena from the journalistic texts. Recognition and understanding of precedent phenomena as units of background knowledge is a prerequisite for adequate perception of the information contained in a journalistic text by the readers. Structural aspects of communication have captivated linguists for quite a long time. Setting aside the philosophical questions of communication, they have tried to explain how people technically communicate. One of results of this line of inquiry, the concept of precedent phenomena, is under discussion in this paper. Russian linguists have coined this term to refer to instances when people use words and expressions which allude to various artifacts of their own or foreign culture (mainly literary works, folklore, films, radio or picture transmissions and art).
This work will address only few aspects of precedent phenomena - using precedent text in the titles of articles. In this paper I’m going to demonstrate how precedent phenomena analysis may help elucidate the inner mechanism of a text. By analyzing various ways of precedent phenomena, I hope to demonstrate the importance and complexity of cultural reference and the role of precedent phenomena in different ways. In addition, I hope to show that the concept of precedent phenomena might be useful for anyone interested in analysis.

1. Text as an object of linguistic research
The text is a unit of language in use. It applies to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole - a semantic unit. The text is the object of studies of the branch of linguistics called text linguistics. Text linguistics is a relatively new branch of language studies that deals with texts as communication systems. The application of text linguistics has, however, evolved from this approach to a point in which text is viewed in much broader terms that go beyond a mere extension of traditional grammar towards an entire text. Contemporary text linguistics studies the text and its structure, its categories and components as well as ways of constructing texts. Text linguistics takes into account the form of the text, but also its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. Both the authors of a (written or spoken) text as well as its addresses are taken into consideration in their respective (social and/or institutional) roles in the specific communicative context. In general it is an application of linguistic analysis at the much broader level of text, rather than just a sentence or word.
Despite the fact that there are many publications devoted to problems of text linguistics, an adequate definition of the text that would find satisfaction with all researchers does not exist. The difficulties that arise when trying to work out a universally acceptable definition of the text can be explained by the fact that scholars study the text in its various aspects: grammatical, stylistic, semantic, functional and so on.
The text can be studied as a product (text grammar) or as a process (theory of text). The text-as-a-product approach is focused on the text cohesion, coherence, topical organization, illocutionary structure and communicative functions; the text-as-a-process perspective studies the text production, reception and interpretation.
Text can be understood as an instance of (spoken or written) language use (an act of parole), a relatively self-contained unit of communication. As a ‘communicative occurrence’ it meets seven criteria of textuality (the constitutive principles of textual communication): cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity, situationality and intertextuality, and three regulative principles of textual communication: efficiency, effectiveness and appropriateness.
In literary theory, a text is any object that can be "read", whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block or styles of clothing. It is a coherent set of signs that transmits some kind of informative message. < wiki/Text_(literary_theory)> This set of symbols is considered in terms of the informative messages content, rather than in terms of its physical form or the medium in which it is represented.
Within the field of literary criticism, "text" also refers to the original information content of a particular piece of writing; that is, the "text" of a work is that primal symbolic arrangement of letters as originally composed, apart from later alterations, deterioration, commentary, translations, paratext, etc. Therefore, when literary criticism is concerned with the determination of a "text," it is concerned with the distinguishing of the original information content from whatever has been added to or subtracted from that content as it appears in a given textual document (that is, a physical representation of text).
Since the history of writing predates the concept of the "text", most texts were not written with this concept in mind. Most written works fall within a narrow range of the types described by text theory. The concept of "text" becomes relevant if and when a "coherent written message is completed and needs to be referred to independently of the circumstances in which it was created."
Analyzing the structure of the text, linguists identify semantically connected sentence sequences as certain syntactic formations. One of prospective trends in modern text linguistics is describing such syntactic formations, or text units, identifying patterns according to which they are built and studying relations between them. Irrespective of their specific features, all text units are united by their common function - they represent the text as a whole integrally expressing the textual topic.
There is no universal agreement as to the term that should be used to describe text units. In the Russian tradition the following terms were used to refer to such formations: “phrase”, “strophe”, “prosaic strophe”, “component”, “paragraph”, “microtext”, “period”, “syntactic complex”, “monologue utterance”, “communicative bloc”, “complex syntactic unity”, “supra-phrasal unity”. The latter is the most commonly used one.
It should be noted that there are some scholars who do not recognize the existence of linguistic units beyond the framework of the sentence. This opinion can be explained by the lack of a complete systematic description of linguistic peculiarities of such units.
The problem of text units has been addressed by numerous scholars both in this country and abroad. Speaking about Russian linguists, we should mention the works by I. R. Galperin, O. I. Moskalskaya, E. A. Referovskaya, Z. Ya. Turaeva, G. Ya. Solganik and others. A new approach to the nature of the text was proposed by Prof. Blokh, who introduced the notion of dicteme - the elementary topical textual unit.
The supra-phrasal unity is a minimal text unit consisting of two or more sentences united by a common topic. In some cases the SPU can coincide with the text if it’s a short one, for example, a news item in the newspaper, a miniature st........

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